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Vaccine Comparison

CVD 909 CVD 915 S. typhi DnaJ Protein Vaccine S. typhi GroEL Protein Vaccine S. typimurium Vi4072 Salmonella DNA vaccine encoding SopB Protein Salmonella enterica fliC/guaB mutant vaccine Salmonella Enteritidis guaBA/clpP mutant vaccine Salmonella Gallinarum cpxR/Ion mutant vaccine Salmonella Gallinarum crp mutant vaccine Salmonella typhi aroA mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhi galE mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhi phoP mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium asd mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium asd/rfc mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium atpA mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium clpP mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium cya/crp mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium guaBA/clpP mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium guaBA/clpP/fliD mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium hfq mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium htrA mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium IppA/IppB/msbB Salmonella Typhimurium IppB/msbB mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium ompR mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium poxA mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium rpoS mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium ruvB mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium surA mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium tolA mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium trxA mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium wecA mutant vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium znuABC mutant vaccine
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004138
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Licensed
  • HtrA gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: CVD 909 was constructed by replacing the native promoter of tviA with the strong constitutive promoter Ptac (Wang et al., 2000).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: S. Typhi CVD 909 was constructed to express the Vi-antigen. This involved a deletion in the promoter region of tviA and an insertion of the sacB-neo cassette, introduced into the chromosome of CVD 908-htrA by homologous recombination. The replacement of the sacB-neo cassette allowed the replacement of the promoter region with the Ptac promoter in a second homologous recombination event (Wang et al., 2000).
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004139
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Antigen: The antigens used in the production of this vaccine are: Recombinant frag C, S. Typhi flagella, S.Typhi LPS, S.Typhi lysate, whole-cell heat phenolyzed S. Typhi, PHA, and BSA (Pasetti et al., 1999).
  • Frag C gene engineering:
    • Type: Other
    • Description: Frag C encoding tetanous toxin was introduced into CVD 915 (Pasetti et al., 1999).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: CVD 915 was manipulated with electroporation with plasmids pTETner15 and pcDNAtetc. guaBA was deleted from S. Typhi strain 915, which interrupts the biosynthesis of guanine nucleatides (Pasetti et al., 1999).
  • Virulence: High titers of IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were observed against Frag C, elicited by the CVD 915. High titers of serum IgG antibody against S. Typhi flagella and LPS were observed in mice vaccinated with the CVS 915. Titers increased significantly following the booster dose.
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004182
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • DnaJ gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: Freunds emulsified oil adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004183
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • GroEL gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: complete Freunds adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004186
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • TviB gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Salmonella typhimurium χ4072, an attenuated Δcya Δcrp mutant (Cao et al., 1992).
  • Immunization Route: Orally
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004185
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • sopB gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCI-TPA (Nagarajan et al., 2009)
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse, chicken
  • fliC gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This fliC/guaB mutant is from Salmonella enterica (Adriaensen et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • guaB from S. enteritidis str. P125109 gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This fliC/guaB mutant is from Salmonella enterica (Adriaensen et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Product Name: CVD 1941
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • clpP gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This guaBA/clpP mutant is from Salmonella Enteritidis (Tennant et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • guaA gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This guaBA/clpP mutant is from Salmonella Enteritidis (Tennant et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • guaB from S. enteritidis str. P125109 gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This guaBA/clpP mutant is from Salmonella Enteritidis (Tennant et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Oral immunization
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • cpxR gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This cpxR/Ion mutant is from Salmonella Gallinarum (Matsuda et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • lon gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This cpxR/Ion mutant is from Salmonella Gallinarum (Matsuda et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002879
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • crp gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This crp mutant is from Salmonella Gallinarum (Rosu et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002863
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • aroA gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This aroA was mutated from Salmonella typhi strain Ty2 (Dougan et al., 1987).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002883
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • galE gene engineering:
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002903
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • PhoP gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This phoP mutant is from Salmonella Typhi (Lee et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002867
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • asd gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This asd mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Piao et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Oral immunization
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • asd gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This asd/rfc mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Piao et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • rfc gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This asd/rfc mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Piao et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Oral immunization
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002869
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • atpA gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This atpA mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Chaudhuri et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intravenous injection (i.v.)
  • Product Name: CS2007
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002872
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • clpP from S. typhimurium str. LT2 gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This clpP mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Matsui et al., 2003).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Oral immunization
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • crp from S. Typhimurium gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This crp mutant is from S. Typhimurium (Curtiss and Kelly, 1987).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • cya gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This cya mutant is from S. Typhimurium (Curtiss and Kelly, 1987).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Peroral Inoculation
  • Product Name: CVD 1921
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • clpP from S. typhimurium str. LT2 gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This guaBA/clpP mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Tennant et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • guaA from S. typhimurium str. LT2 gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This guaBA/clpP mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Tennant et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • guaB gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This guaBA/clpP mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Tennant et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Oral immunization
  • Product Name: CVD 1923
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • clpP from S. typhimurium str. LT2 gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This guaBA/clpP/fliD mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Tennant et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • fliD gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This guaBA/clpP/fliD mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Tennant et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • guaA from S. typhimurium str. LT2 gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This guaBA/clpP/fliD mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Tennant et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • guaB gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This guaBA/clpP/fliD mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Tennant et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Oral immunization
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002892
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • hfq gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This hfq mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Allam et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Oral immunization
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002893
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • htrA gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This htrA mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Chatfield et al., 1992).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intravenous injection (i.v.)
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • lppA gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This IppA/IppB/msbB mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Liu et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • lppB gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This IppA/IppB/msbB mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Liu et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • msbB gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This IppA/IppB/msbB mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Liu et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • lppB gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This IppB/msbB mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Liu et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • msbB gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This IppB/msbB mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Liu et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002902
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • ompR gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This ompR mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Dorman et al., 1989).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intravenous injection (i.v.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002904
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • poxA gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This poxA mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Kaniga et al., 1998).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002908
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • rpoS gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This rpoS mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Coynault et al., 1996).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002909
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • ruvB gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This ruvB mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Choi et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002911
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • surA gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This surA mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Sydenham et al., 2000).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intravenous injection (i.v.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002912
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • tolA gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This tolA mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Paterson et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intravenous injection (i.v.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002913
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • trxA gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: A trxA mutant is attenuated in mice and induced significant protection from challenge with wild type S. Typhimurium (Peters et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intravenous injection (i.v.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002914
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • wecA gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This wecA mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Gilbreath et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • znuA gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This znuABC mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Pesciaroli et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • znuB gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This znuABC mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Pesciaroli et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • znuC gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This znuABC mutant is from Salmonella Typhimurium (Pesciaroli et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Oral immunization
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Human Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: 24 volunteers received a single oral dose of CVD 909 of 106–109 cfu, and 8 adults received 2 doses of 6 × 109 cfu per dose with buffer 14 days apart (Tacket and Levine, 2007).
  • Immune Response: All volunteers tested developed IgA anti-LPS ASCs. However, only 1 of the volunteers who ingested a single dose and only 1 of the 8 volunteers who ingested 2 doses developed serum IgG anti-Vi .However, IgA anti-Vi ASC responses were detected in a majority of volunteers who received 108–109 cfu of CVD 909. These Vi-specific ASC responses provided evidence that the Vi antigen was expressed and immunologically processed, even if serum antibody responses were realitvely small (Tacket and Levine, 2007).
  • Side Effects: Not noted.

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Three groups of 6-week-old BALB/c mice were immunized once intranasally with 1010 CFU of either serovar Typhi strain CVD 908-htrA or CVD 909 or PBS (control) (Wang et al., 2000).
  • Immune Response: The mean titer of IgG anti-Vi was much higher in the mice that received CVD 909. However, GMTs of O antibody after immunization were quite similar in the two groups (CVD 909 and CDV 908-htrA) (Wang et al., 2000).
  • Side Effects: Not noted.
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were challenged with wild-type serovar Typhi strain Ty2 thirty days after primary immunization (Wang et al., 2000).
  • Efficacy: A single mucosal dose of CVD 909 conferred significantly greater protection than CVD 908-htrA (Wang et al., 2000).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: BALB/c mice were injected immunized intranasally with 2x109 CFU of CVD 915 in a 30 microliter volume. Mice were boosted in the same manner 35 days later (Pasetti et al., 1999).
  • Immune Response: Immunization with CVD 915 elicited sensitized lymphoid cells that proliferated in the presence of Frag C. A strong immune response was observed (Pasetti et al., 1999).
  • Challenge Protocol: BALM/c mice were challenged with 50-100 lethal doses of tetanus toxin (Pasetti et al., 1999) .

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunised on day 0 by injecting 40 μg DnaJ/mouse emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant (100 μl) i.p. Subsequent booster injections were given by injecting 30 μg DnaJ/mouse emulsified in Freund's incomplete adjuvant i.p. on 7th and 28th days. The control mice received adjuvant alone (Sagi et al., 2006).
  • Challenge Protocol: After 15 days of last immunisation, i.e. 43rd day the mice were challenged with 10 MLD (1 × 105 cells) of S. Typhimurium i.p. The animals were observed daily for 30 days for morbidity and mortality (Sagi et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: Immunisation of mice with DnaJ derived from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi str. CT18 was found to provide 70% protection against lethal challenge by S. typhimurium indicating the possible use of DnaJ as vaccine candidate against typhoid (Sagi et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice each were immunized i.m. with 10 μg of GroEL/mouse either alone or in combination with alum or CFA on 0, 7th, and 28th day as described earlier. As negative control, group of 10 mice was injected with endotoxin free water mixed with alum or CFA (Bansal et al., 2010).
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the last booster, all the groups were challenged with a lethal dose of 1 × 108 CFU/ml/mouse S. typhi Ty2 intraperitoneally (i.p.). The mice were observed daily for 30 days for any morbidity or mortality (Bansal et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: Immunization of mice with GroEL + CFA provided 80% protection against lethal challenge by S. typhi in mice (Bansal et al., 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized orally with 5 x 107 recombinant Salmonella Vi4072. As controls, groups of mice were inoculated orally with 5 x 107 χ4072(pYA248) or BSG (Cao et al., 1992).
  • Challenge Protocol: At 60 days postimmunization, mice were challenged with virulent S. typhi Ty2 (Cao et al., 1992).
  • Efficacy: Immunization of mice with Vi4072 afforded complete protection against fatal infection with virulent S. typhi Ty2 (Cao et al., 1992).
  • Description: The viaB (tviB) gene coding for the Vi antigen of Salmonella typhi Ty2 was subcloned into expression vector pYA248. The recombinant plasmid was termed SMM202 and transformed into Salmonella typhimurium Vi4072, an attenuated ΔcyaΔcrp mutant (Cao et al., 1992).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Six- to eight-week-old female BALB/c mice were immunized via i.p. route with 1 ml of PBS containing 103 CFU of ΔpmrG-HM-D strain per mouse and 10 μg of DNA vaccine plasmid in 50 μl volume of PBS in cohort of five mice. Booster doses were given on 7th and 14th day. Placebo control mice were injected with 103 CFU of ΔpmrG-HM-D strain per mouse and 10 μg of empty pCI-TPA vector (Nagarajan et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: 21 days after immunization, mice were challenged with 107 CFU/mouse of WT Salmonella orally (Nagarajan et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: SopB DNA vaccine immunization reduced the bacterial burden of organs by about 5-fold on day 4 and day 8 after challenge with virulent Salmonella and proved to be a more efficient vaccination strategy than live attenuated bacteria alone (Nagarajan et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: A fliC/guaB mutant is attenuated in mice (Adriaensen et al., 2007).
  • Efficacy: A fliC/guaB mutant induces significant protection in mice from challenge with wild type S. enterica (Adriaensen et al., 2007).
  • Host IgG response
    • Description: Fifty-four days following initial oral immunization of BALB/c mice with approximately 108 CFU per mouse of, respectively, the S. enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaB and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaB ΔfliC mutants, blood samples were collected from the tail arteries of five mice. Comparison between sera of mice immunized with S. enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaB and mice immunized with S. enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaB ΔfliC showed that, in both cases, comparable anti-LPS serum IgG responses were elicited (Adriaensen et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: A guaBA/clpP mutant is attenuated in mice (Tennant et al., 2011).
  • Efficacy: A guaBA/clpP mutant induces protection in mice from challenge with wild type Salmonella Enteritidis. The vaccine efficacy is 76% (Tennant et al., 2011).
  • Host IgG response
    • Description: Immune responses induced included high levels of serum IgG anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with titers increasing progressively during the immunization schedule. For mice immunized with attenuated S. Enteritidis vaccine candidates, there was a trend of higher seroconversion rates after the first dose (26 days after immunization) in mice that received CVD 1941 than for those immunized with CVD 1943, which was statistically significant for anti-FliC (Tennant et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: A cpxR/Ion mutant is highly attenuated in mice (Matsuda et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: A cpxR/Ion mutant induces significant protection in mice from challenge with wild type S. Gallinarum (Matsuda et al., 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: A crp mutant is attenuated in mice (Rosu et al., 2007).
  • Efficacy: A crp mutant induces significant protection in mice from challenge with wild type S. Gallinarum (Rosu et al., 2007).

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: An aroA mutant is attenuated in mice (Dougan et al., 1987).
  • Efficacy: An aroA mutant induced significant protection in mice from challenge with wild type S. typhi Ty2 (Dougan et al., 1987).

Mouse Response

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: A phoP mutant is attenuated in mice (Lee et al., 2007).
  • Efficacy: A phoP mutant provides significant protection in mice from challenge with wild type S. Typhi (Lee et al., 2007).
  • Host IgG response
    • Description: The serum titer of IgG was more than 1000-fold higher in mice immunized with a phoP mutant than in control mice. The mutant induced high titers of serum IgG against lipopolysaccharide of S. typhi at 8 weeks in the immunization schedule (Lee et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IgG2b response
    • Description: The titers of serum IgG2b increased significantly 8 weeks after inoculation in mice immunized with a phoP mutant as compared to unimmunized control mice (Lee et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host Ighv1-9 response
    • Description: Titers of serum IgG2a increased significantly 8 weeks after inoculation in mice immunized with a phoP mutant as compared to unimmunized control mice (Lee et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: An asd mutant is attenuated in mice (Piao et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: An asd mutant induces significant protection in mice from challenge with wild type Salmonella typhimurium (Piao et al., 2010).
  • Host IgA response
    • Description: Immunizing twice elicited significantly higher levels of IgA than immunizing once, and oral immunization was the most effective route in comparison to i.p. immunization. IgA levels for both oral and i.p. routes were significantly higher than unimmunized control mice titers. Sera was obtained two weeks after immunization (Piao et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IgG response
    • Description: Immunizing twice instead of once induced significantly higher levels of IgG via the oral route compared to non-immunized mice. Sera was obtained 2 weeks after immunization. I.p. immunization induced higher levels of IgG antibodies than oral immunization (Piao et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host Ighg1 response
    • Description: Immunizing twice instead of once induced significantly higher levels of IgG1 via the oral route compared to non-immunized mice. Sera was obtained 2 weeks after immunization. I.p. immunization induced higher levels of IgG1 antibodies than oral immunization (Piao et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host Ighv1-9 response
    • Description: Immunizing twice instead of once induced significantly higher levels of IgG2a via the oral route compared to non-immunized mice. Sera was obtained 2 weeks after immunization. I.p. immunization induced higher levels of IgG2a antibodies than oral immunization (Piao et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IL-17 response
    • Description: Splenocytes from mice immunized via the oral route showed significantly high levels of IL-17 compared to non-immunized mice. Splenocytes were isolated and stimulated in vitro for 24 hours with wild type S. Typhimurium lysate. Immunizing twice was more effective than immunizing once (Piao et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: An asd/rfc mutant is attenuated in mice (Piao et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: An asd/rfc mutant induces significant protection in mice from challenge with wild type S. typhimurium (Piao et al., 2010).
  • Host IgA response
    • Description: Immunizing twice elicited significantly higher levels of IgA than immunizing once, and oral immunization was the most effective route in comparison to i.p. immunization. IgA levels for both oral and i.p. routes were significantly higher than unimmunized control mice titers. Sera was obtained two weeks after immunization (Piao et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IgG response
    • Description: Immunizing twice instead of once induced significantly higher levels of IgG via the oral route compared to non-immunized mice. Sera was obtained 2 weeks after immunization. I.p. immunization induced higher levels of IgG antibodies than oral immunization (Piao et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host Ighg1 response
    • Description: Immunizing twice instead of once induced significantly higher levels of IgG1 via the oral route compared to non-immunized mice. Sera was obtained 2 weeks after immunization. I.p. immunization induced higher levels of IgG1 antibodies than oral immunization (Piao et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host Ighv1-9 response
    • Description: Immunizing twice instead of once induced significantly higher levels of IgG2a via the oral route compared to non-immunized mice. Sera was obtained 2 weeks after immunization. I.p. immunization induced higher levels of IgG2a antibodies than oral immunization (Piao et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IL-17 response
    • Description: Splenocytes from mice immunized via the oral route showed significantly high levels of IL-17 compared to non-immunized mice. Splenocytes were isolated and stimulated in vitro for 24 hours with wild type S. Typhimurium lysate. Immunizing twice was more effective than immunizing once (Piao et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: A clpP mutant (CS2007) causes hyperflagellation. These hyperflagellated bacteria are attenuated in mice (Matsui et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: A clpP mutant elicited protection in mice from challenge with wild type S. typhimurium (Matsui et al., 2003).
  • Host IgA response
    • Description: Significant increases of lipopolysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secretory IgA were detected at week 4 and maintained until at least week 12 after inoculation in serum and bile. Testing before week 4 revealed undetectable or extremely low levels of antibodies, meaning the presence of much higher levels after week 4 were the result of upregulation of IgG and IgA (Matsui et al., 2003).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IgG response
    • Description: Significant increases of lipopolysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secretory IgA were detected at week 4 and maintained until at least week 12 after inoculation in serum and bile. Testing before week 4 revealed undetectable or extremely low levels of antibodies, meaning the presence of much higher levels after week 4 were the result of upregulation of IgG and IgA (Matsui et al., 2003).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: A guaBA/clpP mutant is attenuated in mice (Tennant et al., 2011).
  • Efficacy: A guaBA/clpP mutant induces protection in mice from challenge with wild type Salmonella Typhimurium. The vaccine efficacy is 86% (Tennant et al., 2011).
  • Host IgG response
    • Description: Immune responses induced included high levels of serum IgG anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with titers increasing progressively during the immunization schedule. Mice immunized with attenuated S. Typhimurium construct CVD 1921 had excellent seroconversion rates after the second immunization and mounted robust antibody responses against both target antigens (LPS and FliC) (Tennant et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: A guaBA/clpP/fliD mutant is attenuated in mice (Tennant et al., 2011).
  • Efficacy: A guaBA/clpP/fliD mutant induces protection in mice from challenge with wild type Salmonella Typhimurium. The vaccine efficacy is 80% (Tennant et al., 2011).
  • Host IgG response
    • Description: Immune responses induced included high levels of serum IgG anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with titers increasing progressively during the immunization schedule. Mice immunized with attenuated S. Typhimurium construct CVD 1923 had excellent seroconversion rates after the second immunization and mounted robust antibody responses against both target antigens (LPS and FliC) (Tennant et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: An hfq mutant is attenuated in mice (Allam et al., 2011).
  • Efficacy: An hfq mutant efficiently protects mice against subsequent oral challenge with virulent strain of Salmonella Typhimurium (Allam et al., 2011).
  • Host Ifng (Interferon gamma) response
    • Description: Vaccinated mice had significantly higher serum IFN-γ and IL-6 than the PBS administered mice. The serum IL-6 and IFN-γ levels of vaccinated mice further increased upon challenge while remaining lower than that of unvaccinated challenged mice. Serum was collected 7 days after vaccination from unchallenged mice or 7 days after challenge from challenged mice (Allam et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IgA response
    • Description: Mucosal IgA and serum IgG levels significantly increased in vaccinated mice compared to naive mice. The antibody titers remained high in case of mice vaccinated and challenged compared with the unvaccinated and challenged mice. The elicited humoral immune response remained 4 weeks after immunization with mutant strain (Allam et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IgG response
    • Description: Mucosal IgA and serum IgG levels significantly increased in vaccinated mice compared to naive mice. The antibody titers remained high in case of mice vaccinated and challenged compared with the unvaccinated and challenged mice. The elicited humoral immune response remained 4 weeks after immunization with mutant strain (Allam et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IL-6 response
    • Description: Vaccinated mice had significantly higher serum IFN-γ and IL-6 than the PBS administered mice. The serum IL-6 and IFN-γ levels of vaccinated mice further increased upon challenge while remaining lower than that of unvaccinated challenged mice. Serum was collected 7 days after vaccination from unchallenged mice or 7 days after challenge from challenged mice (Allam et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: An IppA/IppB/msbB mutant is attenuated in mice (Liu et al., 2008).
  • Efficacy: An IppA/IppB/msbB mutant provides significant protection in mice from challenge with wild type S. Typhimurium (Liu et al., 2008).
  • Host Ighg1 response
    • Description: This mutant elicited a significantly greater serum IgG1 response compared to infection with the wild type on days 2, 5, and 7 post infection. Peak levels were reached five days after infection (Liu et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IL-6 response
    • Description: Culture supernatants from T cells infected with the lppB/msbB mutant contained significantly higher levels of IL-6 than did supernatants from T cells that were infected with WT S. Typhimurium (Liu et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: An IppB/msbB mutant is attenuated in mice (Liu et al., 2008).
  • Efficacy: An IppB/msbB mutant provides significant protection from challenge with wild type S. Typhimurium (Liu et al., 2008).
  • Host Ighg1 response
    • Description: This mutant elicited a significantly greater serum IgG1 response compared to infection with the wild type on day 14 after vaccination. Peak levels were reached five days after infection (Liu et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IL-6 response
    • Description: Culture supernatants from T cells infected with the lppB/msbB mutant contained significantly higher levels of IL-6 than did supernatants from T cells that were infected with WT S. Typhimurium (Liu et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: An ompR mutant is attenuated in mice after oral challenge (Dorman et al., 1989).
  • Efficacy: A ompR mutant conferred significant protection in mice from challenge with wild type Salmonella Typhimurium (Dorman et al., 1989).

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: A poxA mutant is attenuated in mice (Kaniga et al., 1998).
  • Efficacy: A poxA mutant provided significant protection in mice from challenge with wild type Salmonella Typhimurium (Kaniga et al., 1998).
  • Host IgA response
    • Description: Sera were collected 29 days after a single oral immunization and 16 days post challenge. High IgG, IgA, and, to a lesser extent, IgM titers were detected in orally immunized animals, indicating that the ΔpoxA270 mutant derivative of S. typhimurium was very immunogenic in mice. This was more than negative control serum collected from non immunized mice (Kaniga et al., 1998).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IgG response
    • Description: Sera were collected 29 days after a single oral immunization and 16 days post challenge. High IgG, IgA, and, to a lesser extent, IgM titers were detected in orally immunized animals, indicating that the ΔpoxA270 mutant derivative of S. typhimurium was very immunogenic in mice. This was significantly more than negative control serum collected from non immunized mice (Kaniga et al., 1998).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: An rpoS mutant is attenuated in mice (Coynault et al., 1996).
  • Efficacy: An rpoS mutant protects mice from challenge with wild type Salmonella typhimurium after a single dose (Coynault et al., 1996).

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: A ruvB mutant is attenuated in mice (Choi et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: A ruvB mutant provides protection in mice from challenge with wild type Salmonella Typhimurium (Choi et al., 2010).
  • Host Ifng (Interferon gamma) response
    • Description: The vaccine induced significant production of IFN-γ on days 18 and 22 after vaccination while the control mice (non vaccinated) showed no change in the level of IFN-γ (Choi et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IgG response
    • Description: Total IgG levels were significantly increased in vaccinated mice compared to the non-vaccinated group at both day 18 and day 22 (Choi et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

Mouse Response

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: A trxA mutant is attenuated in mice (Peters et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: A trxA mutant induces protection in mice from challenge with wild type Salmonella Typhimurium (Peters et al., 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: A wecA mutant (DSM645) is attenuated in C57BL/6J mice through i.p. and oral immunization (Gilbreath et al., 2011).
  • Efficacy: A wecA mutant (DSM645) protects against challenge with S. typhimurium strains TML and SL1344 30 days after immunization (Gilbreath et al., 2011).

Mouse Response

Chicken Response

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