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Vaccine Comparison

Japanese encephalitis virus DNA vaccine encoding E protein Japanese encephalitis virus DNA vaccine encoding NS1 (pUSK-NS1) Japanese encephalitis virus DNA vaccine encoding PrM Japanese encephalitis virus DNA Vaccine P-JEV Japanese encephalitis virus DNA Vaccine pCJ-3/E encoding E Japanese encephalitis virus DNA vaccine pUJENS3 Japanese encephalitis virus DNA vaccine pUJENS5 Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine BV-G-E
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011353
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Japanese encephalitis virus PrM and E protein
  • PrM gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Plasmid pSLKJ12 contains the premembrane signal sequence as well as the premembrane (PrM) and envelope (E) genes of the Sagayama strain of JEV. The viral sequence, spanning nucleotides 408 to 2477, was retrieved from this plasmid by PstI-EcoRI digestion. The fragment was cloned into the eukaryotic expression vectors pcDL-SRα296 and pCAGGS, generously provided by Y. Takebe (Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Epidemiology, AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan) and J. Miyazaki (Division of Stem Cell Regulation Research, G6, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka, Japan), respectively. They are purified and designated pSRαJ12 and pCAGJ12, respectively (Zhao et al., 2003).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • E gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Plasmid pSLKJ12 contains the premembrane signal sequence as well as the premembrane (PrM) and envelope (E) genes of the Sagayama strain of JEV. The viral sequence, spanning nucleotides 408 to 2477, was retrieved from this plasmid by PstI-EcoRI digestion. The fragment was cloned into the eukaryotic expression vectors pcDL-SRα296 and pCAGGS, generously provided by Y. Takebe (Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Epidemiology, AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan) and J. Miyazaki (Division of Stem Cell Regulation Research, G6, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka, Japan), respectively (Zhao et al., 2003).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Expression vectors pcDL-SRα296 and pCAGGS
  • Immunization Route: Intravenous injection (i.v.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011500
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Japanese encephalitis virus NS1
  • NS1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: NS1 gene of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) SA14-14-2 strain was produced by reverse transcriptase-mediated PCR (RT-PCR) and was cloned into vector pUSK to form recombinant plasmid (designed as pUSK-NS1) (Xu et al., 2004).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pUSK
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011345
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: envelope protein
  • PrM gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Plasmid pSLKJ12 contains the premembrane signal sequence as well as the premembrane (PrM) and envelope (E) genes of the Sagayama strain of JEV. The viral sequence, spanning nucleotides 408 to 2477, was retrieved from this plasmid by PstI-EcoRI digestion. The fragment was cloned into the eukaryotic expression vectors pcDL-SRα296 and pCAGGS, generously provided by Y. Takebe (Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Epidemiology, AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan) and J. Miyazaki (Division of Stem Cell Regulation Research, G6, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka, Japan), respectively. They are purified and designated pSRαJ12 and pCAGJ12, respectively (Zhao et al., 2003).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Expression vectors pcDL-SRα296 and pCAGGS
  • Immunization Route: Intravenous injection (i.v.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004586
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • E gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • NS1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • M protein gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pcDNA3.1/V5-His-P-JEV (Kulkarni et al., 2012)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004587
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • E gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCJ-3/E (Wu et al., 2006)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011501
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Japanese encephalitis virus non-structural protein NS3
  • NS3 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Amplified DNA fragments containing the NS3 gene was ligated to the pUBIQ vector at the EcoRI/XbaI site to construct pUJENS3 (Konishi et al., 2003).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pUBIQ vector
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011352
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Japanese encephalitis virus NS5
  • NS5 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Amplified DNA fragments containing the NS5 gene was ligated to the pUBIQ8 vector at the BspEI and/or XbaI sites to construct pUJENS5 (Konishi et al., 2003).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pUBIQ vector
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011516
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein
  • E gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: Recombinant pseudotype baculovirus (BV-G-E) was generated by inserting JEV E gene fragment into pFastBac-VSV/G vector. BALB/c mice were immunized with BV-G-E and challenged with JEV wild-type strain. The neutralization antibody, interferon (IFN)- expression and release, and survival rate were analysed and compared with the group of immunized with inactivated vaccine and DNA vaccine (pc-E) encoding the same gene of JEV (Li et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: baculovirus pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVG)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: For the protection test, 3-week-old female BALB/c mice were inoculated with either 50, 5, or 0.5 μg of the mixture on days 0 and 9 intravenously or intradermally (Zhao et al., 2003).
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 22, all immunized mice were challenged by an intraperitoneal injection of 100,000 times the LD50 of JEV (Beijing-1 strain, 0.15 ml), at which time they were simultaneously inoculated intracerebrally with 25 μl of saline into the right hemisphere of their brains with a 27-gauge one-stop needle (Top Injection Needle, Tokyo, Japan) (Zhao et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: Researchers established a simple and effective method for DNA immunization against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection with plasmids encoding the viral PrM and E proteins and colloidal gold. After being inoculated twice, BALB/c mice were found to resist challenge with 100,000 times the 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) of JEV (Beijing-1 strain) even when immunized with a relatively small dose of 0.5 micro g of plasmid DNA (Zhao et al., 2003).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Ten 6-week-old Balb/c mice and eight 2-days old piglets were immunized with 5.0 log10pfu of the TK−/gG−/NS1+ mutant, while another equal number of animal in control groups with PBS (Xu et al., 2004).
  • Challenge Protocol: The challenge was performed with PRV Ea strain at a concentration of 6.5 log10pfu (LD50=10−4.5) at day 7 for mice and day 14 for piglets post-vaccination (Xu et al., 2004).
  • Efficacy: Balb/c mice and swine vaccinated with TK(-)/gG(-)/NS1(+) expressing NS1 protein of JEV could confer protective immunity against lethal challenge of the virulent PRV Ea strain and develop a good humoral and cellular immune response against JEV (Xu et al., 2004).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: For the protection test, 3-week-old female BALB/c mice were inoculated with either 50, 5, or 0.5 μg of the mixture on days 0 and 9 intravenously or intradermally (Zhao et al., 2003).
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 22, all immunized mice were challenged by an intraperitoneal injection of 100,000 times the LD50 of JEV (Beijing-1 strain, 0.15 ml), at which time they were simultaneously inoculated intracerebrally with 25 μl of saline into the right hemisphere of their brains with a 27-gauge one-stop needle (Top Injection Needle, Tokyo, Japan) (Zhao et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: Researchers established a simple and effective method for DNA immunization against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection with plasmids encoding the viral PrM and E proteins and colloidal gold. After being inoculated twice, BALB/c mice were found to resist challenge with 100,000 times the 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) of JEV (Beijing-1 strain) even when immunized with a relatively small dose of 0.5 micro g of plasmid DNA (Zhao et al., 2003).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Control mice received 1 μg of pcDNA3.1/V5-His plasmid per dose. While same amount of recombinant plasmid, pcDNA3.1/V5-His-P-JEV was used to immunize the experimental group. Groups of BALB/c mice (n = 10), received two booster doses with equal amount of DNA after every 2 weeks (Kulkarni et al., 2012).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Anti-JEV antibodies were detectable in all mouse groups 31 days after immunization. Levels of these antibodies increased after the first booster immunization and were further enhanced after the second booster dose. Following the challenge, pcDNA3.1/V5-His-P-JEV immunized mice showed significantly enhanced JEV antibody titres (Kulkarni et al., 2012).
  • Challenge Protocol: At 6 weeks after immunization, mice were challenged with lethal dose of 100LD50 with JEV 733913 strain by intraperitonial route, followed by 1% starch by the intracerebral route to breach the blood brain barrier (Kulkarni et al., 2012).
  • Efficacy: Approximately 83% of mice immunized with the vaccine survived the challenge injection (Kulkarni et al., 2012).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: All mice were immunized intramuscularly at 6 to 8 weeks of age. Groups of five mice were anesthetized and injected three times at 3-week intervals with 100 μg of DNA (Wu et al., 2006).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: The vaccine enhanced the production of higher titers of neutralizing antibodies, and generated both cellular and humoral immunity (Wu et al., 2006).
  • Challenge Protocol: For a lethal challenge experiment, C3H/HeN mice were injected intraperitoneally with 50 times the LD50 of JEV Beijing-1 and intracerebrally with PBS (Wu et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: In terms of survival rates of immunized mice challenged with JEV virus at week 16, 100% protection was seen with pCJ-3/E-immunized mice (Wu et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Four-to-six-week-old male BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly (i.m.) with 100 μg of plasmid DNA one to three times at intervals of 2 weeks. For evaluation of CTL induction, spleens were collected from groups of two immunized mice 2–4 weeks after the last immunization (Konishi et al., 2003).
  • Challenge Protocol: For evaluation of protective efficacy, groups of 6–12 immunized mice were bled retroorbitally for evaluating pre-challenge serum neutralizing antibody titers, and then challenged i.p. with 100 or 400 LD50 of the P3 strain of JE virus, 6 weeks after the first immunization. Mice were observed for 21 days, and surviving mice were bled for evaluating post-challenge serum neutralizing antibody titers. For monitoring virus load following challenge, groups of 18 immunized mice were challenged with 100 LD50 of the P3 strain, and 600–700 μl of blood and the whole brain were collected 1 h (day 0) or consecutive 5 days (days 1–5) following challenge from 3 mice per day per group (Konishi et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: Researchers constructed plasmid DNAs encoding JE virus proteins. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were induced by NS3 in a mouse model. Three immunizations with pUJENS3 provided a 50% partial protection from a lethal dose of JE virus (Konishi et al., 2003).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Four-to-six-week-old male BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly (i.m.) with 100 μg of plasmid DNA one to three times at intervals of 2 weeks. For evaluation of CTL induction, spleens were collected from groups of two immunized mice 2–4 weeks after the last immunization (Konishi et al., 2003).
  • Challenge Protocol: For evaluation of protective efficacy, groups of 6–12 immunized mice were bled retroorbitally for evaluating pre-challenge serum neutralizing antibody titers, and then challenged i.p. with 100 or 400 LD50 of the P3 strain of JE virus, 6 weeks after the first immunization. Mice were observed for 21 days, and surviving mice were bled for evaluating post-challenge serum neutralizing antibody titers. For monitoring virus load following challenge, groups of 18 immunized mice were challenged with 100 LD50 of the P3 strain, and 600–700 μl of blood and the whole brain were collected 1 h (day 0) or consecutive 5 days (days 1–5) following challenge from 3 mice per day per group (Konishi et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: Researchers constructed plasmid DNAs encoding JE virus proteins. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were induced by NS5 in a mouse model. Three immunizations with pUJENS5 provided a 57% partial protection from a lethal dose of JE virus (Konishi et al., 2003).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Four-week old female BALB/c mice (purchased from the Animal Centre, Institute of Medicine (Hubei Province, China) were randomly divided into seven groups (15 mice per group). Three groups were injected intramuscularly (i.m.) with 100 µl of PBS containing 1 × 108, 1 × 109 and 1 × 1010 PFU of BV-G-E, respectively. The other three groups were injected intramuscularly with 100 µl of PBS containing 1 × 1010 PFU of BV-G-EGFP or 100 µg of pc-E (a DNA vaccine construct expressing E protein) or 100 µl inactivated vaccine. The last group was used as a negative control by intramuscularly injecting 100 µl of PBS. Booster immunizations were identically performed 3 weeks later (Li et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: A subset of immunized mice was intraperitoneally (i.p.) challenged with 105 PFU of wild-type JEV P3 in 0.1 ml at 6 weeks following the initial immunization. Mouse mortality was monitored daily for 3 weeks (Li et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: Researchers constructed a recombinant pseudotype baculovirus encoding the JEV envelope (E) protein and demonstrated that it could elicit high protective immunity in mice. Intramuscular injections of BV-G-E at various doses into mice produced higher levels of JEV-specific neutralizing antibodies, IFN-gamma and better protective efficacy against a lethal challenge with JEV than that of pc-E. Furthermore, BV-G-E could elicit a higher level of cellular immunity response and provide equal protective efficacy against JEV challenge compared to inactivated vaccine (Li et al., 2009).
  • Host Ifng (Interferon gamma) response
    • Description: An evident dose-dependent pattern of IFN-gamma production could be observed in mice immunized with BV-G-E. As expected, no significant production of IFN-γ was detected in PBS-inoculated mice. Interestingly, the mean relative IFN-γ mRNA expression in the group of BV-G-EGFP was also significantly higher than that of pc-E vaccinated mice in splenocytes (Li et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
References References References References References References References References
Zhao et al., 2003: Zhao Z, Wakita T, Yasui K. Inoculation of plasmids encoding Japanese encephalitis virus PrM-E proteins with colloidal gold elicits a protective immune response in BALB/c mice. Journal of virology. 2003; 77(7); 4248-4260. [PubMed: 12634382].
Xu et al., 2004: Xu G, Xu X, Li Z, He Q, Wu B, Sun S, Chen H. Construction of recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing NS1 protein of Japanese encephalitis (SA14-14-2) virus and its safety and immunogenicity. Vaccine. 2004; 22(15-16); 1846-1853. [PubMed: 15121294].
Zhao et al., 2003: Zhao Z, Wakita T, Yasui K. Inoculation of plasmids encoding Japanese encephalitis virus PrM-E proteins with colloidal gold elicits a protective immune response in BALB/c mice. Journal of virology. 2003; 77(7); 4248-4260. [PubMed: 12634382].
Kulkarni et al., 2012: Kulkarni R, Sapkal G, Gore M. Evaluation of Japanese encephalitis virus polytope DNA vaccine candidate in BALB/c mice. Virus research. 2012; 170(1-2); 118-125. [PubMed: 23007095].
Wu et al., 2006: Wu CJ, Li TL, Huang HW, Tao MH, Chan YL. Development of an effective Japanese encephalitis virus-specific DNA vaccine. Microbes and infection / Institut Pasteur. 2006; 8(11); 2578-2586. [PubMed: 16949850].
Konishi et al., 2003: Konishi E, Ajiro N, Nukuzuma C, Mason PW, Kurane I. Comparison of protective efficacies of plasmid DNAs encoding Japanese encephalitis virus proteins that induce neutralizing antibody or cytotoxic T lymphocytes in mice. Vaccine. 2003; 21(25-26); 3675-3683. [PubMed: 12922097].
Konishi et al., 2003: Konishi E, Ajiro N, Nukuzuma C, Mason PW, Kurane I. Comparison of protective efficacies of plasmid DNAs encoding Japanese encephalitis virus proteins that induce neutralizing antibody or cytotoxic T lymphocytes in mice. Vaccine. 2003; 21(25-26); 3675-3683. [PubMed: 12922097].
Li et al., 2009: Li Y, Ye J, Cao S, Xiao S, Zhao Q, Liu X, Jin M, Chen H. Immunization with pseudotype baculovirus expressing envelope protein of Japanese encephalitis virus elicits protective immunity in mice. The journal of gene medicine. 2009; 11(1); 57-65. [PubMed: 19006097].