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Rabies virus

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Microbial Pathogenesis
    5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. glycoprotein (Other)
    2. G (Protective antigen)
    3. gp (Protective antigen)
    4. M (Protective antigen)
    5. RABVgp1 nucleoprotein N (Protective antigen)
    6. Glycoprotein G (Virmugen)
    7. P protein (Virmugen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. AdC68- rabies virus glycoprotein
    2. ALVAC-rabies
    3. ALVAC-RV
    4. BV-RVG/RVG
    5. Canine Distemper-Adenovirus Type 2-Parainfluenza-Parvovirus-Rabies Modified Live & Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 13G9.20)
    6. Canine Distemper-Adenovirus Type 2-Parvovirus-Rabies Modified Live & Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 13H9.20)
    7. Feline Rhinotracheitis-Calici-Panleukopenia-Chlamydia Psittaci-Rabies Modified Live & Killed Virus, Modified Live Chlamydia Vaccine (USDA: 1619.20)
    8. Feline Rhinotracheitis-Calici-Panleukopenia-Chlamydia Psittaci-Rabies Modified Live Virus and Chlamydia, Canarypox Vector Vaccine (USDA: 1619.R1)
    9. Feline Rhinotracheitis-Calici-Panleukopenia-Rabies Modified Live & Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 16T9.20)
    10. Feline Rhinotracheitis-Calici-Panleukopenia-Rabies Modified Live Virus, Canarypox Vector Vaccine (USDA: 16T9.R0)
    11. Imovax Rabies
    12. Purevax Feline Rabies
    13. RabAvert
    14. Rabies DNA Vaccine encoding Rabies virus Glycoprotein
    15. Rabies Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1905.20)
    16. Rabies Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1905.21)
    17. Rabies Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1905.22)
    18. Rabies Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1905.23)
    19. Rabies Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1905.24)
    20. Rabies Killed Virus Vaccine-Ehrlichia Risticii Bacterin (USDA: 4905.20)
    21. Rabies Live Canarypox Vector Vaccine (USDA: 1901.R1)
    22. Rabies Live Canarypox Vector Vaccine (USDA: 1901.R6)
    23. Rabies Live Vaccinia Vector Vaccine (USDA: 1901.R0)
    24. Rabies Vaccine Adsorbed (RVA)
    25. Rabies vaccine rVac-N
    26. Rabies virus DNA vaccine encoding the ERA glycoprotein
    27. Rabies virus DNA vaccine pCMV-intA-rabies encoding glycoprotein G
    28. Rabies virus DNA vaccine pSG5rab.gp
    29. Rabies virus glycoprotein G mutant vaccine
    30. Rabies virus P protein mutant vaccine
    31. Raboral
    32. RCN-rabies-G
    33. rLSDV-Rabies-gP
    34. rORFV-RabG
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
11292
2. Disease:
Rabies
3. Introduction
Rabies virus is a member of the Lyssavirus genus. The virus has a bullet-like shape with a length of about 180 nm and a cross-sectional diameter of about 75 nm (Wiki: Rabies).
4. Microbial Pathogenesis
The virus is usually present in the nerves and saliva of a symptomatic rabid animal. The route of infection is usually by a bite. The infected animal is often exceptionally aggressive. Transmission may also occur via an aerosol through mucous membranes. After a typical human infection by bite, the virus enters the peripheral nervous system. It then travels along the nerves towards the central nervous system. Once the virus reaches the brain, it rapidly causes encephalitis. Rabies may also inflame the spinal cord producing myelitis (Wiki: Rabies).
5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
Most animals can be infected by the virus and can transmit the disease to humans. Infected bats, monkeys, raccoons, foxes, skunks, cattle, wolves, dogs or cats provide the greatest risk to humans. Rabies may also spread through exposure to infected domestic farm animals, groundhogs, weasels and other wild carnivores. Rodents (mice, squirrels etc) are seldom infected (Wiki: Rabies).
1. G
  • Gene Name : G
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Rabies virus
  • VO ID : VO_0011231
  • NCBI Protein GI : 56384945
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:279337
  • Taxonomy ID : 11292
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : glycoprotein
  • Protein pI : 7.66
  • Protein Weight : 55317.81
  • Protein Length : 578
  • Protein Note : Rhabdovirus spike glycoprotein; pfam00974
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >AAV85905.1 glycoprotein [Rabies lyssavirus]
    MVPQALLFVPFLGFSLCFGKFPIYTIPDKLGPWSPIDIHHLSCPNNLVVEDEGCTNLSGFSYLELKVGHI
    SAIKVNGFTCTGVVTEAETYTNFVGYVTTTFKRKHFRPTPDACRAAYNWKTAGDPRYEESLQNPYPDYQW
    LRTVRTTKESLVIISPSAADLDPYDKSLHSRVFPSGKCSGITVSSVYCSTNHDYTIWMPENPRQGMSCDI
    FTNSRGKRASKERKTCGFVDERGLYKSLRGSCKLKLCGVLGLRLMDGTWVAMQTSNETKWCSPDQLVNLH
    DFHSDEIEHLVVEELVKKREECLDALESIMTTKSVSFRRLSHLRKLVPGFGKAYTIINKTLMEAEAHYKS
    VRTWNEIVPSKGCLRVEGRCHPHVNGVFFNGIILGPDGHVLIPEMQSSLLQQHMELLESSVIPLMHPLAD
    PSTVFKEGDEAEDFVEVHFPDVHKKVSEVDLGLPNWGEYVLLSAGTLIALMLIIFLMICRRRVNRPESTQ
    RSLRGTEMKVSVTPQSGKFKSSWESYKSGDEARL
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : A DNA vaccine based on lysosome-targeted glycoprotein of the rabies virus was evaluated in BALB/c mice. It imparted partial protection (60%) against challenge with 20 LD(50) of the challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of rabies virus (Kaur et al., 2010).
  • Related Vaccine(s): AdC68- rabies virus glycoprotein , Rabies DNA Vaccine encoding Rabies virus Glycoprotein , Rabies virus DNA vaccine pCMV-intA-rabies encoding glycoprotein G
2. glycoprotein
  • Gene Name : glycoprotein
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Rabies virus ERA
  • NCBI Protein GI : 156446052
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:110007
  • Taxonomy ID : 11292
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : glycoprotein
  • Protein Length : 505
  • Protein Note : laboratory stock
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|156446052|gb|ABK27940.2| glycoprotein [Rabies virus]
    KFPIYTIPDKLGPWSPIDIHHLSCPNNLVVEDEGCTNLSGFSYMELKVGYILAIKMNGFTCTGVVTEAET
    YTNFVGYVTTTFKRKHFRPTPDACRAAYNWKMAGDPRYEESLHNPYPDYRWLRTVKTTKESLVIISPSVA
    DLDPYDRSLHSRVFPSGKCSGVAVSSTYCSTNHDYTIWMPENPRLGMSCDIFTNSRGKRASKGSETCGFV
    DERGLYKSLKGACKLKLCGVLGLRLMDGTWVAMQTSNETKWCPPDQLVNLHDFRSDEIEHLVVEELVRKR
    EECLDALESIMTTKSVSFRRLSHLRKLVPGFGKAYTIFNKTLMEADAHYKSVRTWNEILPSKGCLRVGGR
    CHPHVNGVFFNGIILGPDGNVLIPEMQSSLLQQHMELLESSVIPLVHPLADPSTVFKDGDEAEDFVEVHL
    PDVHNQVSGVDLGLPNWGKYVLLSAGALTALMLIIFLMTCCRRVNRSEPTQHNLRGTGREVSVTPQSGKI
    ISSWESHKSGGETRL
  • Molecule Role : Other
  • Related Vaccine(s): Rabies virus DNA vaccine encoding the ERA glycoprotein , Rabies virus DNA vaccine pSG5rab.gp
3. Glycoprotein G
  • Gene Name : Glycoprotein G
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Rabies virus
  • NCBI Gene ID : 1489856
  • NCBI Protein GI : 9627201
  • Locus Tag : RABVgp4
  • Genbank Accession : M13215
  • Protein Accession : NP_056796
  • Taxonomy ID : 11292
  • Gene Starting Position : 3290
  • Gene Ending Position : 4963
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : +
  • Protein Name : mRNA
  • Protein pI : 7.51
  • Protein Weight : 54466.92
  • Protein Length : 524
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|9627197:3290-4963 Rabies virus, complete genome
    TAACATCCCTCAAAAGACTCAAGGAAAGATGGTTCCTCAGGCTCTCCTGTTTGTACCCCTTCTGGTTTTT
    CCATTGTGTTTTGGGAAATTCCCTATTTACACGATACCAGACAAGCTTGGTCCCTGGAGCCCGATTGACA
    TACATCACCTCAGCTGCCCAAACAATTTGGTAGTGGAGGACGAAGGATGCACCAACCTGTCAGGGTTCTC
    CTACATGGAACTTAAAGTTGGATACATCTCAGCCATAAAAATGAACGGGTTCACTTGCACAGGCGTTGTG
    ACGGAGGCTGAAACCTACACTAACTTCGTTGGTTATGTCACAACCACGTTCAAAAGAAAGCATTTCCGCC
    CAACACCAGATGCATGTAGAGCCGCGTACAACTGGAAGATGGCCGGTGACCCCAGATATGAAGAGTCTCT
    ACACAATCCGTACCCTGACTACCACTGGCTTCGAACTGTAAAAACCACCAAGGAGTCTCTCGTTATCATA
    TCTCCAAGTGTGGCAGATTTGGACCCATATGACAGATCCCTTCACTCGAGGGTCTTCCCTGGCGGGAATT
    GCTCAGGAGTAGCGGTGTCTTCTACCTACTGCTCCACTAACCACGATTACACCATTTGGATGCCCGAGAA
    TCCGAGACTAGGGATGTCTTGTGACATTTTTACCAATAGTAGAGGGAAGAGAGCATCCAAAGGGAGTGAG
    ACTTGCGGCTTTGTAGATGAAAGAGGCCTATATAAGTCTTTAAAAGGAGCATGCAAACTCAAGTTATGTG
    GAGTTCTAGGACTTAGACTTATGGATGGAACATGGGTCGCGATGCAAACATCAAATGAAACCAAATGGTG
    CCCTCCCGGTCAGTTGGTGAATTTGCACGACTTTCGCTCAGACGAAATTGAGCACCTTGTTGTAGAGGAG
    TTGGTCAAGAAGAGAGAGGAGTGTCTGGATGCACTAGAGTCCATCATGACCACCAAGTCAGTGAGTTTCA
    GACGTCTCAGTCATTTAAGAAAACTTGTCCCTGGGTTTGGAAAAGCATATACCATATTCAACAAGACCTT
    GATGGAAGCCGATGCTCACTACAAGTCAGTCAGAACTTGGAATGAGATCATCCCTTCAAAAGGGTGTTTA
    AGAGTTGGGGGGAGGTGTCATCCTCATGTAAACGGGGTATTTTTCAATGGTATAATATTAGGACCTGACG
    GCAATGTCTTAATCCCAGAGATGCAATCATCCCTCCTCCAGCAACATATGGAGTTGTTGGTATCCTCGGT
    TATCCCCCTTATGCACCCCCTGGCAGACCCGTCTACCGTTTTCAAGAACGGTGACGAGGCTGAGGATTTT
    GTTGAAGTTCACCTTCCCGATGTGCACGAACGGATCTCAGGAGTTGACTTGGGTCTCCCGAACTGGGGGA
    AGTATGTATTACTGAGTGCAGGGGCCCTGACTGCCTTGATGTTGATAATTTTCCTGATGACATGCTGGAG
    AAGAGTCAATCGATCGGAACCTACACAACACAATCTCAGAGGGACAGGGAGGGAGGTGTCAGTCACTCCC
    CAAAGCGGGAAGATCATATCTTCATGGGAATCATACAAGAGCGGGGGTGAGACCGGACTGTGAGAGCTGG
    CCGTCCTTTCAACGATCCAAGTCCTGAAGATCACCTCCCCTTGGGGGGTTCTTTTTGAAAAAAA
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|9627201|ref|NP_056796.1| transmembrane glycoprotein G [Rabies virus]
    MVPQALLFVPLLVFPLCFGKFPIYTIPDKLGPWSPIDIHHLSCPNNLVVEDEGCTNLSGFSYMELKVGYI
    SAIKMNGFTCTGVVTEAETYTNFVGYVTTTFKRKHFRPTPDACRAAYNWKMAGDPRYEESLHNPYPDYHW
    LRTVKTTKESLVIISPSVADLDPYDRSLHSRVFPGGNCSGVAVSSTYCSTNHDYTIWMPENPRLGMSCDI
    FTNSRGKRASKGSETCGFVDERGLYKSLKGACKLKLCGVLGLRLMDGTWVAMQTSNETKWCPPGQLVNLH
    DFRSDEIEHLVVEELVKKREECLDALESIMTTKSVSFRRLSHLRKLVPGFGKAYTIFNKTLMEADAHYKS
    VRTWNEIIPSKGCLRVGGRCHPHVNGVFFNGIILGPDGNVLIPEMQSSLLQQHMELLVSSVIPLMHPLAD
    PSTVFKNGDEAEDFVEVHLPDVHERISGVDLGLPNWGKYVLLSAGALTALMLIIFLMTCWRRVNRSEPTQ
    HNLRGTGREVSVTPQSGKIISSWESYKSGGETGL
  • Molecule Role : Virmugen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : A glycoprotein G mutant in rabies virus is attenuated. After a one-dose intramuscular vaccination, the ERAg3m virus protected 100% of mice and hamsters from lethal challenge. In co-infections, using a lethal dose of street rabies virus mixed with ERAg3m, 100% of hamsters and 90% of mice survived and were protected against subsequent infection. (Wu et al., 2011).
  • Related Vaccine(s): BV-RVG/RVG , Rabies virus glycoprotein G mutant vaccine , RCN-rabies-G , rLSDV-Rabies-gP
4. gp
  • Gene Name : gp
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Rabies virus strain CVS
  • NCBI Protein GI : 22553076
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:279337
    GOA:Q8JJY8
    InterPro: IPR001903
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL: Q8JJY8
  • Taxonomy ID : 11292
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : glycoprotein
  • Protein pI : 6.95
  • Protein Weight : 55303.59
  • Protein Length : 578
  • Protein Note : Rhabdovirus spike glycoprotein; pfam00974
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >CAD44953.1 glycoprotein [Rabies lyssavirus]
    MVPQVLLFVLLLGFSLCFGKFPIYTIPDELGPWSPIDIHHLSCPNNLVVEDEGCTNLSEFSYMELKVGYI
    SAIKVNGFTCTGVVTEAETYTNFVGYVTTTFKRKHFRPTPDACRAAYNWKMAGDPRYEESLHNPYPDYHW
    LRTVRTTIESLIIISPSVTDLDPYDKSLHSRVFPGGKCSGITVSSTYCSTNHDYTIWMPENPRPRTPCDI
    FTNSRGKRESNGNKTCGFVDERGLYKSLKGACRLKLCGVLGLRLMDGTWVATQTSDETKWCPPDQLVNLH
    DFRSDEIEHLVVEELVKKREECLDALESIMTTKSVSFRRLSHLRKLVPGFGKAYTIFNKTLMEADAHYKS
    VRTWNEIIPSKGCLKVGGRCHPHVNGVFFNGLILGPDDHVLIPEMQSSLLQQHMELLESSVIPLMHPLAD
    PSTVFKEGDEAEDFVEVHLPDVYKQISGVDLGLPNWGKYVLMTAGAMIGLVLIFSLMTWCRRANRPESKQ
    RSFGGTGGNVSVTSQSGKVIPSWESYKSGGETRL
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
5. M
  • Gene Name : M
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Rabies virus
  • NCBI Protein GI : ANJ04750
  • Taxonomy ID : 11292
  • Protein Name : M protein
  • Protein pI : 6.27
  • Protein Weight : 22381.78
  • Protein Length : 248
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >ANJ04750.1 M protein [Rabies lyssavirus]
    MNFLRKIVKNCRDEDTQKPSLVSAPPDVDDLLLPPPEYVPLKELTGKKNLKNFCINGEVKVCSPNGYSFR
    ILRHILRSFDEIYSGNHRMIGLVKVVIGLALSGAPVPEGMNWVYKLRRTLIFQWADSRGPLEGEELEYSQ
    EITWDDDTEFVGLQIRVSARQCHIQGRIWCINMNSRACQLWSDMSLQTQRSEEDKDSSLLLE
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : (Kang et al., 2015)
6. P protein
  • Gene Name : P protein
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Flury-HEP
  • NCBI Protein GI : 291220682
  • 3D structure: PDB ID : 3L32
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:145910
  • Taxonomy ID : 11292
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : phosphoprotein
  • Protein Length : 297
  • Protein Note : Phosphoprotein; pfam03012
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|291220682|gb|ADD84788.1| phosphoprotein [Rabies virus]
    MSKIFVNPSAIRAGLADLEMAEETVDLINRNIEDNQAHLQGEPIEVDNLPEDMRQFHLDDEKLSNLGEMV
    RVGEGKYREDFQMNEGEDPNLLFQSYLDNVGVQIVRQMRSGERFLKIWSQTVEEIISYVTVNFPNPPGRS
    SEDKSTQTTGRELKKETTSILSQRESQPSKAGMVAQVASGPPSLEWSATNEEDDLSVEAEIAHQIAESFS
    KKYKFPSRSSGIFLYNFEQLEMNLDDIVKEAKNVPGVTRLAHDGSKIPLRCVLGWVALANSKKFQLLVEA
    DKLSKIMQDDLDRYKSC
  • Molecule Role : Virmugen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : A P gene mutant is attenuated in mice and induces significant protection from challenge with wild type Rabies virus (Morimoto et al., 2005).
  • Related Vaccine(s): Rabies virus P protein mutant vaccine
7. RABVgp1 nucleoprotein N
  • Gene Name : RABVgp1 nucleoprotein N
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Rabies lyssavirus
  • VO ID : VO_0011232
  • NCBI Gene ID : 1489853
  • NCBI Protein GI : 9627198
  • Locus Tag : RABVgp1
  • Genbank Accession : M13215
  • Protein Accession : NP_056793
  • Taxonomy ID : 11292
  • Gene Starting Position : 58
  • Gene Ending Position : 1481
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : +
  • Protein Name : mRNA
  • Protein pI : 6.57
  • Protein Weight : 47628.25
  • Protein Length : 450
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >NC_001542.1:58-1481 Rabies virus, complete genome
    TAACACCTCTACAATGGATGCCGACAAGATTGTATTCAAAGTCAATAATCAGGTGGTCTCTTTGAAGCCT
    GAGATTATCGTGGATCAATATGAGTACAAGTACCCTGCCATCAAAGATTTGAAAAAGCCCTGTATAACTC
    TAGGAAAGGCTCCCGATTTAAATAAAGCATACAAGTCAGTTTTATCATGCATGAGCGCCGCCAAACTTGA
    TCCTGACGATGTATGTTCCTATTTGGCGGCGGCAATGCAGTTTTTTGAGGGGACATGTCCGGAAGACTGG
    ACCAGCTATGGAATCGTGATTGCACGAAAAGGAGATAAGATCACCCCAGGTTCTCTGGTGGAGATAAAAC
    GTACTGATGTAGAAGGGAATTGGGCTCTGACAGGAGGCATGGAACTGACAAGAGACCCCACTGTCCCTGA
    GCATGCGTCCTTAGTCGGTCTTCTCTTGAGTCTGTATAGGTTGAGCAAAATATCCGGGCAAAGCACTGGT
    AACTATAAGACAAACATTGCAGACAGGATAGAGCAGATTTTTGAGACAGCCCCTTTTGTTAAAATCGTGG
    AACACCATACTCTAATGACAACTCACAAAATGTGTGCTAATTGGAGTACTATACCAAACTTCAGATTTTT
    GGCCGGAACCTATGACATGTTTTTCTCCCGGATTGAGCATCTATATTCAGCAATCAGAGTGGGCACAGTT
    GTCACTGCTTATGAAGACTGTTCAGGACTGGTGTCATTTACTGGGTTCATAAAACAAATCAATCTCACCG
    CTAGAGAGGCAATACTATATTTCTTCCACAAGAACTTTGAGGAAGAGATAAGAAGAATGTTTGAGCCAGG
    GCAGGAGACAGCTGTTCCTCACTCTTATTTCATCCACTTCCGTTCACTAGGCTTGAGTGGGAAATCTCCT
    TATTCATCAAATGCTGTTGGTCACGTGTTCAATCTCATTCACTTTGTAGGATGCTATATGGGTCAAGTCA
    GATCCCTAAATGCAACGGTTATTGCTGCATGTGCTCCTCATGAAATGTCTGTTCTAGGGGGCTATCTGGG
    AGAGGAATTCTTCGGGAAAGGGACATTTGAAAGAAGATTCTTCAGAGATGAGAAAGAACTTCAAGAATAC
    GAGGCGGCTGAACTGACAAAGACTGACGTAGCACTGGCAGATGATGGAACTGTCAACTCTGACGACGAGG
    ACTACTTCTCAGGTGAAACCAGAAGTCCGGAAGCTGTTTATACTCGAATCATAATGAATGGAGGTCGACT
    GAAGAGATCGCACATACGGAGATATGTCTCAGTCAGTTCCAATCATCAAGCTCGTCCAAACTCATTCGCC
    GAGTTTCTAAACAAGACATATTCGAGTGACTCATAAGAAGTTGAATAACAAAATGCCGGAAATCTACGGA
    TTGTGTATATCCATCATGAAAAAA
    
    
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >NP_056793.1 nucleoprotein N [Rabies lyssavirus]
    MDADKIVFKVNNQVVSLKPEIIVDQYEYKYPAIKDLKKPCITLGKAPDLNKAYKSVLSCMSAAKLDPDDV
    CSYLAAAMQFFEGTCPEDWTSYGIVIARKGDKITPGSLVEIKRTDVEGNWALTGGMELTRDPTVPEHASL
    VGLLLSLYRLSKISGQSTGNYKTNIADRIEQIFETAPFVKIVEHHTLMTTHKMCANWSTIPNFRFLAGTY
    DMFFSRIEHLYSAIRVGTVVTAYEDCSGLVSFTGFIKQINLTAREAILYFFHKNFEEEIRRMFEPGQETA
    VPHSYFIHFRSLGLSGKSPYSSNAVGHVFNLIHFVGCYMGQVRSLNATVIAACAPHEMSVLGGYLGEEFF
    GKGTFERRFFRDEKELQEYEAAELTKTDVALADDGTVNSDDEDYFSGETRSPEAVYTRIIMNGGRLKRSH
    IRRYVSVSSNHQARPNSFAEFLNKTYSSDS
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : Mice vaccinated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 107 p.f.u. of a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing either the glycoprotein (rVac-G) or nucleoprotein (rVac-N) of rabies virus 3 weeks before challenge were protected against peripheral lethal infection (Fujii et al., 1994).
  • Related Vaccine(s): Rabies vaccine rVac-N , rORFV-RabG
III. Vaccine Information
1. AdC68- rabies virus glycoprotein
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004630
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Gene Engineering of G
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description: A plasmid vector, termed pSG5rab.gp, that expresses the rabies virus glycoprotein under the control of an SV40 early promoter (Xiang et al., 1994).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
(Xiang et al., 2014)
g. Preparation
Chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (Xiang et al., 2014).
h. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
i. Monkey Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: An AdC vector control was used at 1011 vp. A commercially available human diploid cell rabies vaccine (HDCV), used intramuscularly at the recommended dose for pre-exposure vaccination, was included. The AdC vector vaccine was only given once, and the HDCV was given three times on days −41, −27 and −20 in relation to the AdC vaccine (Xiang et al., 2014).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: Animals were challenged at 18 weeks after the last vaccine dose with ~106.4 (MICLD)50/ml as calculated via the Spearman–Kaerber method, of a virulent street strain of canine rabies virus (Xiang et al., 2014).
  • Efficacy: The immunization resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model (Xiang et al., 2014).
2. ALVAC-rabies
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004639
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
3. ALVAC-RV
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004728
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Preparation
A non-adjuvanted feline rabies vaccine developed using the canarypoxvirus vector (Jas et al., 2012).
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Cat Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Seronegative cats were vaccinated at 12 weeks of age and received a booster vaccination one year later (Jas et al., 2012).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000287
  • Challenge Protocol: The cats were challenged by inoculation of 1 mL of rabies virus in the neck muscles (0.5 mL on the left and right side of the spine). The inoculum was a homogenate of salivary glands of foxes and each cat received 107.7 mouse Lethal Dose 50, the equivalent of 106.8 CCID50.
  • Efficacy: This vaccination regimen induced a strong and sustained antibody response, and all vaccinated animals were protected against virulent rabies challenge carried out 3 years after vaccination (Jas et al., 2012).
4. BV-RVG/RVG
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004651
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Gene Engineering of Glycoprotein G
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description: The recombinant baculovirus (BV-RVG/RVG) was pseudotyped with the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) and also simultaneously expressed another RVG under the control of the immediate early CMV promoter (Wu et al., 2014).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Preparation
Recombinant baculovirus (BV-RVG/RVG) was pseudotyped with the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) and also simultaneously expressed another RVG under the control of the immediate early CMV promoter (Wu et al., 2014).
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Mouse Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized intramuscularly with 1 × 108 IFU of BV-VSVG/EGFP, BVRVG/EGFP, or BV-RVG/RVG at 3-week interval (Wu et al., 2014).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were challenged intracerebrally with 50 mouse 50% lethal doses (50 LD50) of rabies virus CVS-24 (Wu et al., 2014).
  • Efficacy: Mice immunized with BV-RVG/RVG developed higher levels of virus-neutralizing antibodies, and conferred 100% protection against rabies viral challenge (Wu et al., 2014).
5. Canine Distemper-Adenovirus Type 2-Parainfluenza-Parvovirus-Rabies Modified Live & Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 13G9.20)
a. Manufacturer:
Intervet Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002111
c. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine; Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Gray wolf
6. Canine Distemper-Adenovirus Type 2-Parvovirus-Rabies Modified Live & Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 13H9.20)
a. Manufacturer:
Intervet Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002112
c. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine; Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Gray wolf
7. Feline Rhinotracheitis-Calici-Panleukopenia-Chlamydia Psittaci-Rabies Modified Live & Killed Virus, Modified Live Chlamydia Vaccine (USDA: 1619.20)
a. Manufacturer:
Merial, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001868
c. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine; Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Cat
8. Feline Rhinotracheitis-Calici-Panleukopenia-Chlamydia Psittaci-Rabies Modified Live Virus and Chlamydia, Canarypox Vector Vaccine (USDA: 1619.R1)
a. Manufacturer:
Merial, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001869
c. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Cat
9. Feline Rhinotracheitis-Calici-Panleukopenia-Rabies Modified Live & Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 16T9.20)
a. Manufacturer:
Intervet Inc., Merial, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001870
c. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine; Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Cat
10. Feline Rhinotracheitis-Calici-Panleukopenia-Rabies Modified Live Virus, Canarypox Vector Vaccine (USDA: 16T9.R0)
a. Manufacturer:
Merial, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001871
c. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Cat
11. Imovax Rabies
a. Product Name:
Rabies Vaccine
b. Tradename:
Imovax
c. Manufacturer:
Sanofi Pasteur, SA
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000063
e. CDC CVX code:
18
f. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA (License #1724)
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Antigen
Strain PM-1503-3M obtained from the Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA.
k. Preparation
The virus strain PM-1503-3M obtained from the Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA, is harvested from infected human diploid cells (MRC-5 strain), concentrated by ultrafiltration and is inactivated by beta-propiolactone. One dose of reconstituted vaccine contains less than 100 mg albumin, less than 150 μg neomycin sulfate and 20 μg of phenol red indicator. The vaccine contains no preservative or stabilizer (FDA: Imovax).
l. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
m. Storage
The vaccine should be stored in the refrigerator at 2°C to 8°C (35°F to 46°F). Do not freeze (FDA: Imovax).
n . Approved Age for Licensed Use
all ages
o. Contraindication
For postexposure treatment, there are no known specific contraindications to the use of IMOVAX Vaccine. In cases of pre-exposure immunization, there are no known specific contraindications other than situations such as developing febrile illness etc (FDA: Imovax).
p. Description
Imovax is a sterile, stable, freeze-dried suspension of rabies virus prepared from strain PM-1503-3M obtained from the Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA. This vaccine must only be used intramuscularly and as a single dose vial (FDA: Imovax).
q. Human Response
  • Immune Response: Seroconversion was often obtained with only one dose. With two doses one month apart, 100% of the recipients developed specific antibody (FDA: Imovax).
  • Side Effects: Most common side effects reported in clinical studies included: injection site reactions, headache, nausea, abdominal pain, muscle aches and dizziness (FDA: Imovax).
12. Purevax Feline Rabies
a. Tradename:
Purevax Feline Rabies
b. Manufacturer:
Merial
c. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000871
d. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
e. Status:
Licensed
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Description
Canarypox virus-vectored vaccine
13. RabAvert
a. Product Name:
Rabies Vaccine
b. Tradename:
RabAvert
c. Manufacturer:
Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000094
e. CDC CVX code:
18
f. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA (License #1754)
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Preparation
The strain Flury LEP was obtained from American Type Culture Collection as the 59th egg passage. The growth medium for propagation of the virus is a synthetic cell culture medium with the addition of human albumin, polygeline (processed bovine gelatin) and antibiotics. The virus is inactivated with beta-propiolactone, and further processed by zonal centrifugation in a sucrose density-gradient. The vaccine is lyophilized after addition of a stabilizer solution, which consists of buffered polygeline and potassium glutamate (Rabavert).
k. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
l. Storage
RabAvert should be stored protected from light at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) (Rabavert).
m . Approved Age for Licensed Use
All ages
n. Contraindication
There is no contraindication to post-exposure immunization. Persons with a history of anaphylactic, anaphylactoid, or other immediate reactions (e.g. hives, swelling of the mouth and throat, difficulty breathing, hypotension, or shock) subsequent to egg ingestion should not be immunized with this vaccine (Rabavert).
o. Description
A sterile freeze-dried vaccine obtained by growing the fixed-virus strain Flury LEP in primary cultures of chicken fibroblasts.
p. Human Response
  • Immune Response: When administered according to the recommended immunization schedule (days 0, 7, 21), 100% of subjects attained a protective titer (Rabavert).
  • Side Effects: The most common side effects reported are: injection site reactions (redness, itching, and swelling), fever, and swollen lymph nodes (Rabavert).
14. Rabies DNA Vaccine encoding Rabies virus Glycoprotein
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011553
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Gene Engineering of G
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
e. Vector:
pgp.LAMP-1 (Kaur et al., 2010)
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Mouse Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: For the intramuscular route, mice were vaccinated with 100 µg of endotoxin-free pDNA in 200 µl of PBS/animal in the anterior quadriceps muscle, in the individual groups (DNA vaccine or vector control), 3 times at 3-wk intervals. Control mice were immunized with PBS only (Kaur et al., 2010).
  • Challenge Protocol: For challenge studies, immunized mice were inoculated intracerebrally with 20 LD50 of the CVS strain of rabies virus 21 d after the last immunization. The challenged mice were observed for 18 d for symptoms indicative of rabies virus infection (Kaur et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: DNA vaccine imparted partial protection (60%) against challenge with 20 LD(50) of the challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of rabies virus (Kaur et al., 2010).
15. Rabies Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1905.20)
a. Manufacturer:
Wyeth, Intervet Inc., Merial, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001760
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Gray wolf
16. Rabies Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1905.21)
a. Manufacturer:
Wyeth, Intervet Inc., Merial, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001761
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Gray wolf
17. Rabies Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1905.22)
a. Manufacturer:
Intervet Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001762
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Gray wolf
18. Rabies Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1905.23)
a. Manufacturer:
Wyeth, Intervet Inc., Merial, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001763
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Gray wolf
19. Rabies Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1905.24)
a. Manufacturer:
Pfizer, Inc., Merial, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001764
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Gray wolf
20. Rabies Killed Virus Vaccine-Ehrlichia Risticii Bacterin (USDA: 4905.20)
a. Manufacturer:
Merial, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002289
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
21. Rabies Live Canarypox Vector Vaccine (USDA: 1901.R1)
a. Manufacturer:
Merial, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001765
c. Type:
Live vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Gray wolf
22. Rabies Live Canarypox Vector Vaccine (USDA: 1901.R6)
a. Manufacturer:
Merial, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001766
c. Type:
Live vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Gray wolf
23. Rabies Live Vaccinia Vector Vaccine (USDA: 1901.R0)
a. Manufacturer:
Merial, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001767
c. Type:
Live vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Gray wolf
24. Rabies Vaccine Adsorbed (RVA)
a. Product Name:
Rabies Vaccine Adsorbed
b. Tradename:
None
c. Manufacturer:
BioPort Corp
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000095
e. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
f. Status:
Licensed
g. Location Licensed:
USA
h. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
i. Antigen
Inactivated Kissling strain of Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) rabies virus.
j. Adjuvant: aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvant
  • VO ID: VO_0000128
  • Description: BioPort's Rabies Vaccine is effective for pre- and post-exposure indications, and is administered intramuscularly (not intradermally). However, this vaccine is no longer available for rabies postexposure or pre-exposure prophylaxis, and intradermal pre-exposure prophylaxis is no longer recommended because it is not available in the United States (Manning et al., 2008).
k. Preparation
Rabies Vaccine Adsorbed (RVA) is an aqueous formulation of rabies virus cultured in diploid fetal rhesus lung (FRhL-2) cells, inactivated with beta-propiolactone (BPL), and adsorbed on aluminum phosphate adjuvant. The vaccine is prepared from the Kissling strain of Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) rabies virus adapted to fetal rhesus lung diploid cell culture. The inactivated virus is concentrated by adsorption onto aluminum phosphate adjuvant.
l. Description
BioPort's Rabies Vaccine is effective for pre- and post-exposure indications, and is administered intramuscularly (not intradermally). However, this vaccine is no longer available for rabies postexposure or pre-exposure prophylaxis, and intradermal pre-exposure prophylaxis is no longer recommended because it is not available in the United States (Manning et al., 2008).
25. Rabies vaccine rVac-N
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011555
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Gene Engineering of RABVgp1 nucleoprotein N
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
e. Vector:
Vaccinia virus (Fujii et al., 1994)
f. Immunization Route
Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
g. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: A/J
  • Vaccination Protocol: 4-week-old mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) on days 0 and 14 with 107 p.f.u, of the recombinant viruses. Control mice received equal doses of vaccinia virus recombinant vSC8 that contained no rabies virus sequences (Fujii et al., 1994).
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 21, the mice were challenged by footpad injection with 0.02 ml (20 MFPLDs0 , where MFPLDs0 represents mouse footpad 50% lethal dose) of the 1088 strain (Fujii et al., 1994).
  • Efficacy: 92 % of mice given rVac-N (i.e. one animal succumbed b u t still had a prolonged lifespan) survived the challenge with rabies virus (Fujii et al., 1994).
26. Rabies virus DNA vaccine encoding the ERA glycoprotein
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004372
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Gene Engineering of glycoprotein
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: This DNA vaccine expressed the full-length cDNA of the ERA rabies virus glycoprotein (Lodmell et al., 2000).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
e. Vector:
pCMV4 (Lodmell et al., 2000)
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Mouse Response
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: Neutralizing antibody titers were enhanced following primary i.m. vaccination with DNA and MPL® (Lodmell et al., 2000).
  • Efficacy: After virus challenge, in the group of mice that were vaccinated with MPL, 4 of 6 mice with individual neutralizing antibody titers of 1:10 survived viral challenge. In addition, in the group of mice that did not receive MPL, 100% of the mice survived viral challenge after their second booster (Lodmell et al., 2000).
27. Rabies virus DNA vaccine pCMV-intA-rabies encoding glycoprotein G
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004371
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse, cat, dog
e. Gene Engineering of G
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: Vector pCMV-intA expressed the rabies glycoprotein G (Osorio et al., 1999).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
pCMV-intA (Osorio et al., 1999)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Cat Response
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: Neutralizing antibody responses following DNA vaccination lasted at least nine months with high levels of RVNA in all i.m.-vaccinated dogs, and eleven of twelve i.d.-vaccinated cats. This suggests that a DNA rabies vaccine can induce durable and protective immune responses against rabies infection in companion animals (Osorio et al., 1999).
  • Efficacy: The geometric mean RVNA titer in the combined intradermal cat groups at day 289 was 341, a titer that correlates with solid protection against rabies challenge. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that the high neutralization activity observed in the studies described here will afford protection against challenge, even though a challenge study was not performed (Osorio et al., 1999).
28. Rabies virus DNA vaccine pSG5rab.gp
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004326
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse
e. Gene Engineering of glycoprotein
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: Vector pSG5 expressed the rabies glycoprotein (ERA strain) (Xiang et al., 1994).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
pSG5 (Xiang et al., 1994)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Mouse Response
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: Mice immunized intramuscularly with the pSG5rab.gp vector developed rabies virus glycoprotein-specific cytolytic T cells, lymphokinesecreting T helper cells of the TH1 subset, and rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (Xiang et al., 1994).
  • Efficacy: Mice vaccinated with the pSG5rab.gp vector were fully protected against a subsequent challenge with rabies virus (Xiang et al., 1994).
29. Rabies virus glycoprotein G mutant vaccine
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002991
b. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse, hamster
e. Gene Engineering of Glycoprotein G
  • Type: Gene mutation
  • Description: This glycoprotein G mutant is from Rabies virus (Wu et al., 2011).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Mouse Response
  • Persistence: A glycoprotein G mutant is attenuated in mice (Wu et al., 2011).
  • Efficacy: A glycoprotein G mutant induces protection in mice from challenge with wild type rabies virus (Wu et al., 2011).
h. Hamster Response
  • Persistence: A glycoprotein G mutant is attenuated in hamsters (Wu et al., 2011).
  • Efficacy: A glycoprotein G mutant induces significant protection in hamsters from challenge with wild type rabies virus (Wu et al., 2011).
30. Rabies virus P protein mutant vaccine
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002992
b. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse
e. Gene Engineering of P protein
f. Immunization Route
Intracranial immunization
g. Mouse Response
31. Raboral
a. Tradename:
Raboral
b. Manufacturer:
Merial
c. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000928
d. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
e. Status:
Licensed
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Dog
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
Vaccinia virus recombinant(Brochier et al., 1991; Mackowiak et al., 1999; Rupprecht et al., 2004)
32. RCN-rabies-G
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004693
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Gene Engineering of Glycoprotein G
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description: A recombinant RCN vaccine expressing the rabies-G glycoprotein (RCN/rabies-G) (Osorio et al., 1999).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Preparation
Recombinant RCN vaccine expressing the rabies-G glycoprotein (RCN/rabies-G) (Osorio et al., 2003).
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Cat Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: The cats were vaccinated by the oral (PO), intranasal (IN), conjunctival (CO) or intranasal/conjunctival (IN/CO) route (dose: 10 plaque forming units or PFU) (Osorio et al., 2003).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000287
  • Challenge Protocol: Because of humanitarian concerns, we did not perform rabies virus challenge on these cats. However, RVNA titers of 1:5 (0.69 log10) or greater in humans have been correlated with vaccine protection (Smith et al., 1996). Thus, it is reasonable to surmise that the high RVNA titers observed in the immunized cats could provide protection against challenge (Osorio et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: The RVNA titers remained high when measured at six months post-vaccination, demonstrating that the recombinant vaccine administered via these routes is very efficient at inducing long-lasting immunity (Osorio et al., 2003).
33. rLSDV-Rabies-gP
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004762
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Gene Engineering of Glycoprotein G
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description: Recombinant LSDV encoding the rabies glycoprotein (rLSDV-RG) (Aspden et al., 2003).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Preparation
Using the rabies virus glycoprotein (RG) as a model antigen, the recombinant LSDV encoding the rabies glycoprotein (rLSDV-RG) was able to express RG (Aspden et al., 2003).
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Mouse Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: NMRI mice (3–4 weeks, n=30 per group; South African Vaccine Producers) were inoculated intramuscularly on days 0 and 14 with either PBS (50 μl), rLSDV-RG (5×104 f.f.u. ml−1 in 50 μl), LSDV-wt (5×104 f.f.u. ml−1 in 50 μl) or Verorab (1/10 human equivalent dose in 50 μl) (Aspden et al., 2003).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 21, ten mice from each group were challenged intracranially with 8×10^−1 LD50, 8×10^−2 LD50 or 8×10^−3 LD50 dilution of live rabies virus (Aspden et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: Mice immunized with rLSDV-RG elicited levels of RV-specific cellular immunity (T-cell proliferation) comparable with those of mice immunized with a commercial inactivated rabies vaccine (Verorab; Pasteur Merieux). Most importantly, mice immunized with rLSDV-RG were protected from an aggressive intracranial rabies virus challenge (Aspden et al., 2003).
34. rORFV-RabG
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004766
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Gene Engineering of RABVgp1 nucleoprotein N
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description: Orf virus (ORFV) recombinant, D1701-V-RabG, expressing the rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein that is correctly presented on the surface of infected cells without the need of replication or production of infectious recombinant virus(Amann et al., 2013).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Preparation
Orf virus (ORFV) recombinant, D1701-V-RabG, expressing the rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (Amann et al., 2013).
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Mouse Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were i.m. immunized once, twice, or thrice with 107 PFU of D1701-V-RabG in 2-week intervals. Two other groups were vaccinated three times with 106 PFU either i.m. or s.c (Amann et al., 2013).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the last immunization, all mice were i.c. challenged with 3,000 mouse i.c. LD50 of the highly pathogenic RABV CVS-11 strain (Amann et al., 2013).
  • Efficacy: All i.m. immunized animals, receiving one, two, or three inoculations of 107 PFU or three doses of 106 PFU, were completely protected, whereas 4 out of the 5 s.c. immunized animals survived the challenge. The D1701-V-RabG-immunized and protected mice did not reveal any harmful reaction, loss of body weight, or RABV-specific clinical signs (Amann et al., 2013).
IV. References
1. Amann et al., 2013: Amann R, Rohde J, Wulle U, Conlee D, Raue R, Martinon O, Rziha HJ. A new rabies vaccine based on a recombinant ORF virus (parapoxvirus) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein. Journal of virology. 2013; 87(3); 1618-1630. [PubMed: 23175365].
2. Aspden et al., 2003: Aspden K, Passmore JA, Tiedt F, Williamson AL. Evaluation of lumpy skin disease virus, a capripoxvirus, as a replication-deficient vaccine vector. The Journal of general virology. 2003; 84(Pt 8); 1985-1996. [PubMed: 12867628].
3. Brochier et al., 1991: Brochier B, Kieny MP, Costy F, Coppens P, Bauduin B, Lecocq JP, Languet B, Chappuis G, Desmettre P, Afiademanyo K. Large-scale eradication of rabies using recombinant vaccinia-rabies vaccine. Nature. 1991; 354(6354); 520-522. [PubMed: 1758494].
4. FDA: Imovax: FDA: Imovax vaccine information [http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm180097.htm]
5. FDA: Rabavert: FDA: Rabavert vaccine information [http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm133517.htm]
6. Fujii et al., 1994: Fujii H, Takita-Sonoda Y, Mifune K, Hirai K, Nishizono A, Mannen K. Protective efficacy in mice of post-exposure vaccination with vaccinia virus recombinant expressing either rabies virus glycoprotein or nucleoprotein. The Journal of general virology. 1994; 75 ( Pt 6); 1339-1344. [PubMed: 8207400].
7. Jas et al., 2012: Jas D, Coupier C, Toulemonde CE, Guigal PM, Poulet H. Three-year duration of immunity in cats vaccinated with a canarypox-vectored recombinant rabies virus vaccine. Vaccine. 2012; 30(49); 6991-6996. [PubMed: 23059358].
8. Kang et al., 2015: Kang H, Qi Y, Wang H, Zheng X, Gao Y, Li N, Yang S, Xia X. Chimeric rabies virus-like particles containing membrane-anchored GM-CSF enhances the immune response against rabies virus. Viruses. 2015; 7(3); 1134-1152. [PubMed: 25768031].
9. Kaur et al., 2010: Kaur M, Saxena A, Rai A, Bhatnagar R. Rabies DNA vaccine encoding lysosome-targeted glycoprotein supplemented with Emulsigen-D confers complete protection in preexposure and postexposure studies in BALB/c mice. The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 2010; 24(1); 173-183. [PubMed: 19741168].
10. Lodmell et al., 2000: Lodmell DL, Ray NB, Ulrich JT, Ewalt LC. DNA vaccination of mice against rabies virus: effects of the route of vaccination and the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Vaccine. 2000; 18(11-12); 1059-1066. [PubMed: 10590326].
11. Mackowiak et al., 1999: Mackowiak M, Maki J, Motes-Kreimeyer L, Harbin T, Van Kampen K. Vaccination of wildlife against rabies: successful use of a vectored vaccine obtained by recombinant technology. Advances in veterinary medicine. 1999; 41; 571-583. [PubMed: 9890044].
12. Manning et al., 2008: Manning SE, Rupprecht CE, Fishbein D, Hanlon CA, Lumlertdacha B, Guerra M, Meltzer MI, Dhankhar P, Vaidya SA, Jenkins SR, Sun B, Hull HF. Human rabies prevention--United States, 2008: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control. 2008; 57(RR-3); 1-28. [PubMed: 18496505].
13. Morimoto et al., 2005: Morimoto K, Shoji Y, Inoue S. Characterization of P gene-deficient rabies virus: propagation, pathogenicity and antigenicity. Virus research. 2005; 111(1); 61-67. [PubMed: 15896403].
14. Osorio et al., 1999: Osorio JE, Tomlinson CC, Frank RS, Haanes EJ, Rushlow K, Haynes JR, Stinchcomb DT. Immunization of dogs and cats with a DNA vaccine against rabies virus. Vaccine. 1999; 17(9-10); 1109-1116. [PubMed: 10195621].
15. Osorio et al., 2003: Osorio JE, Frank RS, Moss K, Taraska T, Powell T, Stinchcomb DT. Raccoon poxvirus as a mucosal vaccine vector for domestic cats. Journal of drug targeting. 2003; 11(8-10); 463-470. [PubMed: 15203914].
16. Rabavert: Rabavert Package Insert [http://www.novartisvaccines.com/downloads/diseases-products/us-pl-rabavert.pdf]
17. Rupprecht et al., 2004: Rupprecht CE, Hanlon CA, Slate D. Oral vaccination of wildlife against rabies: opportunities and challenges in prevention and control. Developments in biologicals. 2004; 119; 173-184. [PubMed: 15742629].
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