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Vaccine Comparison

L. major DNA Vaccine encoding Gp63 L. major DNA Vaccine encoding LACKp24, TSA, LmSTI1 and CPa L. major DNA Vaccine encoding SP L. major DNA vaccine pcLACK + IL-22 L. major H1 Protein Vaccine L. major H2B Protein Vaccine L. major PSA-2 Protein Vaccine L. T -PpSP15 Leishmania major DNA vaccine KMP-11 SL3261-L. major
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004046
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Gp63 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pcDNA3 (Walker et al., 1998)
  • Immunization Route: Intradermal injection (i.d.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004171
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • TSA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Cpa gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • LmSTI1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • LACK gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCMV3ISS
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004172
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • SP gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pcDNA3.1 (Rafati et al., 2006)
  • Immunization Route: Subcutanteous injection
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004530
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • LACK gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pcDNA3 (Hezarjaribi et al., 2013)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004176
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • SW3.1 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: Recombinant H1 protein (Solioz et al., 1999)
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: incomplete Freunds adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: Subcutaneous injection
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004045
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: The divergent amino-terminal region of H2B (Chenik et al., 2006).
  • H2B gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: CpG DNA vaccine adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: Subcutaneous injection
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004044
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • PSA-2 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: killed Corynebacterium parvum vaccine adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004627
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Human
  • Vector: (Zahedifard et al., 2014)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004373
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • KMP-11 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Since this vaccine was cross-protective, the KMP-11 gene was from L. donovani (Bhaumik et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCMV-LIC
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004671
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • KMP-11 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: Antigens were differentially expressed on the surface or in the cytosol of Salmonella typhimurium SL3261 (Schroeder et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: Salmonella expressing the novel Leishmania antigens LinJ08.1190 and LinJ23.0410 (Schroeder et al., 2011)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were injected intradermally in the ears, foot pads, dorsal skin, or hind leg muscles with 1-100 μg of plasmid DNA diluted in PBS, freeze-thawed parasites (1.6 X 105) in PBS, gp63 protein (10 μg) emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant(FCA), in FCA or PBS alone in 50 to 70- μl volumes. All
    animals were boosted at 3 weeks (Walker et al., 1998).
  • Challenge Protocol: Promastigotes were subsequentiy resuspended in PBS (1 X 107 promastigotes/ml) and mice were infected by subcutaneous injection of 1 X 106 promastigotes (0.1 ml) in the dorsal side of the right foot 3 weeks after initial immunization (Walker et al., 1998).
  • Efficacy: gp63-pcDNA-3 vaccination protected 30% of susceptible mice (21 of 70) from Leishmania infection (Walker et al., 1998).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: For mice immunization, a single dose of 50 μg of Qiagen purified plasmid of each candidate DNA vaccine was administered intramusculary in 100 μl of PBS, 50 μl in each anterior tibialis muscle. Sham vaccination consisted of a single injection of 50 μg or 200 μg of Qiagen purified pCMV3ISS, the plasmid backbone, in the same conditions as immunized mice. A further control group of mice received no treatment at all (PBS). A group of mice was vaccinated with a cocktail of all 4 antigen carrying plasmids (pCMV3ISS-LACKp24, pCMV3ISS-TSA, pCMV3ISS-LmSTI1 and pCMV3ISS-CPa) (Ahmed et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: The appropriate number of promastigotes was inoculated subcutaneously in the right hind footpad of female BALB/c mice in 50 μl of PBS. The challenge of mice was carried out 2 weeks after the immunization (Ahmed et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: A substantial increase of protection was achieved when the cocktail is composed of all of the four antigens; however, no full protection was achieved when mice were challenged with a high dose of parasite in their hind footpad. The full protection was only achieved after a challenge with a low parasitic dose in the dermis of the ear (Ahmed et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Immunization experiments were carried out twice at 3 weeks intervals in five groups of 10 BALB/c mice. Mice in group I (DNA/DNA) were immunized subcutaneously (s.c.) in the right footpad with 100 μg of pcDNA-sp plasmid, in the both prime and boost vaccination. Two control groups (IV and V) were studied; mice in group IV (vector only/CpG) were inoculated using 100 μg of pcDNA (vector without insert) in the first vaccination and the same adjuvant regimen (50 μg CpG ODN and 70 (v/v) Montanide 720) in the second vaccination. Mice in group V (PBS) received PBS alone (Rafati et al., 2006).
  • Challenge Protocol: Animals were then challenged 3 weeks after completion of the immunization protocol with 3 × 105 L. major MRHO/IR/75/ER metacyclic promastigotes that had been suspended in 50 μl PBS and injected into the left footpad (Rafati et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: DNA/DNA strategy developed more effective protective responses and induced 81% reduction in L. major parasite load (Rafati et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: IL-22 obviously caused an increase in IFN-γ production and a decrease in IL-4 production before and after the challenge (p < 0.05) (Hezarjaribi et al., 2013).
  • Efficacy: Comparison of the mean size of lesions in the LACK and LACK + IL-22 groups demonstrated that the mean size of lesions of the two groups was significantly different from week four (p < 0.05). The survival rate at day 170 after challenge for the PBS, pcDNA3 (empty plasmid), pcLACK (pcDNA3 containing LACK gene), and pcLACK + IL-22 groups were 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%, respectively (Hezarjaribi et al., 2013).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c, C57BL/6 or B10.D2
  • Vaccination Protocol: In all protection experiments, mice (n=5–8) were given injections (2×25 μl) of antigen preparation twice subcutaneously (s.c.) at the base of the tail. Before the injection, antigens were either emusified in IFA (1:1, vol/vol), mixed (1:1, vol/vol) with either 0.5 or 1 μg of IL-12 in PBS or prepared in PBS only. Several doses of antigen were tested and parasite challenge in the right hind footpad was performed at different time points after the second injection (Solioz et al., 1999).
  • Challenge Protocol: In this long term experiment, mice were challenged two and a half months after the second injection of antigen with 2×106 highly infectious parasites (Solioz et al., 1999).
  • Efficacy: When inoculated in the presence of IFA as adjuvant, the partially purified histone H1 was able to confer partial protection in six out of eight mice (Solioz et al., 1999).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Three groups of mice were injected with 25 μg of either one of the three recombinant proteins (H2B, H2BΔN46 or H2BΔC65) with CpG. Three additional control groups received adjuvant (CpG or non-CpG) or PBS alone. Each mouse received two subcutaneous (s.c.) injections in the left footpad in a volume of 50 μl at 15 days intervals (Chenik et al., 2006).
  • Challenge Protocol: Four weeks after the second dose, mice were infected in the right footpad with 2 × 106 L. major metacyclic promastigotes, in 50 μl of PBS (Chenik et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: The divergent amino-terminal region of H2B is able to confer potent protection against a virulent challenge in BALB/c mice. Mice immunized with the amino-terminal part of H2B in presence of CpG are more resistant than those immunized, in the same conditions, by the whole protein (p < 0.05, from week 5) after L. major challenge (Chenik et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: C3H/He and BALB/c H-2^k
  • Vaccination Protocol: Groups of 8 to 16 mice were injected three times, every 2 weeks, intraperitoneally with 1.5 to 2 mg of purified PSA-2mixed with 200 mg of killed Corynebacterium parvum as an adjuvant (Handman et al., 1995).
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the last injection, all mice were bled individually and divided into groups; one group was used to examine T-cell responses to PSA-2 antigen, and another group was challenged with 105 live promastigotes.
  • Efficacy: Intraperitoneal vaccination of C3H/He mice with PSA-2 with Corynebacterium parvum as an adjuvant resulted in complete protection from lesion development after challenge infection with virulent L. major. Significant protection was also obtained in the genetically susceptible BALB/cH-2k and BALB/c mice (Handman et al., 1995).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Efficacy: In both susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice, the strongest protective effect was observed when priming with PpSP15 DNA and boosting with PpSP15 DNA and live recombinant L. tarentolae stably expressing cysteine proteinase genes (Zahedifard et al., 2014).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Lesion size of the LM infected groups immunized additionally with IL-12 showed significant reduction at 12 weeks post-infection compared to mice immunized with KMP-11 DNA alone (p < 0.05). Moreover, we examined the parasite loads in the local draining lymph nodes which showed ∼96.2% and 94% reduction in parasite burden in groups of immunized mice treated additionally with (IL-12p35 + IL-12p40) DNA or rmIL-12, respectively (p < 0.05). KMP-11 DNA immunized mice showed 69% reduction in LM-load in draining lymph node suggesting KMP-11 DNA immunization alone was partially protective against LM (Bhaumik et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were vaccinated with a single dose of Salmonella vaccine strains, the carrier control SL3261 or treated with PBS (Schroeder et al., 2011).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000287
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were subsequently challenged with 2×106 late-stationary phase L. major promastigotes into the left hind footpad (Schroeder et al., 2011).
  • Efficacy: We show that vaccine strains of Salmonella expressing the novel Leishmania antigens LinJ08.1190 and LinJ23.0410 significantly reduced visceralisation of L. major and enhanced systemic resistance against L. donovani in susceptible BALB/c mice (Schroeder et al., 2011).
References References References References References References References References References References
Walker et al., 1998: Walker PS, Scharton-Kersten T, Rowton ED, Hengge U, Bouloc A, Udey MC, Vogel JC. Genetic immunization with glycoprotein 63 cDNA results in a helper T cell type 1 immune response and protection in a murine model of leishmaniasis. Human gene therapy. 1998; 9(13); 1899-1907. [PubMed: 9741428].
Ahmed et al., 2009: Ahmed SB, Touihri L, Chtourou Y, Dellagi K, Bahloul C. DNA based vaccination with a cocktail of plasmids encoding immunodominant Leishmania (Leishmania) major antigens confers full protection in BALB/c mice. Vaccine. 2009; 27(1); 99-9106. [PubMed: 18951941].
Rafati et al., 2006: Rafati S, Ghaemimanesh F, Zahedifard F. Comparison of potential protection induced by three vaccination strategies (DNA/DNA, Protein/Protein and DNA/Protein) against Leishmania major infection using Signal Peptidase type I in BALB/c mice. Vaccine. 2006; 24(16); 3290-3297. [PubMed: 16481076].
Hezarjaribi et al., 2013: Hezarjaribi HZ, Ghaffarifar F, Dalimi A, Sharifi Z, Jorjani O. Effect of IL-22 on DNA vaccine encoding LACK gene of Leishmania major in BALB/c mice. Experimental parasitology. 2013; 134(3); 341-348. [PubMed: 23541883].
Solioz et al., 1999: Solioz N, Blum-Tirouvanziam U, Jacquet R, Rafati S, Corradin G, Mauël J, Fasel N. The protective capacities of histone H1 against experimental murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. Vaccine. 1999; 18(9-10); 850-859. [PubMed: 10580198].
Chenik et al., 2006: Chenik M, Louzir H, Ksontini H, Dilou A, Abdmouleh I, Dellagi K. Vaccination with the divergent portion of the protein histone H2B of Leishmania protects susceptible BALB/c mice against a virulent challenge with Leishmania major. Vaccine. 2006; 24(14); 2521-2529. [PubMed: 16417957].
Handman et al., 1995: Handman E, Symons FM, Baldwin TM, Curtis JM, Scheerlinck JP. Protective vaccination with promastigote surface antigen 2 from Leishmania major is mediated by a TH1 type of immune response. Infection and immunity. 1995; 63(11); 4261-4267. [PubMed: 7591056].
Zahedifard et al., 2014: Zahedifard F, Gholami E, Taheri T, Taslimi Y, Doustdari F, Seyed N, Torkashvand F, Meneses C, Papadopoulou B, Kamhawi S, Valenzuela JG, Rafati S. Enhanced protective efficacy of nonpathogenic recombinant leishmania tarentolae expressing cysteine proteinases combined with a sand fly salivary antigen. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2014; 8(3); e2751. [PubMed: 24675711].
Bhaumik et al., 2009: Bhaumik S, Basu R, Sen S, Naskar K, Roy S. KMP-11 DNA immunization significantly protects against L. donovani infection but requires exogenous IL-12 as an adjuvant for comparable protection against L. major. Vaccine. 2009; 27(9); 1306-1316. [PubMed: 19162111].
Schroeder et al., 2011: Schroeder J, Brown N, Kaye P, Aebischer T. Single dose novel Salmonella vaccine enhances resistance against visceralizing L. major and L. donovani infection in susceptible BALB/c mice. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2011; 5(12); e1406. [PubMed: 22216363].