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SARS-CoV

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Microbial Pathogenesis
    5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
    6. Host Protective Immunity
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. S protein gene from SARS Urbani (Other)
    2. membrane protein (M) gene of SARS-CoV (Protective antigen)
    3. nucleocapsid protein (N) gene of SARS-CoV (Protective antigen)
    4. S protein gene of SARS-CoV (Protective antigen)
    5. envelope protein (E) gene of SARS-CoV (Virmugen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. ADS-MVA vaccine
    2. Double Inactivated whole SARS-CoV vaccine
    3. Double Inactivated whole SARS-CoV vaccine + alum
    4. β-propiolactone-inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine
    5. MA-ExoN vaccine
    6. MVA/S vaccine
    7. NDV-BC/S vaccine
    8. NDV-VF/S vaccine
    9. RBD-rAAV-SARS-CoV
    10. RBD-rAAV-SARS-CoV-version-02
    11. rDNA-expressed S protein + alum vaccine
    12. rDNA-expressed S protein vaccine
    13. Recombinant spike polypeptide vaccine
    14. rMA15-ΔE vaccine
    15. rMV-S + rMV-N vaccine
    16. rMV-SARS-CoV-S/Ssol
    17. SARS Subunit Spike Protein with subunit boosting Vaccine
    18. SARS-CoV Ad S/N vaccine
    19. SARS-CoV CRT-N vaccine
    20. SARS-CoV CTLA4-S DNA vaccine
    21. SARS-CoV E gene mutant vaccine
    22. SARS-CoV M protein DNA vaccine
    23. SARS-CoV N + SARS-CoV M DNA vaccine
    24. SARS-CoV N protein DNA vaccine
    25. SARS-CoV pCI-N DNA from vaccine
    26. SARS-CoV rVV-SARS-N
    27. SARS-CoV S Baculovirus Vaccine
    28. SARS-CoV Salmonella-CTLA4-S DNA vaccine
    29. SARS-CoV Salmonella-tPA-S DNA vaccine
    30. SARS-CoV tPA-S DNA vaccine
    31. SARS-CoV VLP-MHV + alum vaccine
    32. SARS-CoV VLP-MHV vaccine
    33. UV Inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine
    34. UV-Inactivated SARS-CoV + TLR Agonist Vaccine
    35. VRC-SRSDNA015-00-VP vaccine
    36. VRP-MERS-N vaccine
    37. VRP-SARS-N vaccine
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
694009
2. Disease:
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
3. Introduction
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS; pronounced /ˈsɑrz/ sarz) is a respiratory disease in humans which is caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). There has been one near pandemic to date, between the months of November 2002 and July 2003, with 8,096 known infected cases and 774 confirmed human deaths (a case-fatality rate of 9.6%) worldwide being listed in the World Health Organization's (WHO) 21 April 2004 concluding report. Within a matter of weeks in early 2003, SARS spread from the Guangdong province of China to rapidly infect individuals in some 37 countries around the world (Wiki: SARS).
4. Microbial Pathogenesis
Infection by different coronaviruses cause in the host alteration in the transcription and translation patterns, in the cell cycle, the cytoskeleton, apoptosis and coagulation pathways, inflammation and immune and stress responses. The balance between genes up- and down-regulated could explain the pathogenesis caused by these viruses (Wiki: SARS).
5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
SARS-CoV has been isolated from humans, civet cats, raccoon dogs, swine and bats, suggesting that several animal species may function as natural reservoirs for future outbreaks. The Chinese horseshoe bat, which is abundant across Southeast Asia, is probably the natural reservoir for SARS-CoV. Ciliated airway epithelium models derived from tracheobronchial airway epithelium of Balb-c mice (MAE), Golden Syrian hamsters (HmAE), and rhesus macaques (RhMAE) have been successfully developed (Sims et al., 2008).
6. Host Protective Immunity
Passive immunization has been successful in establishing protection from SARS-CoV suggesting an important role for neutralizing antibodies (Wiki: SARS).
1. envelope protein (E) gene of SARS-CoV
  • Gene Name : envelope protein (E) gene of SARS-CoV
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus
  • NCBI Gene ID : 1489671
  • NCBI Protein GI : 29836499
  • Locus Tag : sars4
  • Protein Accession : NP_828854
  • Taxonomy ID : 694009
  • Gene Starting Position : 26116
  • Gene Ending Position : 26346
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : +
  • Protein Name : protein E
  • Protein pI : 6.3
  • Protein Weight : 6972.52
  • Protein Length : 76
  • Protein Note : E. coli expression reported by Shen et al. (2003)
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|30271926:26116-26346 SARS coronavirus, complete genome
    TATGTACTCATTCGTTTCGGAAGAAACAGGTACGTTAATAGTTAATAGCGTACTTCTTTTTCTTGCTTTC
    GTGGTATTCTTGCTAGTCACACTAGCCATCCTTACTGCGCTTCGATTGTGTGCGTACTGCTGCAATATTG
    TTAACGTGAGTTTAGTAAAACCAACGGTTTACGTCTACTCGCGTGTTAAAAATCTGAACTCTTCTGAAGG
    AGTTCCTGATCTTCTGGTCTA
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|29836499|ref|NP_828854.1| protein E [Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus]
    MYSFVSEETGTLIVNSVLLFLAFVVFLLVTLAILTALRLCAYCCNIVNVSLVKPTVYVYSRVKNLNSSEG
    VPDLLV
  • Molecule Role : Virmugen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : An E mutant is attenuated in hamsters and induces significant protection from challenge with wild type SARS (Lamirande et al., 2008).
  • Related Vaccine(s): rMA15-ΔE vaccine , SARS-CoV E gene mutant vaccine
2. membrane protein (M) gene of SARS-CoV
  • Gene Name : membrane protein (M) gene of SARS-CoV
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : SARS-CoV
  • NCBI Protein GI : ABD75314
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:279907
  • Taxonomy ID : 347537
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : membrane protein
  • Protein pI : 10.04
  • Protein Weight : 24329.5
  • Protein Length : 279
  • Protein Note : Coronavirus M matrix/glycoprotein; pfam01635
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >ABD75314.1 membrane protein [Bat SARS CoV Rf1/2004]
    MAENGTISVEELKRLLEQWNLVIGFLFLAWIMLLQFAYSNRNRLLYIIKLVFLWLLWPVTLACFVLAAVY
    RINWVTGGIAIAMACIVGLMWLSYFVASFRLFARTRSMWSFNPETNILLNVPLRGTIVTRPLMESELVIG
    AVIIRGHLRMAGHSLGRCDIKDLPKEITVATSRTLSYYKLGASQRVGTDSGFAAYNRYRIGNYKLNTDHS
    GSNDNIALLVQ
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : (Demurtas et al., 2016)
  • Related Vaccine(s): SARS-CoV M protein DNA vaccine , SARS-CoV N + SARS-CoV M DNA vaccine
3. nucleocapsid protein (N) gene of SARS-CoV
  • Gene Name : nucleocapsid protein (N) gene of SARS-CoV
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : SARS-CoV
  • NCBI Protein GI : AAZ67049
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:279305
  • Taxonomy ID : 349344
  • Protein Name : nucleocapsid protein
  • Protein pI : 10.79
  • Protein Weight : 45847.78
  • Protein Length : 486
  • Protein Note : Coronavirus nucleocapsid protein; pfam00937
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >AAZ67049.1 nucleocapsid protein [Bat SARS CoV Rp3/2004]
    MSDNGPQNQRSAPRITFGGPTDSTDNNQDGGRSGARPKQRRPQGLPNNTASWFTALTQHGKEELRFPRGQ
    GVPINTNSGKDDQIGYYRRATRRVRGGDGKMKELSPRWYFYYLGTGPEASLPYGANKEGIVWVATEGALN
    TPKDHIGTRNPNNNAAIVLQLPQGTTLPKGFYAEGSRGGSQASSRSSSRSRGNSRNSTPGSSRGNSPARM
    ASGGGETALALLLLDRLNQLESKVSGRSQQQQGQTVTKKSAAEASKKPRQKRTATKQYNVTQAFGRRGPE
    QTQGNFGDQELIRQGTDYKHWPQIAQFAPSASAFFGMSRIGMEVTPSGTWLTYHGAIKLDDKDPQFKDNV
    ILLNKHIDAYKIFPPTEPKKDKKKKTDEAQPLPQRQKKQPTVTLLPAADMDDFSRQLQNSMSGASADSTQ
    A
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : (Demurtas et al., 2016)
  • Related Vaccine(s): SARS-CoV Ad S/N vaccine , SARS-CoV N + SARS-CoV M DNA vaccine , SARS-CoV N protein DNA vaccine , SARS-CoV pCI-N DNA from vaccine
4. S protein gene from SARS Urbani
  • Gene Name : S protein gene from SARS Urbani
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : SARS coronavirus Urbani
  • NCBI Protein GI : 30027620
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:150170
    CDD:190049
  • Taxonomy ID : 228330
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : S protein
  • Protein Length : 1255
  • Protein Note : Spike receptor binding domain; pfam09408
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|30027620|gb|AAP13441.1| S protein [SARS coronavirus Urbani]
    MFIFLLFLTLTSGSDLDRCTTFDDVQAPNYTQHTSSMRGVYYPDEIFRSDTLYLTQDLFLPFYSNVTGFH
    TINHTFGNPVIPFKDGIYFAATEKSNVVRGWVFGSTMNNKSQSVIIINNSTNVVIRACNFELCDNPFFAV
    SKPMGTQTHTMIFDNAFNCTFEYISDAFSLDVSEKSGNFKHLREFVFKNKDGFLYVYKGYQPIDVVRDLP
    SGFNTLKPIFKLPLGINITNFRAILTAFSPAQDIWGTSAAAYFVGYLKPTTFMLKYDENGTITDAVDCSQ
    NPLAELKCSVKSFEIDKGIYQTSNFRVVPSGDVVRFPNITNLCPFGEVFNATKFPSVYAWERKKISNCVA
    DYSVLYNSTFFSTFKCYGVSATKLNDLCFSNVYADSFVVKGDDVRQIAPGQTGVIADYNYKLPDDFMGCV
    LAWNTRNIDATSTGNYNYKYRYLRHGKLRPFERDISNVPFSPDGKPCTPPALNCYWPLNDYGFYTTTGIG
    YQPYRVVVLSFELLNAPATVCGPKLSTDLIKNQCVNFNFNGLTGTGVLTPSSKRFQPFQQFGRDVSDFTD
    SVRDPKTSEILDISPCSFGGVSVITPGTNASSEVAVLYQDVNCTDVSTAIHADQLTPAWRIYSTGNNVFQ
    TQAGCLIGAEHVDTSYECDIPIGAGICASYHTVSLLRSTSQKSIVAYTMSLGADSSIAYSNNTIAIPTNF
    SISITTEVMPVSMAKTSVDCNMYICGDSTECANLLLQYGSFCTQLNRALSGIAAEQDRNTREVFAQVKQM
    YKTPTLKYFGGFNFSQILPDPLKPTKRSFIEDLLFNKVTLADAGFMKQYGECLGDINARDLICAQKFNGL
    TVLPPLLTDDMIAAYTAALVSGTATAGWTFGAGAALQIPFAMQMAYRFNGIGVTQNVLYENQKQIANQFN
    KAISQIQESLTTTSTALGKLQDVVNQNAQALNTLVKQLSSNFGAISSVLNDILSRLDKVEAEVQIDRLIT
    GRLQSLQTYVTQQLIRAAEIRASANLAATKMSECVLGQSKRVDFCGKGYHLMSFPQAAPHGVVFLHVTYV
    PSQERNFTTAPAICHEGKAYFPREGVFVFNGTSWFITQRNFFSPQIITTDNTFVSGNCDVVIGIINNTVY
    DPLQPELDSFKEELDKYFKNHTSPDVDLGDISGINASVVNIQKEIDRLNEVAKNLNESLIDLQELGKYEQ
    YIKWPWYVWLGFIAGLIAIVMVTILLCCMTSCCSCLKGACSCGSCCKFDEDDSEPVLKGVKLHYT
  • Molecule Role : Other
5. S protein gene of SARS-CoV
  • Gene Name : S protein gene of SARS-CoV
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : SARS coronavirus
  • VO ID : VO_0011320
  • NCBI Gene ID : 1489668
  • NCBI Protein GI : 29836496
  • Locus Tag : sars2
  • Protein Accession : NP_828851
  • Taxonomy ID : 227859
  • Gene Starting Position : 21491
  • Gene Ending Position : 25258
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : +
  • Protein Name : E2 glycoprotein precursor
  • Protein pI : 5.6
  • Protein Weight : 130077.89
  • Protein Length : 1255
  • Protein Note : As established by Krokhin et al. (2003), the glycosylated spike protein (as well as the nucleocapsid protein) can be detected in infected cell culture supernatants with antisera from SARS patients.
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >NC_004718.3:21491-25258 SARS coronavirus, complete genome
    CATGTTTATTTTCTTATTATTTCTTACTCTCACTAGTGGTAGTGACCTTGACCGGTGCACCACTTTTGAT
    GATGTTCAAGCTCCTAATTACACTCAACATACTTCATCTATGAGGGGGGTTTACTATCCTGATGAAATTT
    TTAGATCAGACACTCTTTATTTAACTCAGGATTTATTTCTTCCATTTTATTCTAATGTTACAGGGTTTCA
    TACTATTAATCATACGTTTGGCAACCCTGTCATACCTTTTAAGGATGGTATTTATTTTGCTGCCACAGAG
    AAATCAAATGTTGTCCGTGGTTGGGTTTTTGGTTCTACCATGAACAACAAGTCACAGTCGGTGATTATTA
    TTAACAATTCTACTAATGTTGTTATACGAGCATGTAACTTTGAATTGTGTGACAACCCTTTCTTTGCTGT
    TTCTAAACCCATGGGTACACAGACACATACTATGATATTCGATAATGCATTTAATTGCACTTTCGAGTAC
    ATATCTGATGCCTTTTCGCTTGATGTTTCAGAAAAGTCAGGTAATTTTAAACACTTACGAGAGTTTGTGT
    TTAAAAATAAAGATGGGTTTCTCTATGTTTATAAGGGCTATCAACCTATAGATGTAGTTCGTGATCTACC
    TTCTGGTTTTAACACTTTGAAACCTATTTTTAAGTTGCCTCTTGGTATTAACATTACAAATTTTAGAGCC
    ATTCTTACAGCCTTTTCACCTGCTCAAGACATTTGGGGCACGTCAGCTGCAGCCTATTTTGTTGGCTATT
    TAAAGCCAACTACATTTATGCTCAAGTATGATGAAAATGGTACAATCACAGATGCTGTTGATTGTTCTCA
    AAATCCACTTGCTGAACTCAAATGCTCTGTTAAGAGCTTTGAGATTGACAAAGGAATTTACCAGACCTCT
    AATTTCAGGGTTGTTCCCTCAGGAGATGTTGTGAGATTCCCTAATATTACAAACTTGTGTCCTTTTGGAG
    AGGTTTTTAATGCTACTAAATTCCCTTCTGTCTATGCATGGGAGAGAAAAAAAATTTCTAATTGTGTTGC
    TGATTACTCTGTGCTCTACAACTCAACATTTTTTTCAACCTTTAAGTGCTATGGCGTTTCTGCCACTAAG
    TTGAATGATCTTTGCTTCTCCAATGTCTATGCAGATTCTTTTGTAGTCAAGGGAGATGATGTAAGACAAA
    TAGCGCCAGGACAAACTGGTGTTATTGCTGATTATAATTATAAATTGCCAGATGATTTCATGGGTTGTGT
    CCTTGCTTGGAATACTAGGAACATTGATGCTACTTCAACTGGTAATTATAATTATAAATATAGGTATCTT
    AGACATGGCAAGCTTAGGCCCTTTGAGAGAGACATATCTAATGTGCCTTTCTCCCCTGATGGCAAACCTT
    GCACCCCACCTGCTCTTAATTGTTATTGGCCATTAAATGATTATGGTTTTTACACCACTACTGGCATTGG
    CTACCAACCTTACAGAGTTGTAGTACTTTCTTTTGAACTTTTAAATGCACCGGCCACGGTTTGTGGACCA
    AAATTATCCACTGACCTTATTAAGAACCAGTGTGTCAATTTTAATTTTAATGGACTCACTGGTACTGGTG
    TGTTAACTCCTTCTTCAAAGAGATTTCAACCATTTCAACAATTTGGCCGTGATGTTTCTGATTTCACTGA
    TTCCGTTCGAGATCCTAAAACATCTGAAATATTAGACATTTCACCTTGCGCTTTTGGGGGTGTAAGTGTA
    ATTACACCTGGAACAAATGCTTCATCTGAAGTTGCTGTTCTATATCAAGATGTTAACTGCACTGATGTTT
    CTACAGCAATTCATGCAGATCAACTCACACCAGCTTGGCGCATATATTCTACTGGAAACAATGTATTCCA
    GACTCAAGCAGGCTGTCTTATAGGAGCTGAGCATGTCGACACTTCTTATGAGTGCGACATTCCTATTGGA
    GCTGGCATTTGTGCTAGTTACCATACAGTTTCTTTATTACGTAGTACTAGCCAAAAATCTATTGTGGCTT
    ATACTATGTCTTTAGGTGCTGATAGTTCAATTGCTTACTCTAATAACACCATTGCTATACCTACTAACTT
    TTCAATTAGCATTACTACAGAAGTAATGCCTGTTTCTATGGCTAAAACCTCCGTAGATTGTAATATGTAC
    ATCTGCGGAGATTCTACTGAATGTGCTAATTTGCTTCTCCAATATGGTAGCTTTTGCACACAACTAAATC
    GTGCACTCTCAGGTATTGCTGCTGAACAGGATCGCAACACACGTGAAGTGTTCGCTCAAGTCAAACAAAT
    GTACAAAACCCCAACTTTGAAATATTTTGGTGGTTTTAATTTTTCACAAATATTACCTGACCCTCTAAAG
    CCAACTAAGAGGTCTTTTATTGAGGACTTGCTCTTTAATAAGGTGACACTCGCTGATGCTGGCTTCATGA
    AGCAATATGGCGAATGCCTAGGTGATATTAATGCTAGAGATCTCATTTGTGCGCAGAAGTTCAATGGACT
    TACAGTGTTGCCACCTCTGCTCACTGATGATATGATTGCTGCCTACACTGCTGCTCTAGTTAGTGGTACT
    GCCACTGCTGGATGGACATTTGGTGCTGGCGCTGCTCTTCAAATACCTTTTGCTATGCAAATGGCATATA
    GGTTCAATGGCATTGGAGTTACCCAAAATGTTCTCTATGAGAACCAAAAACAAATCGCCAACCAATTTAA
    CAAGGCGATTAGTCAAATTCAAGAATCACTTACAACAACATCAACTGCATTGGGCAAGCTGCAAGACGTT
    GTTAACCAGAATGCTCAAGCATTAAACACACTTGTTAAACAACTTAGCTCTAATTTTGGTGCAATTTCAA
    GTGTGCTAAATGATATCCTTTCGCGACTTGATAAAGTCGAGGCGGAGGTACAAATTGACAGGTTAATTAC
    AGGCAGACTTCAAAGCCTTCAAACCTATGTAACACAACAACTAATCAGGGCTGCTGAAATCAGGGCTTCT
    GCTAATCTTGCTGCTACTAAAATGTCTGAGTGTGTTCTTGGACAATCAAAAAGAGTTGACTTTTGTGGAA
    AGGGCTACCACCTTATGTCCTTCCCACAAGCAGCCCCGCATGGTGTTGTCTTCCTACATGTCACGTATGT
    GCCATCCCAGGAGAGGAACTTCACCACAGCGCCAGCAATTTGTCATGAAGGCAAAGCATACTTCCCTCGT
    GAAGGTGTTTTTGTGTTTAATGGCACTTCTTGGTTTATTACACAGAGGAACTTCTTTTCTCCACAAATAA
    TTACTACAGACAATACATTTGTCTCAGGAAATTGTGATGTCGTTATTGGCATCATTAACAACACAGTTTA
    TGATCCTCTGCAACCTGAGCTTGACTCATTCAAAGAAGAGCTGGACAAGTACTTCAAAAATCATACATCA
    CCAGATGTTGATCTTGGCGACATTTCAGGCATTAACGCTTCTGTCGTCAACATTCAAAAAGAAATTGACC
    GCCTCAATGAGGTCGCTAAAAATTTAAATGAATCACTCATTGACCTTCAAGAATTGGGAAAATATGAGCA
    ATATATTAAATGGCCTTGGTATGTTTGGCTCGGCTTCATTGCTGGACTAATTGCCATCGTCATGGTTACA
    ATCTTGCTTTGTTGCATGACTAGTTGTTGCAGTTGCCTCAAGGGTGCATGCTCTTGTGGTTCTTGCTGCA
    AGTTTGATGAGGATGACTCTGAGCCAGTTCTCAAGGGTGTCAAATTACATTACACATA
    
    
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >NP_828851.1 E2 glycoprotein precursor [SARS coronavirus]
    MFIFLLFLTLTSGSDLDRCTTFDDVQAPNYTQHTSSMRGVYYPDEIFRSDTLYLTQDLFLPFYSNVTGFH
    TINHTFGNPVIPFKDGIYFAATEKSNVVRGWVFGSTMNNKSQSVIIINNSTNVVIRACNFELCDNPFFAV
    SKPMGTQTHTMIFDNAFNCTFEYISDAFSLDVSEKSGNFKHLREFVFKNKDGFLYVYKGYQPIDVVRDLP
    SGFNTLKPIFKLPLGINITNFRAILTAFSPAQDIWGTSAAAYFVGYLKPTTFMLKYDENGTITDAVDCSQ
    NPLAELKCSVKSFEIDKGIYQTSNFRVVPSGDVVRFPNITNLCPFGEVFNATKFPSVYAWERKKISNCVA
    DYSVLYNSTFFSTFKCYGVSATKLNDLCFSNVYADSFVVKGDDVRQIAPGQTGVIADYNYKLPDDFMGCV
    LAWNTRNIDATSTGNYNYKYRYLRHGKLRPFERDISNVPFSPDGKPCTPPALNCYWPLNDYGFYTTTGIG
    YQPYRVVVLSFELLNAPATVCGPKLSTDLIKNQCVNFNFNGLTGTGVLTPSSKRFQPFQQFGRDVSDFTD
    SVRDPKTSEILDISPCAFGGVSVITPGTNASSEVAVLYQDVNCTDVSTAIHADQLTPAWRIYSTGNNVFQ
    TQAGCLIGAEHVDTSYECDIPIGAGICASYHTVSLLRSTSQKSIVAYTMSLGADSSIAYSNNTIAIPTNF
    SISITTEVMPVSMAKTSVDCNMYICGDSTECANLLLQYGSFCTQLNRALSGIAAEQDRNTREVFAQVKQM
    YKTPTLKYFGGFNFSQILPDPLKPTKRSFIEDLLFNKVTLADAGFMKQYGECLGDINARDLICAQKFNGL
    TVLPPLLTDDMIAAYTAALVSGTATAGWTFGAGAALQIPFAMQMAYRFNGIGVTQNVLYENQKQIANQFN
    KAISQIQESLTTTSTALGKLQDVVNQNAQALNTLVKQLSSNFGAISSVLNDILSRLDKVEAEVQIDRLIT
    GRLQSLQTYVTQQLIRAAEIRASANLAATKMSECVLGQSKRVDFCGKGYHLMSFPQAAPHGVVFLHVTYV
    PSQERNFTTAPAICHEGKAYFPREGVFVFNGTSWFITQRNFFSPQIITTDNTFVSGNCDVVIGIINNTVY
    DPLQPELDSFKEELDKYFKNHTSPDVDLGDISGINASVVNIQKEIDRLNEVAKNLNESLIDLQELGKYEQ
    YIKWPWYVWLGFIAGLIAIVMVTILLCCMTSCCSCLKGACSCGSCCKFDEDDSEPVLKGVKLHYT
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV spike (S) protein is an important target in developing safe and effective SARS vaccines. A previous study has demonstrated that vaccination with adeno-associated virus encoding RBD (RBD-rAAV) induces high titer of neutralizing antibodies. The immune responses and protective effect of the immunization with RBD-rAAV prime/RBD-specific T cell peptide boost were assessed. Compared with the RBD-rAAV prime/boost vaccination, RBD-rAAV prime/RBD-peptide (RBD-Pep) boost induced similar levels of Th1 and neutralizing antibody responses that protected the vaccinated mice from subsequent SARS-CoV challenge, but stronger Th2 and CTL responses. No significant immune responses and protective effects were detected in mice vaccinated with RBD-Pep or blank AAV alone (Du et al., 2008).
  • Related Vaccine(s): ADS-MVA vaccine , MVA/S vaccine , Recombinant spike polypeptide vaccine , rMV-SARS-CoV-S/Ssol , SARS Subunit Spike Protein with subunit boosting Vaccine , SARS-CoV Ad S/N vaccine , SARS-CoV CTLA4-S DNA vaccine , SARS-CoV Salmonella-CTLA4-S DNA vaccine , SARS-CoV Salmonella-tPA-S DNA vaccine , SARS-CoV tPA-S DNA vaccine
III. Vaccine Information
1. ADS-MVA vaccine
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
S protein(Chen et al., 2005)
f. Gene Engineering of S protein gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Vector:
live-attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) (Chen et al., 2005)
h. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
i. Description
Recombinant live-attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) had full-length SARS-CoV envelope Spike (S) glycoprotein gene was introduced into the deletion III region of the MVA genome.
(Chen et al., 2005)
j. Macaque Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: immunized intramuscular injection twice with a 4-week interval. 1 × 108 TCID50 for the first immunization and a dose of 3 × 108 TCID50 for the second injection. (Chen et al., 2005)
  • Immune Response: testing hosts generated high levels of neutralizing antibodies after 2 vaccinations
    (Chen et al., 2005)
  • Challenge Protocol: immunized on days 0 and 28 via intranasal injection before challenged after second immunization on day 28 with 105 TCID50 of pathogenic SATS-CoVPUMC01.
    (Chen et al., 2005)
  • Efficacy: likely protected (Chen et al., 2005)
  • Description: After virus challenge, SARS-CoV shedding detected by RT-PCR was only detected in the nasopharyngeal specimens of one of the four ADS-MVA immunized animals (Rh0413) on day 2 after virus challenge. No virus shedding was detectable on days 4 and 6 postchallenge in these four macaques. SARS-CoV could not be isolated from the lung specimens of ADS-MVA-immunized macaques on day 7 postchallenge. (Chen et al., 2005)
k. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c (Chen et al., 2005)
  • Vaccination Protocol: immunized intramuscular injection twice with a 3-week interval. Two mice were given 2 × 106 TCID50 of the vaccine, and six mice received 2 × 107 TCID50.(Chen et al., 2005)
  • Immune Response: testing hosts generated high levels of neutralizing antibodies (Chen et al., 2005)
l. Rabbit Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: immunized intramuscular injection twice with a 3-week interval (Chen et al., 2005)
  • Immune Response: testing hosts generated high levels of neutralizing antibodies (Chen et al., 2005)
m. Ferret Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Each ferret was immunized with rMVA-S (ferrets 7 to 9), n day 0 with a dose of 1e8 PFU of the corresponding virus per ferret by intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes, and a booster immunization was given on day 14 with the same regimen.(Weingartl et al., 2004)
  • Immune Response: Neutralizing activity was detected in sera along with a corresponding immunoglobin G titer collected from all three ferrets 7 days after booster immunization with rMVA-S virus, while the titer declined to undetectable level 14 days after the booster (Weingartl et al., 2004).
  • Side Effects: Ferrets immunized with rMVA-S (particularly ferret 9) developed severe periportal and panlobular mononuclear hepatitis in contrast to only mild periportal mononuclear hepatitis was observed in control ferrets (Weingartl et al., 2004) .
  • Challenge Protocol: Ferrets were challenged with 1e6 PFU of the SARS-CoV Tor2 isolate by the intranasal route(Weingartl et al., 2004).
  • Description: Study shows correlation with liver damage but does not definitely proof it is caused as SARS-CoV in ferrets also damage liver.(Weingartl et al., 2004)
2. Double Inactivated whole SARS-CoV vaccine
a. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
b. Status:
Licensed
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
whole virus (Tseng et al., 2012)
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Description
Inactivated whole virus by formalin and Ultraviolet radiation, hence Double Inactivated (DI) Vaccine (Tseng et al., 2012)
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c and C57BL/6 (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Vaccination Protocol: Each mouse received 100 µl injection of each vaccine intramuscularly on days 0 and 28. The injection was done at 1 µg, 0.5 µg, 0.25 µg, 0.125 µg of the vaccine (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Immune Response: Increased titer of neutralizing antibodies and reduced viral titer (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Side Effects: Eosinophil infiltration in the lung lesions after challenge, type-2 hypersensitivity reaction (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 56 after first vaccination, each mice was challenged challenged with 106TCID50/60 µl of SARS-CoV intranasally (IN) and euthanized on day 58 (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Efficacy: protected (Tseng et al., 2012)
3. Double Inactivated whole SARS-CoV vaccine + alum
a. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
whole virus(Tseng et al., 2012)
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Description
Inactivated whole virus by formalin and Ultraviolet radiation with alum vaccine (Tseng et al., 2012)
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Vaccination Protocol: Each mouse received 100 µl injection of each vaccine intramuscularly on days 0 and 28. The injection was done at 1 µg, 0.5 µg, 0.25 µg, 0.125 µg of the vaccine (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Immune Response: Increased titer of neutralizing antibodies and reduced viral titer that are higher than without adjuvant, neutrophil + eosinophil infiltration, Th2-type hypersensitivity reaction. (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Side Effects: eosinophil infiltration in the lung lesions after challenge, lower than without adjuvant (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 56 after first vaccination, each mice was challenged challenged with 106TCID50/60 µl of SARS-CoV intranasally (IN) and euthanized on day 58 (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Efficacy: protected (Tseng et al., 2012)
4. β-propiolactone-inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine
a. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
whole virus (See et al., 2006)
f. Immunization Route
subcutaneous injection
g. Description
whole killed (inactivated by beta-propiolactone) SARS-CoV vaccine (See et al., 2006)
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: 129S6/SvEv
  • Vaccination Protocol: Vaccination at 0 weeks and 4 weeks (See et al., 2006)
  • Immune Response: A 19-fold difference (P=0·02) in total SARS-CoV-specific IgG levels and lung viral titers were reduced by 4 logs to undetectable levels compared with titers observed in the PBS control on day 3 post-challenge, vaccinated animals showed significantly higher levels (P=0·002) of IFN-γ than control animals (See et al., 2006).
  • Challenge Protocol: Vaccination at 0 weeks and 4 weeks challenged by SARS-CoV-Tor2 at week 7 (See et al., 2006)
5. MA-ExoN vaccine
a. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
MA-ExoN (Graham et al., 2012)
f. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
g. Description
Live-attenuated RNA virus vaccine with engineered inactivation of SARS-CoV ExoN activity (MA-ExoN) (Graham et al., 2012)
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c(Graham et al., 2012)
  • Vaccination Protocol: intranasally with varying doses (102–104 PFU, depending on the experiment) of SARS-CoV MA-ExoN (Graham et al., 2012)
  • Immune Response: generated high levels of neutralizing antibodies (Graham et al., 2012)
  • Challenge Protocol: intranasally injected 1e2.5 vaccination PFU of vaccine of SARS-CoV MA-ExoN then given SARS-CoV once recovered (Graham et al., 2012)
  • Efficacy: complete protection (Graham et al., 2012)
6. MVA/S vaccine
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
S protein (Bisht et al., 2004)
f. Gene Engineering of S protein gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Vector:
highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (Bisht et al., 2004)
h. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
i. Description
Recombinant form of the highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) containing the gene encoding full-length SARS-CoV S (Bisht et al., 2004)
j. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c(Bisht et al., 2004)
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were inoculated i.n. or i.m. with 107 pfu of MVA/S at time 0 and again at 4 weeks. (Bisht et al., 2004)
  • Immune Response: Antibodies neturalized SARS-CoV in vitro after 2 doses (Bisht et al., 2004)
  • Challenge Protocol: inoculated intranasally or intramuscularly with 7log pfu of MVA at 0 and 4 weeks then challenged with TCID50 of SARS-CoV (Bisht et al., 2004)
  • Efficacy: little to no replication of SARS-CoV in the respiratory tracts after internasal inoculation(Bisht et al., 2004)
7. NDV-BC/S vaccine
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Monkey
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Monkey
e. Antigen
Full-length 1,255-aa SARS-CoV S protein (DiNapoli et al., 2007)
f. Vector:
Newcastle disease virus Beaudette C strain (NDV-BC) (DiNapoli et al., 2007)
g. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
h. Monkey Response
  • Host Strain: African Green Monkey
  • Vaccination Protocol: Monkeys were vaccinated with 107 pfu of the recombinant virus days 0 and 28 (the two-dose groups) or on day 0 only (the one-dose group). (DiNapoli et al., 2007)
  • Immune Response: Induced neutralizing antibodies, Produced S-specific antibodies, Increase in CD8+ T cells creating IFN-γ and TNF-α1 (DiNapoli et al., 2007)
  • Challenge Protocol: 28 days after the second dose, they were challenged by the i.n. and i.t. routes with SARS-CoV at a tissue culture 50% infectious dose (TCID50) of 106 per site. (DiNapoli et al., 2007)
  • Efficacy: Protected (DiNapoli et al., 2007)
  • Description: Exhibited average reductions in viral titer of 13-fold, 276-fold, and 1,102-fold in the nasal turbinate, trachea, and lung, respectively. (DiNapoli et al., 2007)
8. NDV-VF/S vaccine
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Monkey
d. Antigen
Full-length 1,255-aa SARS-CoV S protein (DiNapoli et al., 2007)
e. Vector:
Lentogenic LaSota strain modified that cleavage sequence of F protein replaced with NDV-BC. (DiNapoli et al., 2007)
f. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
g. Monkey Response
  • Host Strain: African Green Monkey
  • Vaccination Protocol: Monkeys were vaccinated with 107 pfu of the recombinant virus days 0 and 28 (the two-dose groups) or on day 0 only (the one-dose group). (DiNapoli et al., 2007)
  • Immune Response: Induced neutralizing antibodies, Produced S-specific antubodies, Increase in CD8+ T cells creating IFN-γ and TNF-α1 (DiNapoli et al., 2007)
  • Challenge Protocol: 28 days after the second dose, they were challenged by the i.n. and i.t. routes with SARS-CoV at a tissue culture 50% infectious dose (TCID50) of 106 per site. (DiNapoli et al., 2007)
  • Efficacy: Protected (DiNapoli et al., 2007)
  • Description: Immunization with NDV-VF/S resulted in a 5-fold and 61-fold reduction in nasal turbinate and tracheal SARS-CoV titers, respectively, compared with the control animals. (DiNapoli et al., 2007)
9. RBD-rAAV-SARS-CoV
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004678
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
e. Preparation
Inactivated SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) vaccine with adjuvant (Zheng et al., 2008).
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Mouse Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Intranasal vaccination with RBD-rAAV (Zheng et al., 2008).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000287
  • Immune Response: Induced production of IgG and IgA that exhibited neutralizing activity. Induced a markedly higher level of antigen specific IL-2+ T cells but a slightly lower level of IFN-γ+ T cells in the spleen, IFN-γ-producing CD3+/CD8+ T cells were significantly higher in the splenocytes of RBD-rAAV intranasally versus intramuscularly vaccinated mice. (Zheng et al., 2008)
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were challenged with 105 TCID50f SARS-CoV strain GZ50 (Zheng et al., 2008).
  • Efficacy: RBD-rAAV vaccination provoked a prolonged antibody response with continually increasing levels of neutralising activity. When compared with the RBD-rAAV prime/boost vaccination, RBD-rAAV prime/RBD-peptide boost induced similar levels of Th1 and neutralising antibody responses that protected vaccinated mice from subsequent SARS-CoV challenges,but stronger Th2 and CTL responses (Zheng et al., 2008).
10. RBD-rAAV-SARS-CoV-version-02
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004679
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
e. Preparation
RBD-rAAV prime/RBD-specific T cell peptide boost (Du et al., 2008).
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c (Du et al., 2008)
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were separated into 4 groups (9 mice per group) and primed with RBD-rAAV [intramuscular (i.m.), 2 × 1011 VP /200 μl)] or RBD-peptides (N50 and N60, 50 μg each) plus CpG ODN (25 μg) [subcutaneous, (s.c.)] or blank AAV, and boosted with RBD-rAAV or RBD-Pep or AAV, respectively (Du et al., 2008).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Induced high level of IgG Ab response, reaching a peak 3 months post-vaccination, plateaued for 3 months, then decreased. Mucosal IgA Ab peaked 1 month after vaccination, then decreased in the next 5 months. Vaccination induced high levels of Agspecific IL-2+ T cells but slightly lower levels of IFN-γ+ T cells in the spleen. Single dose did not trigger significant IL-2+ and IFN-γ+ T cell response. (Du et al., 2008)
  • Challenge Protocol: Forty days post-vaccination, mice were anaesthetized with isoflurane and i.n. inoculated with 50 μl of SARS-CoV strain GZ50 (5 × 105 TCID50) (Du et al., 2008).
  • Efficacy: Compared with the RBD-rAAV prime/boost vaccination, RBD-rAAV prime/RBD-peptide (RBD-Pep) boost induced similar levels of Th1 and neutralizing antibody responses that protected the vaccinated mice from subsequent SARS-CoV challenge, but stronger Th2 and CTL responses. No significant immune responses and protective effects were detected in mice vaccinated with RBD-Pep or blank AAV alone (Du et al., 2008).
11. rDNA-expressed S protein + alum vaccine
a. Type:
DNA vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
ectodomain of the S protein(Tseng et al., 2012)
f. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
g. Description
rDNA-expressed ectodomain of the S protein + alum vaccine (Tseng et al., 2012)
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Each mouse received 100 µl injection of the vaccine intramuscularly on days 0 and 28. This was done at 2 µg, 1 µg, 0.5 µg, 0.5 µg of the vaccine per injection (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Immune Response: Increased titer of neutralizing antibodies and reduced viral titer, higher titer of neutralizing antibodies without adjuvant (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Side Effects: eosinophil infiltration in the lung lesions after challenge, lessened compared to without adjuvant (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 56 after first vaccination, each mice was challenged challenged with 106TCID50/60 µl of SARS-CoV intranasally (IN) and euthanized on day 58 (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Efficacy: protected(Tseng et al., 2012)
12. rDNA-expressed S protein vaccine
a. Type:
DNA vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
ecto-domain of S protein (Tseng et al., 2012)
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Description
rDNA-expressed ectodomain of the S protein vaccine
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Each mouse received 100 µl injection of the vaccine intramuscularly on days 0 and 28. This was done at 2 µg, 1 µg, 0.5 µg, 0.5 µg of the vaccine per injection (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Immune Response: Increased titer of neutralizing antibodies and reduced viral titer (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Side Effects: eosinophil infiltration in the lung lesions after challenge (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 56 after first vaccination, each mice was challenged challenged with 106TCID50/60 µl of SARS-CoV intranasally (IN) and euthanized on day 58 (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Efficacy: protected (Tseng et al., 2012)
13. Recombinant spike polypeptide vaccine
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
S protein (Woo et al., 2005)
f. Gene Engineering of S protein gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Immunization Route
Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
h. Description
intraperitoneal recombinant spike polypeptide generated by amplify gene encoding amino acids residues 14-667 of S protein that was cloned BamHI and KpnI sites of vector pQE-31 that was generated by Escherichia coli (Woo et al., 2005)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c (H-2d)
  • Vaccination Protocol: 50 μg administered via intraperitoneal route on days 0, 14, and 28. (Woo et al., 2005)
  • Immune Response: No neutralizing antibody production, high IgG levels, lymphocyte proliferation, production of IFN-γ >6000 pg/ml at 48hrs and 72hrs, detectable production of IL-4 at 24hrs (Woo et al., 2005)
14. rMA15-ΔE vaccine
a. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
virulent mouse-adapted SARS-CoV with E-deletion (rMA15-ΔE) (Fett et al., 2013)
f. Gene Engineering of envelope protein (E) gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: Gene mutation
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
h. Description
recombinant MA15 virulent mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (MA15) background of E-deleted vaccine candidate (rMA15-ΔE) (Fett et al., 2013)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c
  • Immune Response: Induced neutralizing antibodies, Produced optimal levels of CD4 and CD8 T cells (Fett et al., 2013)
  • Side Effects: Minor peribronchial and perivascular infiltration in aged (18-month-old) mice (Fett et al., 2013)
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were challenged with 105 PFU of MA15 at day 21 after immunization. (Fett et al., 2013)
  • Efficacy: Protected (Fett et al., 2013)
15. rMV-S + rMV-N vaccine
a. Type:
Mixed vaccine of two viral vector vaccines
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Mouse
d. Antigen
codon-optimised spike glycoprotein (S), SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein (N) (Liniger et al., 2008)
e. Vector:
Live-attenuated recombinant measles virus (rMV) (Liniger et al., 2008).
f. Immunization Route
Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
g. Description
Live attenuated recombinant measles viruses (rMV) expressing a codon-optimised spike glycoprotein (S) of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (Weingartl et al., 2004).
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Ifnartm-CD46Ge transgenic mice(Liniger et al., 2008)
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized with 0.5 × 104 pfu of each recombinant virus per mouse (Liniger et al., 2008)
  • Immune Response: Induction of both humoral neutralizing and cellular responses against SARS-CoV, and neutralizing immunity against MV. (Liniger et al., 2008)
16. rMV-SARS-CoV-S/Ssol
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004711
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
e. Gene Engineering of S protein gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description: A live attenuated recombinant meas(Escriou et al., 2014)s vaccine (MV) candidates expressing either the membrane-anchore SARS-CoV spike (S) protein (Escriou et al., 2014).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Preparation
Live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine (MV) candidates expressing either the membrane-anchored SARS-CoV spike (S) protein or its secreted soluble ectodomain (Ssol) (Escriou et al., 2014).
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: CD46-IFNAR (Escriou et al., 2014)
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized with two intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections at 4-week interval of 105 TCID50 of MV-S or MV-Ssol recombinant viruses (Escriou et al., 2014).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Production of anti-SARS IgG (specifically IgG2a) after 1 dose, increased by 10-20 fold after second dose. Induced production of neutralizing antibodies, as well as moderate levels of anti-SARS IgA antibodies (Escriou et al., 2014)
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were inoculated intranasally with 105 pfu of SARS-CoV five weeks after the second immunization (Escriou et al., 2014).
  • Efficacy: Recombinant MV expressing the anchored full-length S induced the highest titers of neutralizing antibodies and fully protected immunized animals from intranasal infectious challenge with SARS-CoV (Escriou et al., 2014).
17. SARS Subunit Spike Protein with subunit boosting Vaccine
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011486
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Gene Engineering of S protein gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
e. Adjuvant: CpG DNA vaccine adjuvant
f. Vector:
Adeno-associated virus (Du et al., 2008).
g. Immunization Route
Subcutaneous injection
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c (Du et al., 2008)
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were Mice were separated into 4 groups (9 mice per group) and primed with RBD-rAAV [intramuscular (i.m.), 2 × 1011 VP /200 μl)] or RBD-peptides (N50 and N60, 50 μg each) plus CpG ODN (25 μg) [subcutaneous, (s.c.)] or blank AAV, and boosted with RBD-rAAV or RBD-Pep or AAV, respectively (Du et al., 2008).
  • Immune Response: Vaccination increased production (P < 0.05) of IL-4-producting Th2 cells higher than those in RBD-rAAV prime/RBD-rAAV vaccinated animals, but a lower level (P < 0.05) of IL-10-secreting Th2 cells that play roles in down-regulation of immune responses, as compared to those of RBD-rAAV prime/RBD-rAAV boost vaccination. RBD-rAAV prime/RBD-pep exhibited similar frequencies of IFN-γ-producing cells (Th1) to RBD-rAAV prime/RBD-rAAV boost vaccinated animals. Increased production of IL-2-secreting cells. Induction of SARS-CoV-specific IgG production. (Du et al., 2008)
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice intranasally challenged with SARS-CoV strain GZ50 40 days post-vaccination (Du et al., 2008).
  • Efficacy: SARS-CoV viral load in lung tissues was significantly reduced in mice vaccinated with RBD-Pep. Very low level of viral load was detected in lung tissues of RBD-rAAV prime/RBD-Pep boost group, similar to that in lung tissues of RBD-rAAV prime/RBD-rAAV boost group. Vaccination of RBD-rAAV prime/RBD-peptide boost was able to significantly inhibit SARS-CoV infection (Du et al., 2008).
18. SARS-CoV Ad S/N vaccine
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
S protein, N (See et al., 2006)
f. Gene Engineering of S protein gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Gene Engineering of nucleocapsid protein (N) gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
h. Vector:
attenuated adenovirus(See et al., 2006)
i. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
j. Description
A combination of two adenovirus-based vectors, one expressing the nucleocapsid (N) and the other expressing the spike (S) protein (See et al., 2006)
k. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: 129S6/SvEv (See et al., 2006)
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mouse was immunized on day 0 and week 4 (See et al., 2006)
  • Immune Response: Quantifiable humoral response with presence of SARS-CoV-specific IgG1 and a significant reduction in level of SARS-CoV RNA in lung titers. Production of IFN-γ. (See et al., 2006)
  • Challenge Protocol: Mouse was immunized on day 0 and week 4 and then challenged with SARS-COV Tor2 at week 7 (See et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: Partially protected (See et al., 2006)
19. SARS-CoV CRT-N vaccine
a. Type:
DNA vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
N protein (Kim et al., 2004)
f. Immunization Route
Intravenous injection (i.v.)
g. Description
A DNA vaccine encoding CRT linked to a SARS-CoV N (Kim et al., 2004)
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: C57BL/6 (Kim et al., 2004)
  • Vaccination Protocol: DNA-coated gold particles were prepared and delivered to the shaved abdominal regions of mice using a helium-driven gene gun (Bio-Rad) with a discharge pressure of 400 lb/in2. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with 2 μg of the plasmid encoding CRT/N protein. The mice received two boosters with the same dose at a 1-week interval. (Kim et al., 2004)
  • Immune Response: Significantly increased neutralizing antibody titre to N protein DNA vaccine (Vaccine 5732) and significantly greater count of INF-gamma CD8_ lymphocytes within splenocytes (Kim et al., 2004)
  • Challenge Protocol: Vaccinated mice challenged with DNA encoding CRT/Na nd challenged these mice with Vac-N or Vac-WT (Recombinant vaccinnia virus expressing SARS N protein or wild-type vaccinia virus, respectively) intranasally or intravenously 1 week after the last vaccination (Kim et al., 2004)
  • Efficacy: significantly reduced viral titer load(Kim et al., 2004)
20. SARS-CoV CTLA4-S DNA vaccine
a. Type:
DNA vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
S protein(Woo et al., 2005)
f. Gene Engineering of S protein gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
CTLA4HingeSARS800 DNA from SARS-CoV S protein vaccine (Woo et al., 2005)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c (H-2d) (Woo et al., 2005)
  • Vaccination Protocol: 100 μg intramuscular administration of vaccine, then 50 μg intraperitoneal injection at 14 and 28 days (Woo et al., 2005)
  • Immune Response: Induced neutralizing antibody, high IgG levels, lymphocyte proliferation, production of IFN-γ, production of IL-4 (48hrs)
    (Woo et al., 2005)
21. SARS-CoV E gene mutant vaccine
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002993
b. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Hamster
e. Gene Engineering of envelope protein (E) gene of SARS-CoV
f. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
g. Hamster Response
22. SARS-CoV M protein DNA vaccine
a. Type:
DNA vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
membrane protein (M) (Shi et al., 2006)
f. Gene Engineering of membrane protein (M) gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
DNA vaccine made from recombinant plasmid containing membrane protein (M) sequence constructed then expressed and purified from E. coli bacteria (Shi et al., 2006)
i. Mouse Response
j. Vole Response
23. SARS-CoV N + SARS-CoV M DNA vaccine
a. Type:
DNA vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
N, membrane protein (M) (Shi et al., 2006)
f. Gene Engineering of nucleocapsid protein (N) gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Gene Engineering of membrane protein (M) gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
h. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
i. Description
DNA vaccine made from recombinant plasmids containing membrane protein (M) and nucleocapsid protein (N) sequences constructed then expressed and purified from E. coli bacteria (Shi et al., 2006)
j. Vole Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: 100 μg injected (Shi et al., 2006)
  • Immune Response: increased N-specific antibodies compared to Vaccine 5732, increased lymphocyte proliferation specific to N antigen than Vaccine 5732 (Shi et al., 2006)
  • Challenge Protocol: 100 μg injected (Shi et al., 2006)
  • Efficacy: 6/7 voles protected (Shi et al., 2006)
k. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c (Shi et al., 2006)
  • Vaccination Protocol: 20 μg of intramuscular vaccine injection (Shi et al., 2006)
  • Immune Response: Production of N-specific IgG antibodies (paricularly IgG2a), Lymphocyte proliferation, Production of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, Increased CD4+ and CD8+ levels (Shi et al., 2006)
24. SARS-CoV N protein DNA vaccine
a. Type:
Subunit vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
N (Shi et al., 2006)
f. Gene Engineering of nucleocapsid protein (N) gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
DNA vaccine made from recombinant plasmid containing nucleocapsid protein (N) sequence constructed then expressed and purified from E. coli bacteria (Shi et al., 2006)
i. Mouse Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: DNA-coated gold particles were prepared and delivered to the shaved abdominal regions of mice using a helium-driven gene gun (Bio-Rad) with a discharge pressure of 400 lb/in2. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with 2 μg of the plasmid encoding N protein. The mice received two boosters with the same dose at a 1-week interval. (Kim et al., 2004)
  • Immune Response: Significantly increased neutralizing antibody titer to N protein DNA vaccine and significantl count of INF-gamma CD8_ lymphocytes within splenocytes (Kim et al., 2004)
  • Challenge Protocol: Challenge Protocol: Vaccinated mice challenged with DNA encoding N and challenged these mice with Vac-N or Vac-WT (Recombinant vaccinnia virus expressing SARS N protein or wild-type vaccinia virus, respectively) intranasally or intravenously 1 week after the last vaccination (Kim et al., 2004)
  • Efficacy: reduced viral titer load(Kim et al., 2004)
j. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c (Shi et al., 2006)
  • Vaccination Protocol: 20 μg of vaccine intramuscular injection (Shi et al., 2006)
  • Immune Response: Production of N-specific IgG antibodies (paricularly IgG2a), Lymphocyte proliferation, Production of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, Increased CD4+ and CD8+ levels
    (Shi et al., 2006)
k. Vole Response
  • Host Strain: Microtus brandti raddes (Shi et al., 2006)
  • Vaccination Protocol: 100 μg injected (Shi et al., 2006)
  • Immune Response: increased N-specific antibodies, increased lymphocye proliferation specific to N antigen (Shi et al., 2006)
  • Challenge Protocol: 100 μg injected three times at an interval of 7 days and then challenged with live SARS-CoV (PUMC01) (Shi et al., 2006)
25. SARS-CoV pCI-N DNA from vaccine
a. Type:
DNA vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
S protein (Zhao et al., 2005)
f. Gene Engineering of nucleocapsid protein (N) gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
A plasmid pCI-N, encoding the full-length N gene of SARS-CoV, was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha (Zhao et al., 2005)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c(Zhao et al., 2005)
  • Vaccination Protocol: 200 μg of Vaccine 573 in both tibialis anterior muscles three times at 2-week intervals (Zhao et al., 2005)
  • Immune Response: Anti-N immunoglobulins (specifically IgG2a) and splenocytes proliferative responses against N protein, splenocyte production of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, production of N-specific CD8+ T cells, delayed-type hypersensitivity response
    (Zhao et al., 2005)
  • Side Effects: Delayed hypersensitivity response (Zhao et al., 2005)
26. SARS-CoV rVV-SARS-N
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
N protein (Zhao et al., 2016)
f. Vector:
recombinant vaccinia virus (Zhou et al., 2006)
g. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
h. Description
recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the N protein (rVV-SARS-N)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were vaccinated with rVV-SARS-N i.n. and boosted 6–7 weeks later.
  • Immune Response: Production of N-specific CD4+ T cells, Production of IFN-γ, Production of IL-10, Increased mobilization of CD8+ cells to infected lung. (Zhao et al., 2016)
  • Efficacy: protected (Zhao et al., 2016)
27. SARS-CoV S Baculovirus Vaccine
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse, Rat
e. Antigen
S protein of SARS-CoV (Zhou et al., 2006)
f. Vector:
Baculovirus (Zhou et al., 2006)
g. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
h. Description
recombinant SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein viral vaccine produced in insect cells that is expressed by baculovirus (Zhou et al., 2006)
28. SARS-CoV Salmonella-CTLA4-S DNA vaccine
a. Type:
DNA vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
S protein (Woo et al., 2005)
f. Gene Engineering of S protein gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Immunization Route
Oral
h. Description
oral live-attenuated auxotrophic S. typhimurium aroA strain SL7207 that contained CTLA4HingeSARS800 DNA vaccine (Woo et al., 2005)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/ (H-2d) (Woo et al., 2005)
  • Vaccination Protocol: : oral injection of 6e9 live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium that underwent transfection of CTLA4-, then 50 μg spike polypeptide administered via intraperitoneal injection on days 28 and 42. (Woo et al., 2005)
  • Immune Response: Immune Response Description: neutralizing antibody titers of <1:20–1:160, lymphocyte proliteration, production of IFN-γ, production of IL-4 (48hrs) (Woo et al., 2005)
29. SARS-CoV Salmonella-tPA-S DNA vaccine
a. Type:
DNA vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
S protein (Woo et al., 2005)
f. Gene Engineering of S protein gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Immunization Route
Oral
h. Description
oral live-attenuated auxotrophic S. typhimurium aroA strain SL7207 that contained tPA-optimize800 DNA vaccine (Woo et al., 2005)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c (H-2d) (Woo et al., 2005)
  • Vaccination Protocol: oral injection of 6e9 live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium that underwent transfection of tPA-S (Woo et al., 2005)
  • Immune Response: neutralizing antibody titers of <1:20–1:160, lymphocyte proliteration, production of IFN-γ, production of IL-4 (48hrs) (Woo et al., 2005)
30. SARS-CoV tPA-S DNA vaccine
a. Type:
DNA vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
S protein (Woo et al., 2005)
f. Gene Engineering of S protein gene of SARS-CoV
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
tPA-optimize800 DNA vaccine of SARS-CoV S protein (Woo et al., 2005)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c (H-2d) (Woo et al., 2005)
  • Vaccination Protocol: 100 μg of intramuscular administration of vaccine then 50 μg intraperitoneal injection of spike polypeptide at 28 and 42 days (Woo et al., 2005)
  • Immune Response: neutralizing antibody titers of <1:20–1:160, lymphocyte proliteration, production of IFN-γ, production of IL-4 (48hrs) (Woo et al., 2005)
31. SARS-CoV VLP-MHV + alum vaccine
a. Type:
Virus like particle vaccine
b. Status:
Licensed
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
SARS-CoV spike protein (S) (Tseng et al., 2012)
f. Vector:
Nucleocapsid (N), envelope (E) and membrane (M) proteins from mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) (Tseng et al., 2012)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
Virus like particle vaccine produced from SARS-CoV spike protein (S) and the Nucleocapsid (N), envelope (E) and membrane (M) proteins from mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) (Tseng et al., 2012)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Each mouse received 100 µl injection containing 2 µg of vaccine intramuscularly on days 0 and 28 (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Immune Response: Increased titer of neutralizing antibodies and reduced viral titer (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Side Effects: eosinophil infiltration in the lung lesions after challenge (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 56 after first vaccination, each mice was challenged challenged with 106TCID50/60 µl of SARS-CoV intranasally (IN) and euthanized on day 58 (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Efficacy: protected (Tseng et al., 2012)
32. SARS-CoV VLP-MHV vaccine
a. Type:
Virus like particle vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
SARS-CoV spike protein (S) (Tseng et al., 2012)
f. Vector:
Nucleocapsid (N), envelope (E) and membrane (M) proteins from mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) (Tseng et al., 2012)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
Virus like particle vaccine produced from SARS-CoV spike protein (S) and the Nucleocapsid (N), envelope (E) and membrane (M) proteins from mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) (Tseng et al., 2012)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Each mouse received 100 µl injection containing 2 µg of vaccine intramuscularly on days 0 and 28 (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Immune Response: Induced neutralizing antibody, Neutrophil + eosinophil infiltration, Th2-type hypersensitivity reaction. (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Side Effects: eosinophil infiltration in the lung lesions after challenge (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 56 after first vaccination, each mice was challenged challenged with 106TCID50/60 µl of SARS-CoV intranasally (IN) and euthanized on day 58 (Tseng et al., 2012)
  • Efficacy: protected (Tseng et al., 2012)
33. UV Inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine
a. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
b. Status:
Licensed
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
whole virus(Iwata-Yoshikawa et al., 2014)
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Description
Ultraviolet radiation applied to SARS virus. Vaccine causes eosinophilic immunopathology to SARS while providing protection (Iwata-Yoshikawa et al., 2014)
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: 10 μg UV-V subcutaneously injected in back and reimmunized 6 to 7 weeks later (Iwata-Yoshikawa et al., 2014)
  • Immune Response: Induced neutralizing antibodies, Lymphocyte infiltration, Upregulation of IL-4 and CCL24, CD11b+ cells upregulated genes associated with eosinophil induction (Iwata-Yoshikawa et al., 2014).
  • Side Effects: Eosinophil infiltration present in the lungs (Iwata-Yoshikawa et al., 2014)
  • Challenge Protocol: 10 week old BALB/c mice were vaccinated with 10 μg UV-V and boosted 6 weeks later. Four weeks afterwards, the animals were inoculated in the left nostril with 106.5 TCID50 in 30 μl of F-musX(Iwata-Yoshikawa et al., 2014).
  • Efficacy: Most mice survived challenge after weight loss and respiratory disease (Iwata-Yoshikawa et al., 2014)
34. UV-Inactivated SARS-CoV + TLR Agonist Vaccine
a. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
b. Status:
Licensed
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
whole virus (Iwata-Yoshikawa et al., 2014)
f. Immunization Route
subcutaneous injection
g. Description
Ultraviolet radiation is used to inactivate SARS-CoV and a Toll-Like Receptor Agonist Adjuvant is added to prevent eosinophilic immunopathology (Iwata-Yoshikawa et al., 2014).
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: 10 μg of UV-Inactivated SARS-CoV + TLR Agonist Vaccine subcutaneously injected in back and reimmunized 6 to 7 weeks later (Iwata-Yoshikawa et al., 2014)
  • Immune Response: Induced neutralizing antibodies (More than in UV-V), Lymphocyte infiltration, High levels of CXCL10 and CXCL1, Production of IFN-β, Upregulation of TNF-α1 (Iwata-Yoshikawa et al., 2014)
  • Side Effects: Minor eosinophil lung infiltration (Iwata-Yoshikawa et al., 2014)
  • Challenge Protocol: 10 week old BALB/c mice were vaccinated with 10 μg UV-V and boosted 6 weeks later. Four weeks afterwards, the animals were inoculated in the left nostril with 106.5 TCID50 in 30 μl of F-musX(Iwata-Yoshikawa et al., 2014)
  • Efficacy: All mice survived challenge (Iwata-Yoshikawa et al., 2014).
35. VRC-SRSDNA015-00-VP vaccine
a. Type:
DNA vaccine
b. Status:
Clinical trial
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
d. Antigen
S protein (Martin et al., 2008)
e. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
f. Description
A single-plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the Spike (S) glycoprotein. (Martin et al., 2008)
g. Human Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Injections on study days 0, 28, and 56 at a 4 mg dose in the lateral deltoid muscle (Martin et al., 2008)
  • Immune Response: S-specific antibody, neutralizing antibodies present. S-specific CD4+ T cell response was detected in all patients, where on 20% had S-specific CD8+ T cell responses. (Martin et al., 2008)
  • Side Effects: Chills, fever, headache, injection site pain, malaise, myalgia, redness, swelling, tenderness (Martin et al., 2008)
36. VRP-MERS-N vaccine
a. Type:
Viral Like Particle Vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
N protein (Zhao et al., 2016)
f. Vector:
Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons (Zhao et al., 2016)
g. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
h. Description
Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons bearing epitopes of N protein from MERS(Zhao et al., 2016). Identical to VRP-MERS-N vaccine (Vaccine 5748).
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c (H-2d)
  • Immune Response: Reduced viral titre, production of N-specific CD4+ T cells, Production of IFN-γ, Production of CD8+ T cells. (Zhao et al., 2016)
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were challenged 4-6 weeks after boosting (Zhao et al., 2016)
37. VRP-SARS-N vaccine
a. Type:
Viral Like Particle Vaccine
b. Status:
Licensed
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
CD4+ T cell epitope in the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV (N353) (Zhao et al., 2016)
f. Vector:
Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons (VRP) (Zhao et al., 2016)
g. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
h. Description
Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons (VRP) encoding a SARS-CoV CD4+ T cell epitope vaccinated intranasally. Does not have same efficacy if vaccinated subcutaneously (Zhao et al., 2016)
Identical to VRP-SARS-N vaccine (Vaccine 5755).
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: vaccinated BALB/c mice twice at 6–7 week intervals with VRP-SARS-N at 100 PFU (Zhao et al., 2016)
  • Immune Response: Decreased viral titre, increase in N-specific CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ in lungs, production of IL-10, increased mobilization of CD8+ cells to infected lung. (Zhao et al., 2016)
  • Challenge Protocol: challenged 6-7 weeks after second vaccination with doses from 100, 500, 1,000 PFU of SARS-CoV (Zhao et al., 2005)
  • Efficacy: nearly complete protection at 100 pfu, protected at 500 and 1000 pfu doses (Zhao et al., 2016)
  • Description: Better results compared to different vaccination routes (Zhao et al., 2016).
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