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aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvant

Vaxjo ID 4
Vaccine Adjuvant Name aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvant
Alternative Names Adju-Phos®, Al(PO)4
Adjuvant VO ID VO_0000128
Description Aluminium phosphate (AP) adjuvant is amorphous aluminium hydroxyphosphate(Flarend et al., 1997.) Aluminium phosphate adjuvant has been used for many years as an effective vaccine adjuvant. However, many aspects about its structure and physical properties are not well understood. Aluminium phosphate adjuvant is chemically amorphous aluminium hydroxyphosphate. It is not a stoichiometric compound and thus has no fixed ratio of hydroxyl to phosphate.(Burrell et al., 2000)
Stage of Development Licensed
Host Species for Licensed Use 2
Components Aluminum Phosphate (Al(PO4)
Preparation The PO 4 /Al 3+ molar ratio of an aluminum phosphate adjuvant will generally be between 0.3 and 1.2, preferably between 0.8 and 1.2, and more preferably 0.95±0.1. The aluminum phosphate will generally be amorphous, particularly for hydroxyphosphate salts. A typical adjuvant is amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate with PO 4 /Al molar ratio between 0.84 and 0.92, included at 0.6 mg Al 3+ /ml. The aluminum phosphate will generally be particulate. Typical diameters of the particles are in the range 0.5-20 μm (e.g. about 5-10 μm) after any antigen and/or 3D-MPL adsorption.((O'hagan et al., 2009))
Dosage The mixture is given in doses of 5 to 15 ml and dried aluminum phosphate in doses of 400 to 800 mg. /Aluminum hydroxide.(TOXNET: SODIUM ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE)
Function Aluminium phosphate (AP) adjuvant has a platy morphology and dissolves more rapidly in simulated interstitial fluid than (aluminum hydroxide) AH adjuvant. A recent in vitro study showed that citrate anion was able to dissolve both AH and AP adjuvants, although AP adjuvant dissolved more rapidly (Flarend et al., 1997).
Safety Aluminum phosphate mixture is a slow acting antacid used similarly to aluminum hydroxide mixture. Unlike aluminum hydroxide, it does not interfere with phosphate absorption and is used as an adjuvant in adsorbed vaccines (TOXNET: SODIUM ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE).
Related Vaccine(s)
(O'hagan et al., 2009): Free Patents Online []
Burrell et al., 2000: Burrell LS, Johnston CT, Schulze D, Klein J, White JL, Hem SL. Aluminium phosphate adjuvants prepared by precipitation at constant pH. Part I: composition and structure. Vaccine. 2000; 19(2-3); 275-281. [PubMed: 10930682].
Flarend et al., 1997: Flarend RE, Hem SL, White JL, Elmore D, Suckow MA, Rudy AC, Dandashli EA. In vivo absorption of aluminium-containing vaccine adjuvants using 26Al. Vaccine. 1997; 15(12-13); 1314-1318. [PubMed: 9302736].