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Vaccine Comparison

cAdVax-based bivalent ebola virus vaccine (Sudan and Zaire species) Ebola virus DNA vaccine EBOV GP Ebola virus DNA vaccine GP DNA Ebola virus EBOV NP Ebola virus recombinant adenovirus vaccine AdC7-ZGP encoding GP Ebola virus recombinant vector vaccine Ad-CAGoptZGP encoding the envelope glycoprotein Ebola virus recombinant vector vaccine Ad-CMVZGP encoding the glycoprotein Ebola virus recombinant vector vaccine pVSVXN2∆G/ZEBOVsGP encoding GP GP-VRP NP-VRP rAd-GP (Ebola virus) rCMV- EBOV rVEE-Ebola-NP VRP expressing VP24 VRP expressing VP30 VRP expressing VP35 VRP expressing VP40
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004647
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Human
  • GP from Sudan ebolavirus gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: The gene was inserted into a single complex adenovirus-based vaccine (cAdVax) vector (Wang et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • GP from Zaire ebolavirus gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: The gene was inserted into a single complex adenovirus-based vaccine (cAdVax) vector (Wang et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: The bivalent cAdVaxE(GPs/z) vaccine includes the SEBOV glycoprotein (GP) and ZEBOV GP genes together in a single complex adenovirus-based vaccine (cAdVax) vector (Wang et al., 2006).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004036
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse, rabbit, guinea pig
  • GP from Zaire ebolavirus gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pWRG7077 expressed Ebola virus GP gene sequences (Riemenschneider et al., 2003).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pWRG7077 (Riemenschneider et al., 2003)
  • Immunization Route: Gene gun
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004334
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • GP from Zaire ebolavirus gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pWRG7077 expressed highly glycosylated type 1 transmembrane protein (GP) (Vanderzanden et al., 1998).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pWRG7077 (Vanderzanden et al., 1998)
  • Immunization Route: PowderJect-XR gene gun
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004037
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Rabbit, mouse, guinea pig
  • NP from Zaire Ebola virus gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pWRG7077 expressed Ebola virus NP gene sequences (Riemenschneider et al., 2003).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pWRG7077 (Riemenschneider et al., 2003)
  • Immunization Route: Gene gun
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004382
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • GP from Zaire ebolavirus gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: Vector adenoviral (ADV) expressed the Ebola envelope glycoprotein (GP) (Kobinger et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: adenoviral (ADV) vector (Kobinger et al., 2006)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004384
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse, guinea pig
  • GP from Zaire ebolavirus gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: Vector Human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad) expressed the Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) envelope glycoprotein (Richardson et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad) (Richardson et al., 2009)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004383
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • GP from Zaire ebolavirus gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: Vector Human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad) expressed the Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) envelope glycoprotein (Richardson et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad) (Richardson et al., 2009)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004381
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • GP from Zaire ebolavirus gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: Vector VSVXN2∆G expressed the transmembrane glycoproteins of Zaire Ebola virus (GP) (Garbutt et al., 2004).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: VSVXN2∆G in vesicular stomatitis virus (Garbutt et al., 2004)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0000780
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • GP from Reston ebolavirus gene engineering:
    • Type: Protein
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: VRP: VEE replicon particle
  • Preparation: The Ebola GP genes from the Mayinga strain of Ebola virus were derived from pGEM3Zf(-)-based plasmid. The BamHI±KpnI (2.4 kb) fragment containing the GP gene was subcloned into a shuttle vector. From the shuttle vector, GP gene was transferred as ClaI-fragment into the ClaI site of the replicon clone, resulting in plasmids encoding the GP gene in place of the VEE structural protein genes (Pushko et al., 2000).
  • Virulence:
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011387
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • EBOV NP gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: VRP: VEE replicon particle
  • Preparation: The Ebola NP gene from the Mayinga strain of Ebola virus were derived from pSP64-based plasmid. The BamHI±EcoRI (2.3 kb) fragment containing the NPgene, was subcloned into a shuttle vector digested with BamHI and EcoRI within a polylinker sequence flanked by ClaI sites. From the shuttle vector, NP gene was transferred as ClaI-fragments into the ClaI site of the replicon clone, resulting in plasmids encoding the NP gene in place of the VEE structural protein genes (Pushko et al., 2000).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004631
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • GP from Zaire ebolavirus gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: (O'Brien et al., 2014)
  • Preparation: (O'Brien et al., 2014)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004717
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • NP from Zaire Ebola virus gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: A mouse CMV (MCMV) vector expressing a CD8+ T cell epitope from the nucleoprotein (NP) of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) (MCMV/ZEBOV-NP(CTL)) (Tsuda et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: A mouse CMV (MCMV) vector expressing a CD8+ T cell epitope from the nucleoprotein (NP) of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) (MCMV/ZEBOV-NP(CTL)) (Tsuda et al., 2011).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004805
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • Antigen: Ebola virus nucleoprotein (NP) (Wilson and Hart, 2001)
  • NP from Zaire Ebola virus gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0000781
  • Type: VEEV replicon
  • VP24 from Zaire ebolavirus gene engineering:
    • Type: Protein
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: VRP: virus-like replicon particle
  • Preparation: Replicon RNAs were packaged into particles. Briefly, capped replicon RNAs were produced in vitro by T7 runoff transcription of NotI-digested plasmid templates using the RiboMAX T7 RNA polymerase kit. BHK cells were cotransfected with the replicon RNAs and two RNAs expressing the VEE virus structural proteins. The cell culture supernatants were harvested approximately 30 h after transfection and the replicon particles were concentrated and partially purified by centrifugation through a 20% sucrose cushion. Packaged VRPs were suspended in phosphatebuffered saline and titers were determined as immunofluorescent foci after infection of Vero cells as described using either EBOV-immune rabbit serum or mouse monoclonal antibodies to VP24 (Z-AC01-BG11-01), VP35 (M-HC01-AF11), or VP40 (M-HD06-AD10) (Wilson et al., 2001).
  • Virulence:
  • Description: VP24 is an Ebola virus protein. It is membrane associated and is most likely located on the inside of the membrane. The function of VP24 is not known but it may serve as a minor matrix protein, facilitating the interaction of VP40 and/or GP with the RNP complex, or function in the uncoating of the virion during infection (Wilson et al., 2001).
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0000782
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • VP30 from Zaire ebolavirus gene engineering:
    • Type: Protein
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: VRP: virus-like replicon particle
  • Preparation: Replicon RNAs were packaged into particles. Briefly, capped replicon RNAs were produced in vitro by T7 runoff transcription of NotI-digested plasmid templates using the RiboMAX T7 RNA polymerase kit. BHK cells were cotransfected with the replicon RNAs and two RNAs expressing the VEE virus structural proteins. The cell culture supernatants were harvested approximately 30 h after transfection and the replicon particles were concentrated and partially purified by centrifugation through a 20% sucrose cushion. Packaged VRPs were suspended in phosphatebuffered saline and titers were determined as immunofluorescent foci after infection of Vero cells as described using either EBOV-immune rabbit serum or mouse monoclonal antibodies to VP24 (Z-AC01-BG11-01), VP35 (M-HC01-AF11), or VP40 (M-HD06-AD10) (Wilson et al., 2001).
  • Virulence:
  • Description: VP30 is an Ebola virus protein. It associates with the genomic RNA in a ribonucleoprotein complex. The VP30 protein is not essential for replication, but it is necessary for efficient transcription in this system. It has also recently been shown to be essential for the recovery of infectious EBOV-Z from cloned cDNAs (Wilson et al., 2001).
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0000783
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • VP35 from Zaire ebolavirus gene engineering:
    • Type: Protein
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: VRP: virus-like replicon particle
  • Preparation: Replicon RNAs were packaged into particles. Briefly, capped replicon RNAs were produced in vitro by T7 runoff transcription of NotI-digested plasmid templates using the RiboMAX T7 RNA polymerase kit. BHK cells were cotransfected with the replicon RNAs and two RNAs expressing the VEE virus structural proteins. The cell culture supernatants were harvested approximately 30 h after transfection and the replicon particles were concentrated and partially purified by centrifugation through a 20% sucrose cushion. Packaged VRPs were suspended in phosphatebuffered saline and titers were determined as immunofluorescent foci after infection of Vero cells as described using either EBOV-immune rabbit serum or mouse monoclonal antibodies to VP24 (Z-AC01-BG11-01), VP35 (M-HC01-AF11), or VP40 (M-HD06-AD10) (Wilson et al., 2001).
  • Virulence:
  • Description: VP35 is an Ebola virus protein. It associates with the genomic RNA in a ribonucleoprotein complex. It is essential for replication and encapsidation of the EBOV genome. The VP35 protein has also recently been shown to be essential for the recovery of infectious EBOV-Z from cloned cDNAs. In addition to being an essential component of the replication complex, VP35 was also recently implicated as an interferon antagonist. VP35 may therefore facilitate viral replication in infected cells by blocking the induction of antiviral immune responses normally induced by the production of interferon (Wilson et al., 2001).
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0000784
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • VP40 from Zaire ebolavirus gene engineering:
    • Type: Protein
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: VRP: virus-like replicon particle
  • Preparation: Replicon RNAs were packaged into particles. Briefly, capped replicon RNAs were produced in vitro by T7 runoff transcription of NotI-digested plasmid templates using the RiboMAX T7 RNA polymerase kit. BHK cells were cotransfected with the replicon RNAs and two RNAs expressing the VEE virus structural proteins. The cell culture supernatants were harvested approximately 30 h after transfection and the replicon particles were concentrated and partially purified by centrifugation through a 20% sucrose cushion. Packaged VRPs were suspended in phosphatebuffered saline and titers were determined as immunofluorescent foci after infection of Vero cells as described using either EBOV-immune rabbit serum or mouse monoclonal antibodies to VP40 (M-HD06-AD10) (Wilson et al., 2001).
  • Virulence:
  • Description: VP40 is an Ebola virus protein. It is membrane-associated and is most likely located on the inside of the membrane. VP40 has been shown to associate with cell membranes, where it is believed to be involved in maturation of the virus by inducing viral assembly at the plasma membrane of infected cells (Wilson et al., 2001).
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Vaccination of mice with the bivalent cAdVaxE(GPs/z) vaccine led to efficient induction of EBOV-specific antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to both species of EBOV (Wang et al., 2006).
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were challenged with a lethal dose of ZEBOV (30,000 times the 50% lethal dose) (Wang et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: the cAdVax technology demonstrated induction of a 100% protective immune response in mice, as all vaccinated C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice survived challenge with a lethal dose of ZEBOV (Wang et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: The mice had low neutralizing antibody responses, yet were protected from challenge. This, as indicated by earlier studies, may be due to gene gun vaccination, which generally elicits a TH2-type response in BALB/c mice (Riemenschneider et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: Two vaccinations with the EBOV GP DNA elicited consistently high antibody responses and conferred complete protection from EBOV challenge (Riemenschneider et al., 2003).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Mice were completely protected from challenge with mouse adapted EBOV with a priming dose of 0.5 microgram of GP DNA followed by three or four subsequent vaccinations with 1.5 micrograms of DNA. Partial protection could be observed for at least 9 months after three immunizations with 0.5 microgram of the GP DNA vaccine (Vanderzanden et al., 1998).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: The mice had low neutralizing antibody responses, yet were protected from challenge. This, as indicated by earlier studies, may be due to gene gun vaccination, which generally elicits a TH2-type response in BALB/c mice (Riemenschneider et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: Two vaccinations with the EBOV NP DNA elicited consistently high antibody responses and conferred complete protection from EBOV challenge (Riemenschneider et al., 2003).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: AdC7 vaccine stimulated robust T and B cell responses to ZEBOV in naïve mice (Kobinger et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: Mice were immunized with a single dose of 5 × 1010 particles per animal as performed previously and vaccinated animals were challenged with 200 LD50 of the mouse-adapted strain of ZEBOV 21 days later. All control mice (vehicle and AdHu5-LacZ) died between days 5 and 9 post-challenge. In contrast, all mice vaccinated with AdC7-ZGP survived the challenge with mouse-adapted ZEBOV. Weight loss was observed only from control groups (vehicle and AdHu5-LacZ). Complete protection following vaccination with 5 × 1010 particles of AdC7-ZGP was demonstrated with challenge doses of ZEBOV up to 200,000 LD50, which was the highest dose tested (Kobinger et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: Ad-CAGoptZGP at a dose of 1×105 IFU/mouse elicited a frequency of 1.3±0.3% positive IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells. Overall, the average frequency of positive IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells was slightly higher with a lower dose of Ad-CAGoptZGP than with a higher dose of Ad-CMVZGP (Richardson et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: All mice vaccinated with doses of 1×104, 1×105 and 1×106 IFU/mouse of Ad-CAGoptZGP were fully protected from the viral challenge with no weight loss or other clinical signs of disease (Richardson et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: Vaccination following viral challenge produced enhanced T and B cell immune responses with a low dose of Ad-CAGoptZGP. The frequency of IFN-γ+CD8 T cells with Ad-CMVZGP at 1×107 IFU/mouse was at 1.6±0.4%, on average (Richardson et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: Protection following Zaire ebola virus challenge was complete in mice vaccinated with Ad-CMVZGP at 1×106 and 1×107 IFU/mouse but was only partially protective at 1×105 IFU/mouse (Richardson et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: The rVSV expressing the Zaire Ebola virus transmembrane glycoprotein mediated protection in mice against a lethal Zaire Ebola virus challenge (Garbutt et al., 2004).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: VRP were diluted in PBS and administered to 6±8 week old BALB/c mice. Groups of 10 BALB/c mice were inoculated on days 0 and 28 with two doses of NP-VRP, GP-VRP, or a mixture of both. Challenge was carried out 4 weeks after final immunization with VRP. Mice were challenged i.p. with mouse-adapted Ebola virus. To determine subsequent viral titers in the serum, liver, and spleen, two mice were taken from VRP-vaccinated or control groups on each of days 1±5 after challenge, anesthetized and exsanguinated. Portions of the liver and spleen were removed aseptically, weighed, and ground in a sterile mortar. Viral titers in the sera and tissues were determined by plaque assay (Pushko et al., 2000).
  • Persistence: None noted
  • Side Effects: None
  • Efficacy: GP-VRP was effective in protecting BALB/c mice against a lethal challenge with mouse-adapted Ebola virus (Pushko et al., 2000). Nine out of ten animals vaccinated with GP-VRP were protected (Pushko et al., 2000).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: VRP were diluted in PBS and administered to 6±8 week old BALB/c mice. Groups of 10 BALB/c mice were inoculated on days 0 and 28 with two doses of NP-VRP, GP-VRP, or a mixture of both. Challenge was carried out 4 weeks after final immunization with VRP. Mice were challenged i.p. with mouse-adapted Ebola virus. To determine subsequent viral titers in the serum, liver, and spleen, two mice were taken from VRP-vaccinated or control groups on each of days 1±5 after challenge, anesthetized and exsanguinated. Portions of the liver and spleen were removed aseptically, weighed, and ground in a sterile mortar. Viral titers in the sera and tissues were determined by plaque assay (Pushko et al., 2000).
  • Efficacy: NP-VRP was effective in protecting BALB/c mice against a lethal challenge with mouse-adapted Ebola virus (Pushko et al., 2000). All mice vaccinated with NP-VRP survived the challenge with no signs of illness (Pushko et al., 2000).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: IFNR(-/-) mice
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: the antibody response in IFNR(-/-) mice was similar to that observed in vaccinated wild-type mice (O'Brien et al., 2014).
  • Efficacy: The recombinant vaccines elicited good levels of protection in the knock-out mouse (O'Brien et al., 2014).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were vaccinated with rCMV- EBOV (Tsuda et al., 2011).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were challenged with a lethal dose of ZEBOV (Tsuda et al., 2011).
  • Efficacy: The vaccine induced high levels of long-lasting (>8 months) CD8+ T cells against ZEBOV NP in mice. Importantly, all vaccinated animals were protected against lethal ZEBOV challenge (Tsuda et al., 2011).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: C57BL/6
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Efficacy: C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons encoding the Ebola virus nucleoprotein (NP) survived lethal challenge with Ebola virus (Wilson and Hart, 2001).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c and C57BL/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: Groups of 10 BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice per experiment were subcutaneously injected at the base of the neck with 2(106) focus-forming units of VRPs encoding the EBOV-Z genes, or with a control replicon encoding the Lassa N gene. Booster immunizations were administered at 1-month intervals (Wilson et al., 2001).
  • Persistence: None noted
  • Side Effects: None noted
  • Efficacy: Vaccination with VRPs encoding the EBOV-Z VP24 protein protected the majority (90±95%) of the BALB/c mice from lethal EBOV challenge. In a similar experiment, two inoculations of VRPs encoding the EBOV-Z VP24 protein also protected 5/5 BALB/c mice from a 3(104) LD50 challenge dose and 5/5 BALB/c mice from a 3(106) LD50 challenge dose. None of the C57BL/6 mice were protected. Most of the mice had detectable EBOV-Z-specific serum antibodies after vaccination with VRPs encoding the EBOV-Z VP protein (Wilson et al., 2001). These results indicate that the VP24 protein may be an important component of a vaccine designed to protect humans from Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c and C57BL/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: Groups of 10 BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice per experiment were subcutaneously injected at the base of the neck with 2(106) focus-forming units of VRPs encoding the EBOV-Z genes, or with a control replicon encoding the Lassa N gene. Booster immunizations were administered at 1-month intervals (Wilson et al., 2001).
  • Persistence: None noted
  • Side Effects: None noted
  • Efficacy: Three injections of VRPs encoding EBOV-Z VP30 induced protection from lethal disease in 85% of the BALB/c mice examined. However, when the vaccination schedule was decreased to two injections, only 55% of the mice immunized with VP30 survived challenge. None of the C57BL/6 mice were protected. Most of the mice had detectable EBOV-Z-specific serum antibodies after vaccination with VRPs encoding the EBOV-Z VP protein (Wilson et al., 2001). These results indicate that the VP30 protein may be an important component of a vaccine designed to protect humans from Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Wilson et al., 2001).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c and C57BL/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: Groups of 10 BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice per experiment were subcutaneously injected at the base of the neck with 2(106) focus-forming units of VRPs encoding the EBOV-Z genes, or with a control replicon encoding the Lassa N gene. Booster immunizations were administered at 1-month intervals (Wilson et al., 2001).
  • Persistence: None noted
  • Side Effects: None noted
  • Efficacy: The VP35 protein was not efficacious in the BALB/c mouse model, as only 20 and 26% of the mice were protected from lethal challenge after either two or three doses, respectively. The mean day of death of the VP-vaccinated mice that succumbed to the EBOV challenge was within 1 day of the control Lassa N-vaccinated mice. C57BL/6 mice were protected from lethal EBOV challenge after vaccination with the EBOV-Z VP35 protein, with 70% of the mice protected after three inoculations. When the viral titers were measured 5 days after challenge, vaccination with VRPs encoding the EBOV-Z VP35 protein reduced the viral load by at least 4 log10 compared to control mice. Most of the mice had detectable EBOV-Z-specific serum antibodies after vaccination with VRPs encoding the EBOV-Z VP protein (Wilson et al., 2001). These results indicate that the VP35 protein may be an important component of a vaccine designed to protect humans from Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Wilson et al., 2001).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c and C57BL/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: Groups of 10 BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice per experiment were subcutaneously injected at the base of the neck with 2 x106 focus-forming units of VRPs encoding the EBOV-Z genes, or with a control replicon encoding the Lassa N gene. Booster immunizations were administered at 1-month intervals (Wilson et al., 2001).
  • Persistence: None noted
  • Side Effects: None noted
  • Efficacy: Vaccination with VRPs encoding the VP40 protein protected 85 and 70% of the BALB/c mice after either two or three injections, respectively. None of the C57BL/6 mice were protected, however most of the mice had detectable EBOV-Z-specific serum antibodies after vaccination with VRPs encoding the EBOV-Z VP protein (Wilson et al., 2001). These results indicate that the VP30 protein may be an important component of a vaccine designed to protect humans from Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

Guinea pig Response

  • Host Strain: strain 2 and strain 13
  • Vaccination Protocol: VRP were diluted in PBS and administered to inbred, strain 2 or strain 13 guinea pigs. Groups of five guinea pigs were inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) at day 0 with a total of 0.5 ml containing 107 IU VRP at one (strain 2) or two (strain 13) dorsal sites. Challenge was carried out 4 weeks after final immunization with VRP. Guinea pigs were challenged s.c. with 1000 LD50 of guinea pig- adapted Ebola virus. Animals were observed daily for 60 days, and morbidity (determined as changes in behavior, appearance, and weight) and survival were recorded. Blood samples were taken
    on the days indicated after challenge and viremia levels were determined by plaque assay (Pushko et al., 2000).
  • Persistence: None noted
  • Side Effects: None noted
  • Efficacy: At day 7 after challenge, both VRP-vaccinated groups had lower viremia titers than control animals. All mockvaccinated animals or NP-VRP-vaccinated animals became ill, and died at days 8±11 after challenge. However, three out of five guinea pigs vaccinated with GP-VRP showed no signs of illness and survived challenge, and the remaining two showed increased survival times. No clear relationship with survival and antibody titers was observed, as the pre-challenge ELISA and PRNT50 titers of the two GP-VRP-inoculated animals that died were equivalent to those of the three survivors (Pushko et al., 2000).

Guinea pig Response

  • Host Strain: strain 2 and strain 13
  • Vaccination Protocol: VRP were diluted in PBS and administered to inbred, strain 2 or strain 13 guinea pigs. Groups of five guinea pigs were inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) at day 0 with a total of 0.5 ml containing 107 IU VRP at one (strain 2) or two (strain 13) dorsal sites. Challenge was carried out 4 weeks after final immunization with VRP. Guinea pigs were challenged s.c. with 1000 LD50 of guinea pig- adapted Ebola virus. Animals were observed daily for 60 days, and morbidity (determined as changes in behavior, appearance, and weight) and survival were recorded. Blood samples were taken on the days indicated after challenge and viremia levels were determined by plaque assay (Pushko et al., 2000).
  • Efficacy: At day 7 after challenge, NP-VRP-vaccinated group had lower viremia titers than control animals. All mock vaccinated animals or NP-VRP-vaccinated animals became ill, and died at days 8±11 after challenge (Pushko et al., 2000).
References References References References References References References References References References References References References References References References References
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