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Vaccine Comparison

ALVAC-EIV (equine influenza virus H3N8) Influenza virus DNA vaccine encoding HA from Influenza A virus (A/equine/Kentucky/1/1981(H3N8)) Influenza virus DNA vaccine encoding HA of Equine influenza virus H3N8 Influenza virus NS1 mutant vaccine
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004735
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • hemagglutinin gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: A new live recombinant vaccine derived from the canarypox virus vector and expressing haemagglutinin genes of EIV (subtype H3N8) (Paillot et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: Live recombinant vaccine derived from the canarypox virus vector and expressing haemagglutinin genes of EIV (subtype H3N8) (Paillot et al., 2006).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004021
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/equine/Kentucky/1/1981(H3N8)) HA hemagglutinin
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: The HA gene of Eq/KY was subcloned into the WRG eukaryotic expression plasmid (generously provided by Agracetus, Inc., Madison, WI) containing the immediate early promoter and intron A of human cytomegalovirus. The plasmid DNA vaccine construct was designated pWRGHA, and was prepared for PowderJect-XR gene gun administration by anion-exchange resin chromatography (Qiagen Inc., Chatsworth, CA) and coated onto 2.5-μm gold beads at a concentration of 1.0 μg DNA/mg gold beads (Lunn et al., 1999).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pWRG eukaryotic expression plasmid (Agracetus, Inc., Madison, WI)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004167
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Equine influenza virus H3N8 hemagglutinin HA
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: The HA gene of Eq/KY was subcloned into the WRG eukaryotic expression plasmid (generously provided by Agracetus, Inc., Madison, WI) containing the immediate early promoter and intron A of human cytomegalovirus. The plasmid DNA vaccine construct was designated pWRGHA, and was prepared for PowderJect-XR gene gun administration by anion-exchange resin chromatography (Qiagen Inc., Chatsworth, CA) and coated onto 2.5-μm gold beads at a concentration of 1.0 μg DNA/mg gold beads (Lunn et al., 1999).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pWRG (Lunn et al., 1999)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002981
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse, pig, horse, macaque
  • NS1 from Influenza virus gene engineering:
  • Immunization Route: intranasal immunization
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Mouse Response

Pig Response

Horse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: The vaccine used in this study contained 105.6 FAID50 of both recombinants (defined as the minimum protective dose by the manufacturer). The vaccine was reconstituted with 2 ml of diluent containing Carbomer 974P just before use and injected intramuscularly into 12 ponies. Twelve control ponies were immunised with 2 ml of the Carbomer 974P diluent alone. Ponies were vaccinated on days 0 and 36 (Paillot et al., 2006).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: Each pony was challenged on day 50 (14 days after the second immunisation) by exposure to an aerosol generated from 20 ml of allantoic fluid containing around 107.3 50% egg infectious doses (EID50) of influenza (Paillot et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: Both incidence and duration of moderate/severe disease were statistically significantly reduced in the vaccinated horses as compared to the control horses. All 12 control ponies shed virus for a mean of 4.9 ± 1 days. None of the vaccinates shed virus after challenge infection (Paillot et al., 2006).

Horse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: In the skin vaccination group, gene gun vaccination was applied at 14 nonoverlapping locations on inguinal skin and 10 on the perineum. In the skin and mucosal vaccination pony group additional mucosal vaccinations were applied at 10 locations on the ventrum of the tongue and a total of four sites on the conjunctiva and third eyelid of each pony. Each application of the gene gun delivered 0.5 μg of plasmid DNA. Hemagglutinin DNA vaccinations were administered on day 0, 63 and 138 of the experiment (Lunn et al., 1999).
  • Challenge Protocol: Thirty days (day 158) after the third vaccination all ponies in the three groups were infected with Eq/KY virus and studied for another 30 days. The challenge infection was administered by first sedating each pony by intravenous administration of 0.5 mg/kg xylazine, after which ponies were inoculated with 108.5 EID50 of Eq/KY virus suspended in 2 ml of phosphate buffered saline by intranasal instillation (with a 16 gauge polyurethane catheter) into the ventral meatus of the left nostril (Lunn et al., 1999).
  • Efficacy: Skin and mucosal vaccination of ponies with HA from influenza virus A/equine/Ky/1/81 provided complete protection from clinical signs of infection after challenge, while skin vaccination provided partial protection; DNA vaccination provided partial protection from viral shedding (Lunn et al., 1999).

Horse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Three experimental pony groups were established with four ponies in each group. The two vaccinated groups include ponies which received pWRGHA vaccination at skin sites only, and a second group in which pWRGHA vaccination was administered to both skin and mucosal sites. The third group was a control group of unvaccinated ponies which was introduced to the experiment 20 days prior to challenge infection (Lunn et al., 1999).
  • Challenge Protocol: The challenge infection was administered by first sedating each pony by intravenous administration of 0.5 mg/kg xylazine, after which ponies were inoculated with 108.5 EID50 of Eq/KY virus suspended in 2 ml of phosphate buffered saline by intranasal instillation (with a 16 gauge polyurethane catheter) into the ventral meatus of the left nostril.
  • Efficacy: Skin and mucosal vaccination of ponies with a DNA vaccine expressing the HA protein in Equine influenza virus H3N8 provided complete protection from clinical signs of infection with ponies subjected to a challenge infection of Equine influenza virus, while skin vaccination provided partial protection. This DNA vaccination also provided partial protection from viral shedding (Lunn et al., 1999).

Horse Response

Macaque Response

References References References References
Paillot et al., 2006: Paillot R, Kydd JH, Sindle T, Hannant D, Edlund Toulemonde C, Audonnet JC, Minke JM, Daly JM. Antibody and IFN-gamma responses induced by a recombinant canarypox vaccine and challenge infection with equine influenza virus. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology. 2006; 112(3-4); 225-233. [PubMed: 16621023].
Lunn et al., 1999: Lunn DP, Soboll G, Schram BR, Quass J, McGregor MW, Drape RJ, Macklin MD, McCabe DE, Swain WF, Olsen CW. Antibody responses to DNA vaccination of horses using the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene. Vaccine. 1999; 17(18); 2245-2258. [PubMed: 10403592].
Lunn et al., 1999: Lunn DP, Soboll G, Schram BR, Quass J, McGregor MW, Drape RJ, Macklin MD, McCabe DE, Swain WF, Olsen CW. Antibody responses to DNA vaccination of horses using the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene. Vaccine. 1999; 17(18); 2245-2258. [PubMed: 10403592].
Richt and García-Sastre, 2009: Richt JA, García-Sastre A. Attenuated influenza virus vaccines with modified NS1 proteins. Current topics in microbiology and immunology. 2009; 333; 177-195. [PubMed: 19768406].