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aluminum hydroxide vaccine adjuvant

Vaxjo ID 3
Vaccine Adjuvant Name aluminum hydroxide vaccine adjuvant
Alternative Names Alhydrogel; Aluminum hydroxide gel; Alum
Adjuvant VO ID VO_0000127
Description Aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, which is widely used in vaccines to absorb the antigen and potentiate the immune response, is chemically aluminum oxyhydroxide, AlO(OH). Aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, AlO(OH), is used to potentiate the immune response to vaccines by adsorbing the antigen. The structure of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant is unusual as it is crystalline but has a high surface area due to its very small primary particles.(Yau et al., 2006)
Stage of Development Licensed
Host Species for Licensed Use 2
Components aluminum hydroxide Al(OH)3
Structure Crystalline aluminum oxyhydroxide AIOOH, known mineralogically as boehmite. The structure consists of corrugated sheets of aluminum octahedra (Vogel and Powell, 1995).
Appearance White gelatinous precipitate in aqueous suspension (Vogel and Powell, 1995).
Storage 4-25°C. Never expose to freezing. Recommended 2 year shelf life (Vogel and Powell, 1995).
Preparation A stock aluminum hydroxide adjuvant suspension was prepared by diluting a commercial aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (Rehydragel HPA, Reheis, Berkeley Heights, NJ) containing 2% equivalent Al2O3 to 2.52 mg Al/ml with doubly distilled water (dd water). The pH was adjusted to 7.4 by the addition of 0.1N NaOH. The stock aluminum hydroxide suspension was used to prepare the three adjuvants used in this study (Table 1). Adjuvant AH was prepared by diluting the stock aluminum hydroxide adjuvant suspension with dd water. A series of phosphate-treated aluminum hydroxide adjuvants were prepared by mixing the stock aluminum hydroxide adjuvant suspension with a phosphate solution. Each adjuvant contained 1.7 mg Al/ml.(Iyer et al., 2003)
Function Aluminum hydroxide adjuvants act by depot formation at the site of injection, allowing for a slow release of antigen and thus prolonging the time for interaction between antigen and antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes. Adjuvanticity of aluminum gels may be related to their ability to convert soluble antigens to particulate forms, which are more readily phagocytosed (Gupta, 1998).
Safety In children with azotemia and severe osteomalacia, aluminum hydroxide given in a phosphate binder increased the serum level of aluminum and caused intoxication without renal dialysis.
Decrease in plasma parathyroid hormone levels following aluminum hydroxide therapy in patients with chronic renal failure appears to be indirect effect of aluminum intoxication ... Binding of aluminum with plasma inorganic phosphorus increases plasma calcium level with proportionate fall in parathyroid hormone.
Related Vaccine(s)
Gupta, 1998: Gupta RK. Aluminum compounds as vaccine adjuvants. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 1998; 32(3); 155-172. [PubMed: 10837642].
Iyer et al., 2003: Iyer S, HogenEsch H, Hem SL. Relationship between the degree of antigen adsorption to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in interstitial fluid and antibody production. Vaccine. 2003; 21(11-12); 1219-1223. [PubMed: 12559801].
Rom, 1992: Rom WN. Page 470. . Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 2nd edition. 1992. Little, Brown and Company, Boston, MA.
Vogel and Powell, 1995: Vogel FR, Powell MF. A compendium of vaccine adjuvants and excipients. Pharmaceutical biotechnology. 1995; 6; 141-228. [PubMed: 7551218].
Yau et al., 2006: Yau KP, Schulze DG, Johnston CT, Hem SL. Aluminum hydroxide adjuvant produced under constant reactant concentration. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2006; 95(8); 1822-1833. [PubMed: 16795021].