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Rubella virus

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Microbial Pathogenesis
    5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
  2. Vaccine Information
    1. Eolarix
    2. M-M-R II
    3. Meruvax II
    4. Priorix
    5. Priorix-Tetra
    6. ProQuad
  3. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
11041
2. Disease:
Rubella
3. Introduction
Rubella virus is a togavirus that is enveloped and has a single-stranded RNA genome. Rubella virus causes Rebella, commonly known as German measles. This disease is often mild and attacks often pass unnoticed. The disease can last one to five days. Children recover more quickly than adults. Infection of the mother by Rubella virus during pregnancy can be serious. After an incubation period of 14-21 days, the primary symptom of rubella virus infection is the appearance of a rash (exanthem) on the face which spreads to the trunk and limbs and usually fades after three days. Other symptoms include low grade fever, swollen glands (post cervical lymphadenopathy), joint pains, headache, conjunctivitis. Rubella can cause congenital rubella syndrome in the newly born (Wiki: Rebella).
4. Microbial Pathogenesis
Rubella virus is transmitted by the respiratory route and replicates in the nasopharynx and lymph nodes. The virus is found in the blood 5 to 7 days after infection and spreads throughout the body. It is capable of crossing the placenta and infecting the fetus where it stops cells from developing or destroys them (Wiki: Rebella).
5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
Humans are the only known host of the rubella virus (Wiki: Rebella).
II. Vaccine Information
1. Eolarix
a. Tradename:
Eolarix
b. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline
c. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010712
d. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
e. Status:
Licensed
f. Location Licensed:
Canada
g. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
h. Allergen:
Neomycin
i. Immunization Route
Subcutaneous injection
j. Storage
2 to 8°C (36 to 46°F) or colder. Do not freeze.
k . Approved Age for Licensed Use
1 year and older
l. Description
Products: Live virus. Other components: Human albumin, Lactose, Dextran.
2. M-M-R II
a. Product Name:
Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus Vaccine, Live
b. Tradename:
M-M-R II
c. Manufacturer:
Merck & Co., Inc.
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000069
e. CDC CVX code:
03
f. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA(License #0002)
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Preparation
The growth medium for rubella is Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) [a buffered salt solution containing vitamins and amino acids and supplemented with fetal bovine serum] containing recombinant human albumin and neomycin. Sorbitol and hydrolyzed gelatin stabilizer are added to the individual virus harvests (FDA: MMR-II).
k. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
l. Storage
2 to 8°C (36 to 46°F) or colder. Do not freeze.
m . Approved Age for Licensed Use
12 months or older
n. Contraindication
Hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine, a history of anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions to neomycin (FDA: MMR-II).
o. Description
M-M-R II is a sterile lyophilized preparation of (1) ATTENUVAX* (Measles Virus Vaccine Live), a more attenuated line of measles virus, derived from Enders' attenuated Edmonston strain and propagated in chick embryo cell culture; (2) MUMPSVAX* (Mumps Virus Vaccine Live), the Jeryl Lynn** (B level) strain of mumps virus propagated in chick embryo cell culture; and (3) MERUVAX* II (Rubella Virus Vaccine Live), the Wistar RA 27/3 strain of live attenuated rubella virus propagated in WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts (FDA: MMR-II).
p. Human Response
  • Immune Response: Neutralizing and ELISA antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella viruses are still detectable in most individuals 11 to 13 years after primary vaccination (FDA: MMR-II).
  • Side Effects: Side effects of vaccination are: fever, headache, dizziness, and irritability.
  • Efficacy: Many clinical studies have shown the vaccine have a high rate of efficacy protection after vaccination with MMR-II (FDA: MMR-II).
3. Meruvax II
a. Product Name:
Rubella Virus Vaccine Live
b. Tradename:
Meruvax II
c. Manufacturer:
Merck & Co., Inc.
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000073
e. CDC CVX code:
06
f. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA (License #0002)
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Antigen
Wistar Institute RA 27/3 strain of live attenuated rubella virus
k. Preparation
MERUVAX II is a sterile lyophilized preparation of the Wistar Institute RA 27/3 strain of live attenuated rubella virus. The virus was adapted to and propagated in WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts. The growth medium is Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) containing human serum albumin and neomycin. Sorbitol and hydrolyzed gelatin stabilizer are added to the individual virus harvests. The cells, virus pools, fetal bovine serum, and human albumin are all screened for the absence of adventitious agents. Human albumin is processed using the Cohn cold ethanol fractionation procedure. The product contains no preservative (FDA: Meruvax II).
l. Immunization Route
Intradermal injection (i.d.)
m. Storage
The vaccine must be maintained at a temperature of 10°C (50°F) or colder.
n . Approved Age for Licensed Use
6-15 months is the recommended age
o. Contraindication
Hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine, including gelatin, and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions to neomycin (FDA: Meruvax II).
p. Description
MERUVAX* II (Rubella Virus Vaccine Live) is a live virus vaccine for vaccination against rubella (German measles) (FDA: Meruvax II) .
q. Human Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Clinical studies have been carried out in more than 28,000 human subjects (approximately 11,000 with MERUVAX II) in the United States and more than 20 additional countries (FDA: Meruvax II).
  • Immune Response: A single injection of the vaccine has been shown to induce rubella hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies in 97% or more of susceptible persons.
  • Side Effects: Side effects of vaccination include: fever, headache, dizziness, and itching, redness or swelling of the injection site.
  • Efficacy: Clinical studies helped to establish that seroconversion in response to rubella vaccination paralleled protection from this disease.
4. Priorix
a. Tradename:
Priorix
b. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline
c. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010734
d. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
e. Status:
Licensed
f. Location Licensed:
Canada
g. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
h. Allergen:
Neomycin
i. Immunization Route
Subcutaneous injection
j. Storage
Store at at 2 to 8°C.
k . Approved Age for Licensed Use
1 year and older
l. Description
Products: Live virus. Other components: Lactose.
5. Priorix-Tetra
a. Tradename:
Priorix-Tetra
b. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline
c. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010735
d. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
e. Status:
Licensed
f. Location Licensed:
Canada
g. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
h. Allergen:
Neomycin
i. Immunization Route
Subcutaneous injection
j. Storage
Store at at 2 to 8°C. Do not freeze
k . Approved Age for Licensed Use
9 months to 6 years
l. Description
Products: Live virus. Other components: Lactose.
6. ProQuad
a. Product Name:
Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Virus Vaccine Live
b. Tradename:
ProQuad
c. Manufacturer:
Merck & Co, Inc.
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000091
e. CDC CVX code:
94
f. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA (License #0002)
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Preparation
propagated in WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts (FDA: Proquad).
k. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
l. Storage
2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F) or colder.
m . Approved Age for Licensed Use
12 months to 12 years old
n. Contraindication
Vaccine should not be administered to anyone with a known history of anaphylactic reactions to neomycin, or to anyone with a history of hypersensitivity to gelatin or any other component of the vaccine (FDA: Proquad).
o. Description
ProQuad is a sterile lyophilized preparation of (1) the components of M-M-R*II (Measles, Mumps and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live): Measles Virus Vaccine Live, a more attenuated line of measles virus, derived from Enders' attenuated Edmonston strain and propagated in chick embryo cell culture; Mumps Virus Vaccine Live, the Jeryl Lynn™ (B level) strain of mumps virus propagated in chick embryo cell culture; Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, the Wistar RA 27/3 strain of live attenuated rubella virus propagated in WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts; and (2) Varicella Virus Vaccine Live (Oka/Merck) refrigerator-stable formulation, the Oka/Merck strain of varicella-zoster virus propagated in MRC-5 cells (FDA: Proquad).
p. Human Response
  • Immune Response: According to clinical trials, there were high levels of antibodies in 99.6% of those vaccinated after a single dose of Proquad (FDA: Proquad).
  • Side Effects: Side effects of vaccination include: injection site reactions, fever, irritability and diarrhea.
III. References
1. FDA: Meruvax II: FDA: Meruvax II vaccine information [http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm094064.htm]
2. FDA: MMR-II: FDA: MMR-II Vaccine [http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm094050.htm]
3. FDA: Proquad: FDA: Proquad Vaccine [http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm188806.htm]
4. Wiki: Rebella: Wiki: Rebella [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubella]