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Freund's Complete Adjuvant

Vaxjo ID 8
Vaccine Adjuvant Name Freund's Complete Adjuvant
Alternative Names FCA
Adjuvant VO ID VO_0000139
Description It is generally assumed that Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) act by prolonging the lifetime of injected auto-antigen, by stimulating its effective delivery to the immune system and by providing a complex set of signals to the innate compartment of the immune system, resulting in altered leukocyte proliferation and differentiation (Billiau and Matthys, 2001).
Stage of Development Research
Components Each mL contains 1 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra, ATCC 25177), heat killed and dried, 0.85 mL paraffin oil and 0.15 mL mannide monooleate (SIGMA).
Dosage Unless otherwise indicated, 5-wk-old NOD mice were injected in the hind footpad or i.p. with 50 µl of an emulsion of CFA (containing Mycobacterium strain H37Ra), or IFA (DIFCO, Detroit, MI) in saline (Qin et al., 1993).
Function The mycobacteria in Complete Freund′s adjuvant attract macrophages and other cells to the injection site which enhances the immune response. For this reason, Complete Freund′s Adjuvant is used for initial injections and Incomplete Freund′s Adjuvant for subsequent boosts. Freund′s Adjuvants may be used to produce water-in-oil emulsions of immunogens. Antigens in water-in-oil emulsions stimulate high and long-lasting antibody responses which can be attributed to the slow release of antigen (Sigma Aldrich).
Safety These adjuvants cannot be used in man because the mineral oil base is not degraded and persists at the injection site. Particularly with the complete adjuvant, unacceptable granulomas can be formed. There is real need for a safe and effective adjuvant for use in human immunisation programmes (Gregoriadis et al., 1987).
Related Vaccine(s)
(Sigma Aldrich): Freund’s Adjuvant, Complete []
Billiau and Matthys, 2001: Billiau A, Matthys P. Modes of action of Freund's adjuvants in experimental models of autoimmune diseases. Journal of leukocyte biology. 2001; 70(6); 849-860. [PubMed: 11739546].
Gregoriadis et al., 1987: Gregoriadis G, Davis D, Davies A. Liposomes as immunological adjuvants: antigen incorporation studies. Vaccine. 1987; 5(2); 145-151. [PubMed: 3604394].
Qin et al., 1993: Qin HY, Sadelain MW, Hitchon C, Lauzon J, Singh B. Complete Freund's adjuvant-induced T cells prevent the development and adoptive transfer of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 1993; 150(5); 2072-2080. [PubMed: 8436836].