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Hepatitis B virus

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Microbial Pathogenesis
    5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
    6. Host Protective Immunity
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. HbS (Other)
    2. HBVgp2 pre-S1/pre-S2/S (Protective antigen)
    3. Hepatitis B surface antigen (Protective antigen)
    4. Large S protein (Protective antigen)
    5. PreS2 middle surface protein (Protective antigen)
    6. PreS2+S (Middle protein) (Protective antigen)
    7. S protein from Duck Hepatitis B virus (Protective antigen)
    8. Small envelope antigen (Protective antigen)
    9. Small S protein (Protective antigen)
    10. HBVgp3 X protein (Virmugen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. COMVAX
    2. Duck hepatitis B DNA vaccine pcDNA I-S encoding small S proteins
    3. Engerix-B
    4. HBsAg Liposomal MTP-PE Vaccine
    5. Hepatitis B DNA vaccine pCEA/HBsAg encoding CEA and HBsAg
    6. Hepatitis B DNA vaccine pCMV-HBs encoding HBsAg
    7. Hepatitis B DNA vaccine pCMV-S2.S encoding the HBV(ayw Strain) envelope protein.
    8. Hepatitis B DNA vaccine PLGA–CTAB–DNA encoding the small envelope gene
    9. Hepatitis B DNA vaccine pRc/CMV-HBs(S) encoding HBsAg
    10. Hepatitis B DNA vaccine pS encoding major envelope proteins
    11. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with JVRS-1000
    12. Hepatitis B virus DNA vaccine encoding HBVgp2 pre-S1/pre-S2/S
    13. Hepatitis B virus DNA vaccine pVAX-PS
    14. Hepatitis B virus X protein mutant vaccine
    15. Infanrix-hexa
    16. Pediarix
    17. recombinant S gene Hepatitis B Vaccine with rIFN-gamma
    18. Recombivax HB
    19. Twinrix
    20. Twinrix Junior
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
10407
2. Disease:
Hepatitis B
3. Introduction
Hepatitis B virus is a DNA virus that infects the liver of hominoidae (including humans) and causes hepatitis. It has caused epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa. About a third of the world's population, more than 2 billion people, have been infected with the hepatitis B virus. The acute illness causes liver inflammation, vomiting, jaundice and - rarely - death. Chronic hepatitis B may eventually cause liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. This disease is preventable by vaccination (Wiki: Hepatitis B).
4. Microbial Pathogenesis
HBV primarily interferes with the functions of the liver by replicating in hepatocytes. HBV virions bind to the host cell via the preS domain of the viral surface antigen, leading to subsequent internalization through endocytosis. HBV-preS specific receptors are primarily expressed on hepatocytes. During HBV infection, the host immune response causes both hepatocellular damage and viral clearance. The innate immune response does not play a significant role in these processes. The adaptive immune response, particularly virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), contributes to most of the liver injury associated with HBV infection. Liver damage is initiated and mediated by the CTLs. Antigen-nonspecific inflammatory cells can worsen CTL-induced immunopathology (Wiki: Hepatitis B).
5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
Hepatitis B virus infects the liver of apes including humans (Wiki: Hepatitis B).
6. Host Protective Immunity
During HBV infection, the host immune response causes both hepatocellular damage and viral clearance. Although the innate immune response does not play a significant role in these processes, the adaptive immune response, particularly virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), contributes to most of the liver injury associated with HBV infection. By killing infected cells and by producing antiviral cytokines capable of purging HBV from viable hepatocytes, CTLs eliminate the virus. Although liver damage is initiated and mediated by the CTLs, antigen-nonspecific inflammatory cells can worsen CTL-induced immunopathology, and platelets activated at the site of infection may facilitate the accumulation of CTLs in the liver (Wiki: Hepatitis B).
1. HbS
2. HBVgp2 pre-S1/pre-S2/S
  • Gene Name : HBVgp2 pre-S1/pre-S2/S
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Hepatitis B virus
  • VO ID : VO_0011095
  • NCBI Gene ID : 944569
  • NCBI Protein GI : 77680739
  • Locus Tag : HBVgp2
  • Genbank Accession : M26141
  • Protein Accession : YP_355333
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:109739
  • Taxonomy ID : 10407
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : large S protein
  • Protein pI : 7.93
  • Protein Weight : 42278.13
  • Protein Length : 400
  • Protein Note : S gene product, put.surface antigen (AA 1-226)
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|77680739|ref|YP_355333.1| large S protein [Hepatitis B virus]
    MGGWSSKPRQGMGTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVGAGAFGPGFTPP
    HGGLLGWSPQAQGILTTLPAAPPPASTNRQSGRQPTPISPPLRDSHPQAMQWNSTTFHQALLDPRVRGLY
    FPAGGSSSGTVNPVPTTASPISSIFSRTGDPAPNMESTTSGFLGPLLVLQAGFFLLTRILTIPQSLDSWW
    TSLNFLGGAPTCPGQNSQSPTSNHSPTSCPPTCPGYRWMCLRRFIIFLFILLLCLIFLLVLLDYQGMLPV
    CPLLPGTSTTSTGPCRTCTIPAQGTSMFPSCCCTKPSDGNCTCIPIPSSWAFARFLWEWASVRFSWLSLL
    VPFVQWFVGLSPTVWLSAIWMMWYWGPSLYNILSPFLPLLPIFFCLWVYI
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : Immunisation with a plasmid encoding the DHBV large (L) envelope protein (HBVgp2 pre-S1/pre-S2/S) induced a strong, specific, highly neutralising and long-lasting anti-preS humoral response in uninfected ducks. Importantly, maternal antibodies elicited by such DNA immunisation were vertically transmitted and protected progeny against viral challenge (Thermet et al., 2003).
  • Related Vaccine(s): Hepatitis B DNA vaccine pCMV-S2.S encoding the HBV(ayw Strain) envelope protein.
3. HBVgp3 X protein
  • Gene Name : HBVgp3 X protein
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Hepatitis B virus
  • NCBI Gene ID : 944566
  • NCBI Protein GI : 21326587
  • Locus Tag : HBVgp3
  • Genbank Accession : X04615
  • Protein Accession : NP_647606
  • Taxonomy ID : 10407
  • Gene Starting Position : 1373
  • Gene Ending Position : 1837
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : +
  • Protein Name : X protein
  • Protein pI : 8.34
  • Protein Weight : 15417.45
  • Protein Length : 154
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|21326584:1373-1837 Hepatitis B virus, complete genome
    CATGGCTGCTAGGCTGTGCTGCCAACTGGATCCTGCGCGGGACGTCCTTTGTCTACGTCCCGTCGGCGCT
    GAATCCCGCGGACGACCCGTCTCGGGGCCGTTTGGGCCTCTACCGTCCCCTTCTTCATCTGCCGTTCCGG
    CCGACCACGGGGCGCACCTCTCTTTACGCGGTCTCCCCGTCTGTGCCTTCTCATCTGCCGGACCGTGTGC
    ACTTCGCTTCACCTCTGCACGTAGCATGGAGACCACCGTGAACGCCCACCAGGTCTTGCCCAAGGTCTTA
    CACAAGAGGACTCTTGGACTCTCAGCAATGTCAACGACCGACCTTGAGGCATACTTCAAAGACTGTTTGT
    TTAAAGACTGGGAGGAGTTGGGGGAGGAGATTAGGTTAAAGGTCTTTGTACTAGGAGGCTGTAGGCATAA
    ATTGGTCTGTTCACCAGCACCATGCAACTTTTTCCCCTCTGCCTA
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|21326587|ref|NP_647606.1| X protein [Hepatitis B virus]
    MAARLCCQLDPARDVLCLRPVGAESRGRPVSGPFGPLPSPSSSAVPADHGAHLSLRGLPVCAFSSAGPCA
    LRFTSARSMETTVNAHQVLPKVLHKRTLGLSAMSTTDLEAYFKDCLFKDWEELGEEIRLKVFVLGGCRHK
    LVCSPAPCNFFPSA
  • Molecule Role : Virmugen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : Researchers generated a series of woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) X mutants. Woodchucks inoculated with X mutants, including those with no serologic evidence of infection, were protected from later challenge with infectious Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus, suggesting previous infection with resulting protective immunity (Zhang et al., 2001).
  • Related Vaccine(s): Hepatitis B virus X protein mutant vaccine
4. Hepatitis B surface antigen
  • Gene Name : Hepatitis B surface antigen
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Hepatitis B virus strain MonB04-059
  • VO ID : VO_0011093
  • NCBI Protein GI : 128168861
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:109739
  • Taxonomy ID : 10407
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : hepatitis B surface antigen
  • Protein Length : 132
  • Protein Note : genotype D
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|128168861|dbj|BAF48754.1| hepatitis B surface antigen [Hepatitis B virus]
    NFLGGTTVCLGQNSQSPTSNHSPTSCPPTCPGYRWMCLRRFIIFLFILLLCLIFLLVLLDYQGMLPVCPL
    IPGSSTTSTGPCRTCTTPAQGTSMYPSCCCTKPSDGNCTCIPIPSSWAFGKFLWEWASARFS
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : Study compared a current HBV vaccine that contains recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen HBsAg) adsorbed to alum in chimpanzees, with two novel vaccine strategies that have proven superior to the current vaccine in mice. All animals receiving either control or CpG-containing subunit vaccines at 0 and 4 weeks attained titers of HBsAg-specific antibody (anti-HBs) considered protective (> or =10 mIU/ml) and were indeed protected from challenge at 8 weeks with 10(3.5) 50% chimp infectious doses (CID(50)) of intravenous HBV (Payette et al., 2006).
5. Large S protein
  • Gene Name : Large S protein
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Duck hepatitis B virus isolate CH6
  • NCBI Protein GI : 169116569
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:109739
  • Taxonomy ID : 12639
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : large S protein
  • Protein Length : 367
  • Protein Note : Major surface antigen from hepadnavirus; pfam00695
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|169116569|gb|ACA42588.1| large S protein [Duck hepatitis B virus]
    MKQESFISGYLNIWSHLKVSLIIGNSNTLSINITFMMGQHPAKSMDVRRIEGGEILLNQLAGRMIPKGTL
    TWSGKFPTLDHVLDHVQTMEEINTLQNQGAWPAGAGRRVGLSNPTPQEIPQPQWTPEEDQKAREAFRRYQ
    EERPPETTTIPPSSPPQWKLQPGDDPLLGNQSLLETHPLYQYTEPEPAVPVIKTPPLKKKMSGTFGGILA
    GLIGLLVSFFLLIKILEILRRLDWWWISLSSPKGKMQCAFQDTGAQISPHYVGSCPWGCPGFLWTYLRLF
    IIFLLILLVAAGLLYLTDNGSTILGKLQWASVSALFSSISSLLPSDPKSLVALTFGLSLIWMTSSSATQT
    LVTLTQLVTLSALFYKS
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Related Vaccine(s): Hepatitis B virus DNA vaccine encoding HBVgp2 pre-S1/pre-S2/S
6. PreS2 middle surface protein
  • Gene Name : PreS2 middle surface protein
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Hepatitis B virus
  • VO ID : VO_0011094
  • NCBI Protein GI : 113207330
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:109739
  • Taxonomy ID : 10407
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : preS2 middle surface protein
  • Protein Length : 281
  • Protein Note : sub-genotype: A3
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|113207330|emb|CAJ75787.1| preS2 middle surface protein [Hepatitis B virus]
    MQWNSTAFHQALQDPRVRGLYFPAGGSSSGTVSPVPNIASHISSISSRTGDPAPTMENITSGFLGPLLVL
    QAGFFLLTRILTIPQSLDSWWTSLNFLGGSPVCLGQNSQSPTSNHSPTSCPPICPGYRWMCLRRFIIFLF
    ILLLCLIFLLVLLDYQGMLPVCPLIPGSTTTSTGPCRTCTTPAQGNSMFPSCCCTKPTDGNCTCIPIPSS
    WAFAKYLWEWASVRFSWLSLLVPFVQWFVGLSPTVWLSAIWMMWYWGPSLYNILSPFIPLLPIFFCLWVY
    I
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : The immunological protection of pVAX-PS, a DNA vaccine, was assessed in the tree shrews model. pVAX-PS was constructed by inserting the gene encoding the middle (pre-S2 plus S) envelope protein of HBV into a plasmid vector pVAX1. Results indicated that pVAX-PS immunization could induce remarkable humoral immune response and prevent the experimental tree shrews from infection of HBV (Zhou et al., 2003).
  • Related Vaccine(s): Hepatitis B virus DNA vaccine pVAX-PS
7. PreS2+S (Middle protein)
  • Gene Name : PreS2+S (Middle protein)
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Hepatitis B virus strain ayw
  • NCBI Protein GI : 71794216
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:109739
  • Taxonomy ID : 10407
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Length : 281
  • Protein Note : Major surface antigen from hepadnavirus; pfam00695
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|71794216|emb|CAJ21096.1| unnamed protein product [Hepatitis B virus]
    MQWNSTTFHQTLQDPRVRGLYFPAGGSSSGTVNPVLTTASPLSSIFSRIGDPALNMENITSGFLGPLLVL
    QAGFFLLTRILTIPQSLDSWWTSLNFLGGTTVCLGQNSQSPTSNHSPTSCPPTCPGYRWMCLRRFIIFLF
    ILLLCLIFLLVLLDYQGMLPVCPLIPGSSTTSTGPCRTCMTTAQGTSMYPSCCCTKPSDGNCTCIPIPSS
    WAFGKFLWEWASARFSWLSLLVPFVQWFVGLSPTVWLSVIWMMWYWGPSLYSILSPFLPLLPIFFCLWVY
    I
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Related Vaccine(s): Hepatitis B DNA vaccine pCMV-S2.S encoding the HBV(ayw Strain) envelope protein.
8. S protein from Duck Hepatitis B virus
  • Gene Name : S protein from Duck Hepatitis B virus
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Duck hepatitis B virus strain GD3
  • NCBI Protein GI : 44829150
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:109739
  • Taxonomy ID : 12639
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : S protein
  • Protein Length : 167
  • Protein Note : Major surface antigen from hepadnavirus; pfam00695
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|44829150|gb|AAS47829.1| S protein [Duck hepatitis B virus]
    MSGTFGGILAGLIGLLVSFFLLIKILEILRRLDWWWISLSSPKGKMQCAFQETGAQTSPHYVGSCPWGCP
    GFLWTYLRLFIIFLLILLVAAGLLYLTDNGSTILGKLQWASVSALFSSISSLLPSDQKSLVALMFGLLLI
    WMTSSSATQTLVTLTQLATLSALFYKS
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Related Vaccine(s): Duck hepatitis B DNA vaccine pcDNA I-S encoding small S proteins
9. Small envelope antigen
  • Gene Name : Small envelope antigen
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Hepatitis B virus subtype adr
  • NCBI Protein GI : 267364
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:109739
  • Taxonomy ID : 31513
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : Small envelope protein
  • Protein Length : 226
  • Protein Note : S glycoprotein; S-HBsAg; Small S protein; Small surface protein; SHB
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|267364|sp|P30019.1|HBSAG_HBVC6 RecName: Full=Small envelope protein; AltName: Full=S glycoprotein; AltName: Full=S-HBsAg; Short=SHB; AltName: Full=Small S protein; AltName: Full=Small surface protein
    MENTASGFLGPLLVLQAGFFLLTRILTIPQSLDSWWTSLNFLGGAPTCPGQNSQSPTSNHSPTSCPPICP
    GYRWMCLRRFIIFLFILLLCLIFLLVLLDYHGMLPVCPLLPGTSTTSTGPCKTCTIPAQGTSMFPSCCCT
    KPSDGNCTCIPIPSSWAFARFLWEWASVRFSWLSLLVPFVQWFVGLSPTVWLSVIWMMWYWGPSLYNILS
    PFLPLLPIFFCLWVYI
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Related Vaccine(s): Hepatitis B DNA vaccine PLGA–CTAB–DNA encoding the small envelope gene
10. Small S protein
  • Gene Name : Small S protein
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Hepatitis B virus strain ayw
  • NCBI Protein GI : 461940451
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:216066
  • Taxonomy ID : 10407
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : small S protein
  • Protein Length : 226
  • Protein Note : genotype: B
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|461940451|gb|AGH20418.1| small S protein [Hepatitis B virus]
    MENISSGLLGPLLVLQAGFFLLTKILTIPQSLDSWWTSLNFLGGTPVCLGQNSQSQISSHSPTCCPPTCP
    GYRWMCLRRFIIFLCILLLCLIFLLVLLDYQGMLPVCPLIPGSSTTSTGPCRTCTTPAQGTSLFPSCCCT
    KPTDGNCTCIPIPSSWAFAKYLWEWASVRFSWLSLLVPFVQWFVGHSPTVWLSVIWMMWFWGPSLYNILS
    PFIPLLPIFFCLWVYI
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Related Vaccine(s): Hepatitis B DNA vaccine pCMV-S2.S encoding the HBV(ayw Strain) envelope protein.
III. Vaccine Information
1. COMVAX
a. Product Name:
Haemophilus b Conjugate (Meningococcal Protein Conjugate) and Hepatitis B (Recombinant) Vaccine
b. Tradename:
COMVAX
c. Manufacturer:
Merck & Co., Inc
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000028
e. CDC CVX code:
51
f. Type:
Conjugate vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA (License #0002)
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
k. Storage
Store vaccine at 2-8°C (36-46*F). Storage above or belew the recommended temperature may reduce potency. DO NOT FREEZE since freezing destroys potency (FDA COMVAX).
2. Duck hepatitis B DNA vaccine pcDNA I-S encoding small S proteins
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004353
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Duck
e. Antigen
S protein from DHBV Australian strain (Triyatni et al., 1998)
f. Gene Engineering of S protein from Duck Hepatitis B virus
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Vector:
pcDNA I/Amp (Triyatni et al., 1998)
h. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
i. Ducks Response
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: The S-DNA vaccine was able to elicit humoral immune responses against DHBV surface proteins in ducks. In addition, The S-DNA vaccine induced high titers of anti-DHBs antibodies, and anti-S antibodies induced by the S-DNA construct were highly effective in neutralizing virus infectivity. (Triyatni et al., 1998).
  • Efficacy: Vaccination of ducks with S DNA vaccines prevented the development of viremia following virus challenge. All ducks were challenged with a high-titer dose of DHBV virus. Preincubation of the virus with 5, 10, or, 20 μl of anti-S serum at 37°C for 1 hour prior to i.v. inoculation into 1-day-old ducklings completely prevented the development of viremia during a 4-week observation period in all of the ducks (Triyatni et al., 1998).
3. Engerix-B
a. Product Name:
Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)
b. Tradename:
Engerix-B
c. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010711
e. CDC CVX code:
08, 44
f. Type:
Subunit vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA (License #1617)
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Antigen
Hepatitis B surface antigen
k. Adjuvant: aluminum hydroxide vaccine adjuvant
l. Preparation
ENGERIX-B contains purified surface antigen of the virus obtained by culturing genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, which carry the surface antigen gene of the hepatitis B virus. The surface antigen expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells is purified by several physicochemical steps and formulated as a suspension of the antigen adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide. Each 0.5-mL dose contains 10 mcg of hepatitis B surface antigen adsorbed on 0.25 mg aluminum as aluminum hydroxide (FDA: ENGERIX-B).
m. Storage
Store refrigerated between 2° and 8°C (36° and 46°F). Do not freeze.
n . Approved Age for Licensed Use
All ages
o. Contraindication
ENGERIX-B should not be administered to anyone with known hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine, including yeast and any previous hypersensitivity to any hepatitis B-containing vaccine.
p. Description
ENGERIX-B is a sterile suspension of noninfectious hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) for intramuscular administration. It is manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals. It is licensed for human use in USA (FDA: ENGERIX-B).
q. Human Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Many clinical trials were conducted on subjects ranging in ages from 6 months old to 65 years.
  • Side Effects: Side Effects of vaccination with ENGERIX-B include: redness, swelling and pain of the injection site, fever, headache and dizziness
4. HBsAg Liposomal MTP-PE Vaccine
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004239
b. Type:
Subunit vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Antigen
HBsAg (Jain et al., 2009).
e. Adjuvant: MTP-PE Liposomes
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Swiss
  • Vaccination Protocol: Alum-adsorbed antigen, liposomes (with or without MTP-PE and with or without MDP-GDP) with HBsAg antigen or liposomes (with or without MTP-PE and with or without MDP-GDP) without HBsAg antigen, in a dose equivalent to 10 μg HBsAg were injected intramuscularly and recombinant pure HBsAg was used as control. The immunomodulator doses given with each injection were 20 μg of MTP-PE and 10 μg of MDP-GDP. Secondary immunization was done after 4 weeks with the same formulations (Jain et al., 2009).
  • Immune Response: The incorporation of MTP-PE on the liposomal HBsAg increased the stimulation index (SI) four to five times as compared to plain HBsAg solution, and it also induced significantly higher Th1 cellular immune response with a predominant IFN-γ level (Jain et al., 2009).
5. Hepatitis B DNA vaccine pCEA/HBsAg encoding CEA and HBsAg
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004359
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Human
e. Gene Engineering of HbS
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: Vector pcDNA3 expressed carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (Conry et al., 2002).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
pcDNA3 (Conry et al., 2002)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Human Response
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: CEA-specific antibody and lymphoproliferative responses have been reported after vaccination with an anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody mimicking a portion of the CEA molecule in patients with colorectal carcinoma (Conry et al., 2002).
  • Efficacy: Repetitive dosing of pCEA/HBsAg induced HBsAg antibodies in 6 of 8 patients, with protective antibody levels achieved in 4 of these patients. (Conry et al., 2002).
6. Hepatitis B DNA vaccine pCMV-HBs encoding HBsAg
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004358
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse
e. Gene Engineering of HbS
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: Vector pCMV expressed HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) (Davis et al., 1993).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
pCMV (Davis et al., 1993)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Mouse Response
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: The serum concentration of secreted HBsAg after a one-time injection of DNA was sufficient to induce the production of anti-HBsAg 10 days after injection, and the antibody levels continued to increase for up to at least 60 days. Direct intramuscular injection of the plasmid vector encoding the HBsAg leads to secretion of the viral surface protein into the circulation, in the form of empty particles (Davis et al., 1993).
  • Efficacy: A level of 10 mlU/ml of anti-HBsAg antibody is recognized as being sufficient in humans to confer protection against natural Hepatitis B virus infection. This level of antibody response was achieved in 68% of mice vaccinated with the vaccine candidate at two weeks after vaccination. By 8 wks, all mice had >100 mIU anti-HBsAg in their sera, suggesting sufficient vaccine efficacy (Davis et al., 1993).
7. Hepatitis B DNA vaccine pCMV-S2.S encoding the HBV(ayw Strain) envelope protein.
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004360
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Chimpanzee
e. Gene Engineering of PreS2+S (Middle protein)
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Gene Engineering of Small S protein
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Vector:
pcDNA3 (Davis et al., 1996)
h. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
i. Chimpanzee Response
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: Immunization of chimpanzees with HBsAg-expressing plasmid DNA induced specific anti-HBs antibodies. The higher dose of DNA (2 mg) induced significant titers (>100 mIU/ml) of anti-HBs after the initial injection of DNA. These titers never went below the 10 mIU/ml level considered adequate to confer protection (Davis et al., 1996).
  • Efficacy: The outcome of challenge with live HBV of the ayw strain was strongly correlated with the anti-HBs titers. Of the eight chimpanzees with a titer >10 mIU/ml, all were protected from infection except for one, which had the lowest anti-HBs titer at 12 mIU/ml. These findings agree closely with the critical protective level of 10 mIU/ml determined for humans by the Centers for Disease Control (Davis et al., 1996).
8. Hepatitis B DNA vaccine PLGA–CTAB–DNA encoding the small envelope gene
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004352
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse
e. Gene Engineering of Small envelope antigen
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: Vector pVAX(S) expressed the small envelope gene of HBV (He et al., 2005).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
pVAX(S), derived from pVAX1 (He et al., 2005)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Mouse Response
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: PLGA–CTAB–DNA optimizes two key features during antigen presentation, controlled release and targeted delivery, which might be involved in the mechanisms of its augmented immunogenicity and enhanced immunoprotection (He et al., 2005)
  • Challenge Protocol: Challenge with transplanted HBsAg-expressing tumor cells (He et al., 2005).
  • Efficacy: Mice immunized with PLGA–CTAB–pVAX(S) (20 μg per mouse) or naked pVAX(S) (100 μg per mouse) after a challenge of transplanted HBsAg-expressing tumor cells showed weak protection efficacy, resulting in a final survival rate of 10% or 20% at week 15. However, mice immunized with PLGA–CTAB–pVAX(S) at the dose of 100 μg per mouse displayed a strong inhibition on tumor formation and a remarkable improvement in final survival rate (60%) (He et al., 2005).
9. Hepatitis B DNA vaccine pRc/CMV-HBs(S) encoding HBsAg
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004354
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse
e. Gene Engineering of HbS
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: This DNA vaccine expressed the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) (Khatri et al., 2008).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
pCMV-S (Khatri et al., 2008)
g. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
h. Mouse Response
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: When mice are immunized with recombinant HBsAg, the main type of immune response generated is the antibody response. However, a Th1/CTL response was also elicited, which is important to facilitate eradication of HBV infection and can be utilized for therapeutic immunization of HBV chronic carriers (Khatri et al., 2008).
  • Efficacy: Nasal administration of nanoparticles resulted in serum anti-HBsAg titre that was less compared to that elicited by naked DNA and alum adsorbed HBsAg, but the mice were seroprotective within 2 weeks and the immunoglobulin level was above the clinically protective level (>10 mIU/ml) suggesting successful generation of systemic immunity. Levels of 1 and 10 mIU/ml are well-established standards for anti-HBs antibody levels in mice and humans, respectively and are considered sufficient to confer protection against the disease (Khatri et al., 2008).
10. Hepatitis B DNA vaccine pS encoding major envelope proteins
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004357
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse
e. Gene Engineering of Envelope proteins
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: Vector pcDNA3 expressed HBV major envelope proteins (Chow et al., 1998).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
pcDNA3 (Chow et al., 1998)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Mouse Response
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: Coexpression of IL-2 and hepatitis B virus HBV^3 envelope protein within the same plasmid vector resulted in a dramatic increase in its ability to induce humoral and cellular immune responses to HBsAg. Also, the IL-2 adjuvant activity helps the HBV DNA vaccine elicit high anti-HBs titers in animals that usually fail to respond to rHBsAg vaccination (Chow et al., 1998)
  • Efficacy: Four of five mice immunized with pS + pcDNA3 and challenged with CT26/S showed an inhibition of tumor growth. The protective efficacy was dramatically increased when the IL-12 gene was coinjected with plasmid pS because tumor growth was significantly suppressed, and two of five mice remained tumor free up to 60 days following tumor challenge (Chow et al., 1998).
11. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with JVRS-1000
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004260
b. Type:
Subunit vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Antigen
Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (Morrey et al., 2011).
e. Adjuvant: cationic liposome-DNA complex JVRS-100
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: C57BL/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: HBV transgenic mice were vaccinated with HBsAg (i.m., 5 μg), or HBsAg plus JVRS-100 (i.v., 10 μg) in female C57BL/6 mice (>6 weeks). Animals were treated on days 1, 22, and 43 (Morrey et al., 2011).
  • Immune Response: JVRS-100 combined with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) broke tolerance by stimulating significant B and T cell responses. The combination of HBsAg + JVRS-100 elicited a T cell response as indicated by increased levels of IFN-γ in splenocyte cell-culture supernatant (Morrey et al., 2011).
12. Hepatitis B virus DNA vaccine encoding HBVgp2 pre-S1/pre-S2/S
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011411
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Antigen
Hepatitis B virus HBVgp2 pre-S1/pre-S2/S
e. Gene Engineering of Large S protein
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: The pCI expression vector (Promega, Charbonières, France) was used to clone the entire DHBV large envelope gene into Not I polylinker site leading to the pCI-preS/S plasmid [5] and the DHBV core gene leading to pCI-C plasmid (Thermet, submitted). The pCI-preS/S, pCI-C and the native pCI plasmids were purified by Endotoxin Free Giga prep (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) (Thermet et al., 2003).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
pCI expression vector (Promega, Charbonières, France)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Ducks Response
  • Host Strain: Pekin
  • Vaccination Protocol: Four-week-old ducks received intramuscular (i.m.) injections of 100–300 μg of plasmid DNA diluted in NaCl 0.9%. The birds were injected in three sites (anterior quadriceps of both legs and breast), and booster doses were given 3 weeks later at the same sites (Thermet et al., 2003).
  • Challenge Protocol: Progeny ducklings received a high titre DHBV challenge and the viremia was followed by quantitative dot blot hybridisation for each animal during 17 days (Thermet et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: Immunisation with a plasmid encoding the DHBV large (L) envelope protein (HBVgp2 pre-S1/pre-S2/S) induced a strong, specific, highly neutralising and long-lasting anti-preS humoral response in uninfected ducks. Importantly, maternal antibodies elicited by such DNA immunisation were vertically transmitted and protected progeny against viral challenge (Thermet et al., 2003).
13. Hepatitis B virus DNA vaccine pVAX-PS
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011404
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Antigen
Hepatitis B virus preS2 middle surface protein
e. Gene Engineering of PreS2 middle surface protein
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: pVAXPS was constructed by inserting the gene encoding the middle (pre-S2 plus S) envelope protein of HBV into a plasmid vector pVAX1 (Zhou et al., 2003).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
Plasmid vector pVAX1
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Tree shrew Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Sixty adult tree shrews purchased from the Kunming Animal Institute were randomly divided into four groups and immunized twice at 2-week intervals with the DNA vaccine by i.m. injection of 100 mg of pVAX-PS or pVAX1 in a volume of 100 ml in bilateral quadriceps (Zhou et al., 2003).
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the second DNA immunization, tree shrews in two groups (immunized with pVAX-PS and pVAX1, respectively) were challenged through the caudal vein with 0.8 ml of the patient’s serum positive for the HBV marker (Zhou et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: The immunological protection of pVAX-PS, a DNA vaccine, was assessed in the tree shrews model. pVAX-PS was constructed by inserting the gene encoding the middle (pre-S2 plus S) envelope protein of HBV into a plasmid vector pVAX1. Results indicated that pVAX-PS immunization could induce remarkable humoral immune response and prevent the experimental tree shrews from infection of HBV (Zhou et al., 2003).
14. Hepatitis B virus X protein mutant vaccine
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002969
b. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Woodchuck
e. Gene Engineering of HBVgp3 X protein
f. Immunization Route
Intrahepatic immunization
g. Woodchuck Response
  • Persistence: An X protein mutant is attenuated in woodchucks (Zhang et al., 2001).
  • Efficacy: An X protein mutant induces significant protection in woodchucks from challenge with wild type Hepatitis B virus (Zhang et al., 2001).
15. Infanrix-hexa
a. Product Name:
Combined diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B (recombinant), inactivated poliomyelitis and adsorbed conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine
b. Tradename:
Infanrix-hexa
c. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010719
e. Type:
Subunit vaccine + Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
f. Status:
Licensed
g. Location Licensed:
Canada
h. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
i. Adjuvant: aluminum hydroxide vaccine adjuvant
j. Adjuvant: aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvant
k. Preservative:
2 phenoxy ethanol
l. Allergen:
Polymyxin B Neomycin, Latex in plunger stopper of prefilled syringe
m. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
n. Storage
Should be stored at 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F).
o . Approved Age for Licensed Use
Under 7 years of age.
p. Description
Products: Proteins + killed viruses + conjugate. Other components: Yeast protein Formaldehyde, Lactose, Polysorbate 20 and 80.
16. Pediarix
a. Product Name:
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Hepatitis B (Recombinant) and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Combined
b. Tradename:
Pediarix
c. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000082
e. CDC CVX code:
110
f. Type:
Subunit vaccine + Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA (License #1617), Canada
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Adjuvant: aluminum hydroxide vaccine adjuvant
k. Preservative:
2 phenoxy ethanol
l. Allergen:
Polymyxin B Neomycin, Latex in plunger stopper of prefilled syringe
m. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
n. Storage
The vaccine should be refrigerated between 2º and 8ºC (36º and 46ºF). Do not freeze.
o . Approved Age for Licensed Use
PEDIARIX is indicated for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), all known subtypes of hepatitis B virus, and poliomyelitis caused by poliovirus Types 1, 2, and 3 as a three-dose primary series in infants born of HBsAg-negative mothers, beginning as early as 6 weeks of age. PEDIARIX should not be administered to any infant before the age of 6 weeks, or to individuals 7 years of age or older (FDA: Pediarix).
p. Description
Products: Proteins + killed virus. Other components: Yeast protein Formaldehyde, Polysorbate 80.
17. recombinant S gene Hepatitis B Vaccine with rIFN-gamma
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004251
b. Type:
Subunit vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Antigen
Recombinant S gene of hepatitis B (Quiroga et al., 1990).
e. Adjuvant: recombinant hIFN-gamma/Interferon-g vaccine adjuvant
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Human Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: 81 adult white hemodialysis patients (46 men, 35 women aged 19-65 yrs) with no serological evidence of immunity to hepatitis B were used in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Group I comprised 41 patients who recieved 40μg of recombinant (S gene) hepatitis B vaccine by i.m. injection and 0,1, and 6 months. Group II comprised 40 patients who received 40 μg of recombinant (S gene) hepatitis B vaccine given intramuscularly with 2 million units (MU) of rIFN-gamma/m^2 body surface given subcutaneously at 0,1, and 6 months (Quiroga et al., 1990).
  • Immune Response: The titers of anti-HBs achieved among patients who received vaccine and rIFN-gamma were higher than among those receiving the vaccine alone (Quiroga et al., 1990).
18. Recombivax HB
a. Product Name:
Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)
b. Tradename:
Recombivax HB
c. Manufacturer:
Merck & Co, Inc
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010737
e. CDC CVX code:
08, 43,
f. Type:
Subunit vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA (License #0002)
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Antigen
Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) produced in yeast cells.
k. Adjuvant: aluminum hydroxide vaccine adjuvant
l. Preparation
RECOMBIVAX HB is a sterile suspension for intramuscular injection. It is a non-infectious subunit viral vaccine derived from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) produced in yeast cells. A portion of the hepatitis B virus gene, coding for HBsAg, is cloned into yeast, and the vaccine for hepatitis B is produced from cultures of this recombinant yeast strain according to methods developed in the Merck Research Laboratories. The antigen is harvested and purified from fermentation cultures of a recombinant strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing the gene for the adw subtype of HBsAg (Merck: Recombivax HB).
m. Storage
Store vials and syringes at 2-8°C (36-46°F). Do not freeze.
n . Approved Age for Licensed Use
All ages
o. Contraindication
RECOMBIVAX-HB should not be administered to anyone with a known hypersensitivity to yeast or any component of the vaccine.
p. Human Response
  • Side Effects: Side effects included: pain, redness and swelling of the injection site, fatigue, fever, headache and nausea.
19. Twinrix
a. Product Name:
Hepatitis A Inactivated & Hepatitis B (Recombinant) Vaccine
b. Tradename:
Twinrix
c. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000113
e. CDC CVX code:
104
f. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA (License #1617), Canada
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Allergen:
Neomycin, latex
k. Preparation
TWINRIX is a sterile suspension of inactivated hepatitis A virus (strain HM175) propagated in MRC-5 cells, and combined with purified surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus.
l. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
m. Storage
TWINRIX should be refrigerated between 2° and 8° C (36° and 46° F). Do not freeze.
n . Approved Age for Licensed Use
Ages 18 and older
o. Contraindication
TWINRIX should not be administered to anyone with known hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine, including yeast and neomycin and in patients with previous hypersensitivity to TWINRIX or monovalent hepatitis A or hepatitis B vaccines (FDA: TWINRIX).
p. Human Response
  • Immune Response: In clinical trials, it has been found that combining the hepatitis A antigen with the hepatitis B surface antigen in TWINRIX resulted in comparable anti-HAV or anti-HBsAg titers, relative to vaccination with the individual monovalent vaccines or the concomitant administration of each vaccine in opposite arms (FDA: TWINRIX).
  • Side Effects: Side effects of immunization included: redness, itching and swelling of the injection site, headache and fatigue. Severe adverse effects were limited and resolved in a timely matter.
20. Twinrix Junior
a. Product Name:
Combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine
b. Tradename:
Twinrix Junior
c. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010743
e. Type:
Subunit vaccine + Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
f. Status:
Licensed
g. Location Licensed:
Canada
h. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
i. Preservative:
2 phenoxy ethanol
j. Allergen:
Neomycin, Latex in plunger stopper of pre-filled syringes
k. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
l. Storage
between 2° and 8° C (36° and 46° F). Do not freeze.
m . Approved Age for Licensed Use
Ages 1-18 (FDA: TWINRIX)
n. Description
Products: Recombinant protein + killed virus. Other components: Yeast protein Formaldehyde, Polysorbate 20.
IV. References
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2. Chow et al., 1998: Chow YH, Chiang BL, Lee YL, Chi WK, Lin WC, Chen YT, Tao MH. Development of Th1 and Th2 populations and the nature of immune responses to hepatitis B virus DNA vaccines can be modulated by codelivery of various cytokine genes. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 1998; 160(3); 1320-1329. [PubMed: 9570550].
3. Conry et al., 2002: Conry RM, Curiel DT, Strong TV, Moore SE, Allen KO, Barlow DL, Shaw DR, LoBuglio AF. Safety and immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine encoding carcinoembryonic antigen and hepatitis B surface antigen in colorectal carcinoma patients. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2002; 8(9); 2782-2787. [PubMed: 12231517].
4. Davis et al., 1993: Davis HL, Michel ML, Whalen RG. DNA-based immunization induces continuous secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen and high levels of circulating antibody. Human molecular genetics. 1993; 2(11); 1847-1851. [PubMed: 8281146].
5. Davis et al., 1996: Davis HL, McCluskie MJ, Gerin JL, Purcell RH. DNA vaccine for hepatitis B: evidence for immunogenicity in chimpanzees and comparison with other vaccines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1996; 93(14); 7213-7218. [PubMed: 8692971].
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7. FDA: COMVAX: FDA: COMVAX [http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm174757.htm]
8. FDA: ENGERIX-B: FDA: ENGERIX-B I [http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm110102.htm]
9. FDA: Pediarix: FDA: Pediarix [http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm146759.htm]
10. FDA: RECOMBIVAX HB: FDA: RECOMBIVAX HB [http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm110098.htm]
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16. Kwissa et al., 2003: Kwissa M, Kröger A, Hauser H, Reimann J, Schirmbeck R. Cytokine-facilitated priming of CD8+ T cell responses by DNA vaccination. Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany). 2003; 81(2); 91-9101. [PubMed: 12601525].
17. Merck: Recombivax HB: Merck: Recombivax HB vaccine information [http://www.merck.com/product/usa/pi_circulars/r/recombivax_hb/recombivax_pi.pdf]
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26. Wang et al., 2000: Wang S, Liu X, Fisher K, Smith JG, Chen F, Tobery TW, Ulmer JB, Evans RK, Caulfield MJ. Enhanced type I immune response to a hepatitis B DNA vaccine by formulation with calcium- or aluminum phosphate. Vaccine. 2000; 18(13); 1227-1235. [PubMed: 10649624].
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29. Zhang et al., 2001: Zhang Z, Torii N, Hu Z, Jacob J, Liang TJ. X-deficient woodchuck hepatitis virus mutants behave like attenuated viruses and induce protective immunity in vivo. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2001; 108(10); 1523-1531. [PubMed: 11714744].
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33. Zinckgraf and Silbart, 2003: Zinckgraf JW, Silbart LK. Modulating gene expression using DNA vaccines with different 3'-UTRs influences antibody titer, seroconversion and cytokine profiles. Vaccine. 2003; 21(15); 1640-1649. [PubMed: 12639485].