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Vaccine Comparison

BHV1 gD subunit vaccine Bovine herpesvirus 1 DNA vaccine AdCMVgC Bovine herpesvirus 1 DNA vaccine AdCMVgD Bovine herpesvirus 1 DNA vaccine pMASIAtgB encoding a truncated, secreted form of gB Bovine herpesvirus 1 DNA vaccine pRSV-gC Bovine herpesvirus 1 DNA vaccine pRSVgIV Bovine herpesvirus 1 DNA vaccine tgD-VP22 Bovine herpesvirus 1 GPI protein vaccine Bovine herpesvirus 1 recombinant vector vaccine BHVl/BRSVG Bovine herpesvirus 1 recombinant vector vaccine rLaSota/gDF encoding gD Bovine herpesvirus 1 recombinant vector vaccine rLaSota/gDFL encoding gD Bovine herpesvirus 1 UL23 mutant vaccine Bovine herpesvirus 1 US8 (gE) mutant vaccine
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004225
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: 25 μg of vaccinia recombinant gD (van et al., 1997).
  • Adjuvant: Avridine
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011382
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein C
  • UL44 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: For the gC gene, a SpeI–NotI fragment (containing the gC gene) was extracted from pSKgC and cloned into pCi to yield plasmid pCigC. The expression cassettes containing the CMV promoter, splicing signals, glycoprotein gene, and SV40 polyadenylation signal, were extracted as BamHI–BglII fragments that were cloned into the BamHI site of plasmid pAd-link, resulting in plasmid pAdCMVgC (Gogev et al., 2002).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCi (Promega)
  • Immunization Route: Intranasal
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011381
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein D
  • US6 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: For the gD gene, a NheI–NotI fragment (containing the gD gene) was extracted from pGEMgD and cloned into pCi to yield plasmid pCigD. The expression cassettes containing the CMV promoter, splicing signals, glycoprotein gene, and SV40 polyadenylation signal, were extracted as BamHI–BglII fragments that were cloned into the BamHI site of plasmid pAd-link, resulting in plasmid pAdCMVgD (Gogev et al., 2002).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCi (Promega)
  • Immunization Route: Intranasal
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004317
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mice, calves
  • gB gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pMASIA expressed truncated, secreted form of BHV-1 gB (Huang et al., 2005).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pMASIA (Huang et al., 2005)
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011557
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein C
  • UL44 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: The complete coding sequence of the gene for gC was excised from a recombinant plasmid containing HindIII ‘I’ fragment of BHV-1 DNA (Gupta et al., 1995). The 2.4 kb BamHI and EcoRI double digested DNA fragment containing gC gene of BHV-1 was subcloned into a pRSV vector. The recombinant plasmid (pRSV-gC) encoding gC under the control of a RSV promoter/enhancer yielded high levels of BHV-1 gC expression in transfected cell (Gupta et al., 1998). Plasmid DNA was prepared from Escherichia coli bacterial cultures by the alkali lysis method and passed over Qiagen plasmid purification columns (Qiagen, CA). The isolated plasmid was ethanol-precipitated and dissolved in 0.85% saline at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml (Gupta et al., 2001).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pRSV containing a RSV promoter/enhancer
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004315
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse, calf
  • gIV gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pRSV expressed BHV-1 glycoprotein I (gIV) (Cox et al., 1993).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pRSV (Cox et al., 1993)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011554
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Bovine herpesvirus 1 tegument protein VP22 and glycoprotein D
  • UL49 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Researchers constructed the plasmids pVP22-YFP, pMASIA-tgD-YFP, and pMASIA-tgD-VP22-YFP. For the construction of pVP22-YFP, the UL49 (VP22 gene) open reading frame was amplified from BHV-1 genomic DNA by PCR and then inserted into pEYFP-N1 (Clontech, BD Biosciences, Palo Alto, Calif.). Subsequently, pMASIA-tgD-YFP and pMASIA-tgD-VP22-YFP were generated by PCR cloning of the YFP and VP22-YFP genes from pEYFP-N1 and pVP22-YFP, respectively, into pMASIA-tgD, which encodes BHV-1 tgD (26). COS-7 cells were transfected with pMASIA-tgD-VP22-YFP, pMASIA-tgD-YFP, and pVP22-YFP and monitored every 4 h by fluorescence microscopy (Zheng et al., 2005).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • US6 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Researchers constructed the plasmids pVP22-YFP, pMASIA-tgD-YFP, and pMASIA-tgD-VP22-YFP. For the construction of pVP22-YFP, the UL49 (VP22 gene) open reading frame was amplified from BHV-1 genomic DNA by PCR and then inserted into pEYFP-N1 (Clontech, BD Biosciences, Palo Alto, Calif.). Subsequently, pMASIA-tgD-YFP and pMASIA-tgD-VP22-YFP were generated by PCR cloning of the YFP and VP22-YFP genes from pEYFP-N1 and pVP22-YFP, respectively, into pMASIA-tgD, which encodes BHV-1 tgD (26). COS-7 cells were transfected with pMASIA-tgD-VP22-YFP, pMASIA-tgD-YFP, and pVP22-YFP and monitored every 4 h by fluorescence microscopy (Zheng et al., 2005).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pMASIA-tgD (Zheng et al., 2005)
  • Immunization Route: Intradermal injection (i.d.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011383
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Bovine herpesvirus 1 envelope glycoprotein I
  • US7 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: A truncated BHV-1 envelope gpI protein was secreted into the culture supernatant of D17 cells transfected with the gpI gene lacking the coding sequence for the transmembrane region (TMR). The transmembrane domain is essential for gpI stability in the envelope, virus infectivity and, most probably, natural killer cell recognition (Gao et al., 1994).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004316
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Calves
  • G from BRSV gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: Vector BHV1 expressed the G protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (Schrijver et al., 1997).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: BHV1 (Schrijver et al., 1997)
  • Immunization Route: intranasal immunization
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004319
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Calves
  • US6 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: Vector pLaSota expressed a chimeric gD in which the ectodomain of gD was fused with the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of the NDV fusion F glycoprotein (Khattar et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus pLaSota carrying the full-length antigenomic cDNA of the lentogenic NDV (Newcastle disease virus ) vaccine strain LaSota (Khattar et al., 2010)
  • Immunization Route: combined IN and IT routes
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004318
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Calves
  • US6 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: Vector pLaSota expressed gD without any modification (Khattar et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus pLaSota carrying the full-length antigenomic cDNA of the lentogenic NDV(Newcastle disease virus ) vaccine strain LaSota (Khattar et al., 2010)
  • Immunization Route: combined IN and IT routes
  • Product Name: B8-D53
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002949
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Cow
  • UL23 gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This UL23 mutant is from Bovine herpesvirus 1 (Kit et al., 1985).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: intranasal immunization
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002950
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • US8 gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: The bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) strain Za is a conventionally attenuated strain with a 2.7 kb deletion that encompasses the complete coding region for glycoprotein E (gE) (Kaashoek et al., 1995).
  • Immunization Route: intranasal immunization
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Cattle Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Calves were randomly allocated to one of five vaccine groups and immunized with either 25 μg of gD in avridine, 25 μg tgD in avridine, commercial KV, commercial MLV or avridine. All vaccines were administered intramuscularly. 3 weeks after primary immunization the calves were re-immunized (van et al., 1997).
  • Immune Response: All vaccinated calves had significantly (P<0.05) higher serum neutralizing antibody titers prechallenge than the control animals. Calves immunized with the experimental gD or tgD vaccines had significantly (P<0.05) higher antibody titers than animals immunized with KV or MLV vaccines (van et al., 1997).
  • Challenge Protocol: Calves were challenged 4 weeks after secondary immunization with BHV1. Each calf was exposed for 4 minutes to an aerosol of 107 p.f.u. ml- ’ of BHVl strain 108 (van et al., 1997).
  • Efficacy: All vaccinated calves had a significantly lower (P<0.05) rectal temperature and sick score than the placebo group. In contrast to the placebo-, KV- and MLV-immunized groups, the gD- and tgD-immunized groups experienced minimal weight loss during the period following challenge. The gD- and tgD-vaccinated calves shed significantly (P<0.05) lower amounts of virus than the placebo or KV-immunized groups throughout the follow-up period. In the gD and tgD subunit vaccine vaccinated groups only one out of eight animals shed virus (van et al., 1997).

Cattle Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Twenty-eight calves, 6–8 months old, were randomly allocated into five groups of five calves and one group of three calves. Three groups were inoculated twice 3 weeks apart by the intranasal route with 2 ml per nostril with a semi-purified preparation at a dose of 1010 CCID50 (Cell Culture Infectious Dose) of either AdCMVgC, or AdCMVgD or a combination of these two recombinants (5×109 CCID50 of AdCMVgC+5×109 CCID50 of AdCMVgD). At days 0 and 21, one group was inoculated twice by the intranasal route with a commercially available live vaccine whereas the group of three animals was inoculated intranasally twice 3 weeks apart with inactivated AdCMVgD, inactivated AdCMVgC, and a combination of them. One group was not inoculated and served as control (Gogev et al., 2002).
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 42, calves were challenged by the intranasal route with 5×106 plaque forming units (PFU) of BHV-1 IOWA strain. Calves were clinically examined and rectal temperatures were measured for 2 weeks after each immunization and for 3 weeks following the challenge performed on day 42 (Gogev et al., 2002).
  • Efficacy: The administration of either Ad5CMVgD or Ad5CMVgC, or a combination of them in calves by intranasal route 3 weeks apart, induced BHV-1 neutralizing antibody responses and conferred protection against challenge with BHV-1 Iowa strain (Gogev et al., 2002).

Cattle Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Twenty-eight calves, 6–8 months old, were randomly allocated into five groups of five calves and one group of three calves. Three groups were inoculated twice 3 weeks apart by the intranasal route with 2 ml per nostril with a semi-purified preparation at a dose of 1010 CCID50 (Cell Culture Infectious Dose) of either AdCMVgC, or AdCMVgD or a combination of these two recombinants (5×109 CCID50 of AdCMVgC+5×109 CCID50 of AdCMVgD). At days 0 and 21, one group was inoculated twice by the intranasal route with a commercially available live vaccine whereas the group of three animals was inoculated intranasally twice 3 weeks apart with inactivated AdCMVgD, inactivated AdCMVgC, and a combination of them. One group was not inoculated and served as control (Gogev et al., 2002).
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 42, calves were challenged by the intranasal route with 5×106 plaque forming units (PFU) of BHV-1 IOWA strain. Calves were clinically examined and rectal temperatures were measured for 2 weeks after each immunization and for 3 weeks following the challenge performed on day 42 (Gogev et al., 2002).
  • Efficacy: The administration of either Ad5CMVgD or Ad5CMVgC, or a combination of them in calves by intranasal route 3 weeks apart, induced BHV-1 neutralizing antibody responses and conferred protection against challenge with BHV-1 Iowa strain (Gogev et al., 2002).

Cattle Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: pMASIAtgB elicited both humoral responses and activated gamma interferon-secreting CD8+ CTLs, suggesting that a DNA vaccine expressing tgB induces a CTL response in the natural host of BHV-1 (Huang et al., 2005).

Cattle Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Three calves were inoculated intramuscular (i.m.) six times with 500 μg of pRSV-gC and two calves were inoculated i.d. six times with 250 μg of pRSV-gC at each immunization. One calf received saline at each immunization and served as unvaccinated control. All inoculations were done at monthly intervals (Gupta et al., 2001).
  • Challenge Protocol: All calves were exposed to BHV-1 (108.5 TCID50) by intranasal aerosol installation 1 month after last injection. All calves were examined daily for clinical symptoms of the disease. Nasal swabs were collected before challenge and 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 days post-challenge for isolation of shedding virus (Gupta et al., 2001).
  • Efficacy: Results indicate that DNA immunization with gC could induce neutralizing antibody and lymphoproliferative responses with BHV-1 responsive memory B cells in bovines. However, the immunity developed sufficient for only partial protection against BHV-1 challenge (Gupta et al., 2001).

Cattle Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Clinical symptoms including fever, nasal mucosal lesions, and inappetence were reduced in all pRSVgIV-injected calves compared with the pRSVO-injected calf (control). Increases in gIV-specific antibody titers were observed at day 6 post challenge and continued to the end of the experiment. By comparison with the titer achieved by the control calf after challenge, it is clear that all three pRSVgIV-injected calves were primed to respond to BHV-1 (Cox et al., 1993).

Cattle Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Calves were immunized intradermally with 500 μg of pMASIA-tgD-VP22, 500 μg of pMASIA-tgD, or saline in a 500-μl volume by use of the Biojector 2000 needle-free injection system (Bioject, Bedminster, N.J.) (Zheng et al., 2005).
  • Challenge Protocol: All animals were reimmunized after 28 days and were challenged with BHV-1 strain 108 on day 54. All data from this study were analyzed with the aid of Graphpad Prism 3.0 (Zheng et al., 2005).
  • Efficacy: Protection against a BHV-1 challenge was obtained in calves immunized with the plasmid encoding tgD-VP22 (UL49), as shown by significant reductions in viral excretion (Zheng et al., 2005).

Cattle Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: The 20 calves were divided into two groups (ten animals in each group) and immunized as follows:group 1 was primed intramusculary (i.m.) with concentrated gpI (17 ug/animal) emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant, and boosted by intranasal (i.n.) aerosolization (Laboratory spray unit, Gelman Sciences Inc., Ann Arbor, MI) with 100yg gpI plus 20 ug cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) per animal at the 3rd and 9th weeks. Then, 30 yg of gpI emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant was administered subcutaneously at the base of the ear at the 15th week. Alternatively, group 2 was treated as above with the same amount of non-transfected D17 cell culture supernatant concentrated from a volume equal to that of the gpI supernatant. The antibody levels in sera and nasal secretions were tested at 2-week intervals after each vaccination to assess the gpI immune response (Gao et al., 1994).
  • Challenge Protocol: All animals were challenged with 5 x 105 p.f.u, of virulent Cooper strain BHV-1 (ATCC VR864) by intranasal aerosolization. Nasal swabs were collected daily for 12 days and viral replication and shedding were detected by titration on MDBK cells. The animals were monitored for signs of disease (fever, nasal mucosal lesions, nasal discharge, conjunctivitis and depression) (Gao et al., 1994).
  • Efficacy: mmunization of calves with this truncated gpI protein induced gpI-specific nasal IgA, IgG1, serum neutralizing antibodies and gpI-specific peripheral lymphocyte proliferation. All immunized calves were protected from clinical disease after BHV-1 challenge. Further, nine of ten immunized calves had no intranasal viral shedding. One animal shed a minimal amount of virus following challenge, but produced no antibodies to other viral proteins as evidenced by immunoprecipitation of 35S-labelled viral proteins by sera from virus-challenged animals (Gao et al., 1994).

Cattle Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: A gE-negative bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) vector vaccine carrying a gene coding for the G protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) (BHV1/BRSV-G) induced the same high degree of protection in calves against BRSV infection and BHV1 infection as a multivalent commercial vaccine (Schrijver et al., 1997).

Cattle Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Following challenge with BHV-1, calves immunized with the recombinant NDVs had lower titers and earlier clearance of challenge virus compared to the empty vector control. Partial protection was observed (Khattar et al., 2010).

Cattle Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Following challenge with BHV-1, calves immunized with the recombinant NDVs had lower titers and earlier clearance of challenge virus compared to the empty vector control, and reduced disease was observed with rLaSota/gDFL. Partial protection was observed (Khattar et al., 2010).

Cattle Response

  • Persistence: A UL23 mutant is attenuated in calves (Kit et al., 1985).
  • Efficacy: A UL23 mutant induced protection in calves from challenge with wild type BHV-1 (Kit et al., 1985).

Cattle Response

  • Persistence: The bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) strain Za is a conventionally attenuated strain with a 2.7 kb deletion that encompasses the complete coding region for glycoprotein E (gE) (Kaashoek et al., 1995).
  • Efficacy: Calves given the vaccine with the highest antigen concentration were ad.equately protected against challenge; clinical symptoms were virtually absent and challenge virus shedding was significantly reduced as compared with unvaccinated calves (Kaashoek et al., 1995)
References References References References References References References References References References References References References
van et al., 1997: van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk S, Tikoo SK, van den Hurk JV, Babiuk LA, Van Donkersgoed J. Protective immunity in cattle following vaccination with conventional and marker bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV1) vaccines. Vaccine. 1997; 15(1); 36-44. [PubMed: 9041664].
Gogev et al., 2002: Gogev S, Vanderheijden N, Lemaire M, Schynts F, D'Offay J, Deprez I, Adam M, Eloit M, Thiry E. Induction of protective immunity to bovine herpesvirus type 1 in cattle by intranasal administration of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 expressing glycoprotein gC or gD. Vaccine. 2002; 20(9-10); 1451-1465. [PubMed: 11818166].
Gogev et al., 2002: Gogev S, Vanderheijden N, Lemaire M, Schynts F, D'Offay J, Deprez I, Adam M, Eloit M, Thiry E. Induction of protective immunity to bovine herpesvirus type 1 in cattle by intranasal administration of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 expressing glycoprotein gC or gD. Vaccine. 2002; 20(9-10); 1451-1465. [PubMed: 11818166].
Huang et al., 2005: Huang Y, Babiuk LA, van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk S. Immunization with a bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein B DNA vaccine induces cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in mice and cattle. The Journal of general virology. 2005; 86(Pt 4); 887-898. [PubMed: 15784883].
Gupta et al., 2001: Gupta PK, Saini M, Gupta LK, Rao VD, Bandyopadhyay SK, Butchaiah G, Garg GK, Garg SK. Induction of immune responses in cattle with a DNA vaccine encoding glycoprotein C of bovine herpesvirus-1. Veterinary microbiology. 2001; 78(4); 293-305. [PubMed: 11182496].
Cox et al., 1993: Cox GJ, Zamb TJ, Babiuk LA. Bovine herpesvirus 1: immune responses in mice and cattle injected with plasmid DNA. Journal of virology. 1993; 67(9); 5664-5667. [PubMed: 8350420].
Zheng et al., 2005: Zheng C, Babiuk LA, van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk S. Bovine herpesvirus 1 VP22 enhances the efficacy of a DNA vaccine in cattle. Journal of virology. 2005; 79(3); 1948-1953. [PubMed: 15650221].
Gao et al., 1994: Gao Y, Leary TP, Eskra L, Splitter GA. Truncated bovine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein I (gpI) initiates a protective local immune response in its natural host. Vaccine. 1994; 12(2); 145-152. [PubMed: 8147097].
Schrijver et al., 1997: Schrijver RS, Langedijk JP, Keil GM, Middel WG, Maris-Veldhuis M, Van Oirschot JT, Rijsewijk FA. Immunization of cattle with a BHV1 vector vaccine or a DNA vaccine both coding for the G protein of BRSV. Vaccine. 1997; 15(17-18); 1908-1916. [PubMed: 9413101].
Khattar et al., 2010: Khattar SK, Collins PL, Samal SK. Immunization of cattle with recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein D induces mucosal and serum antibody responses and provides partial protection against BHV-1. Vaccine. 2010; 28(18); 3159-3170. [PubMed: 20189484].
Khattar et al., 2010: Khattar SK, Collins PL, Samal SK. Immunization of cattle with recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein D induces mucosal and serum antibody responses and provides partial protection against BHV-1. Vaccine. 2010; 28(18); 3159-3170. [PubMed: 20189484].
Kit et al., 1985: Kit S, Qavi H, Gaines JD, Billingsley P, McConnell S. Thymidine kinase-negative bovine herpesvirus type 1 mutant is stable and highly attenuated in calves. Archives of virology. 1985; 86(1-2); 63-83. [PubMed: 2994602].
Kaashoek et al., 1995: Kaashoek MJ, Moerman A, Madić J, Weerdmeester K, Maris-Veldhuis M, Rijsewijk FA, van Oirschot JT. An inactivated vaccine based on a glycoprotein E-negative strain of bovine herpesvirus 1 induces protective immunity and allows serological differentiation. Vaccine. 1995; 13(4); 342-346. [PubMed: 7793128].