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Vaccine Comparison

T. cruzi DNA vaccine encoding ASP-2 T. cruzi DNA Vaccine encoding CRP-10 Protein T. cruzi DNA Vaccine encoding G2 Protein T. cruzi DNA Vaccine encoding G4 Protein T. cruzi DNA Vaccine encoding TSA-1 protein T. cruzi DNA vaccine encoding TSA-1, ASP-1, ASP-2 T. cruzi DNA Vaccine pGFP-TSA1 T. cruzi DNA vaccine pTS encoding T. cruzi antigens T. cruzi DNA vaccine pUB-ASP-2 T. cruzi PAR1 Protein Vaccine T. cruzi PAR2 Protein Vaccine T. cruzi vaccine using attenuated Salmonella expressing T. cruzi Cruzipain T. cruzi vaccine using Sendai virus vector expressing amastigote surface protein-2
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004375
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • amastigote surface protein-2 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pGEX-3X expressed amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP-2 ) (Araújo et al., 2005).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pGEX-3X (Araújo et al., 2005)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • CRP-10 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pBC12BI (Sepulveda et al., 2000)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • G2 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCDNA3
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • protein G4 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCDNA3
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • TSA-1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: VR1012 (Vical Inc., San Diego, Calif.)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004374
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • TSA-1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pCMVI.UBF3/2 expressed TSA-1 (Garg and Tarleton, 2002).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • amastigote surface protein-2 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pCMVI.UBF3/2 expressed ASP-2 cDNA (Garg and Tarleton, 2002).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • ASP1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pCMVI.UBF3/2 expressed ASP-1 cDNA (Garg and Tarleton, 2002).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCMVI.UBF3/2 (Garg and Tarleton, 2002)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0001390
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • TS gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pGFP plasmid (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA)
  • Immunization Route: Gene Gun
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004377
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • TS gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pcDNA3 expressed T. cruzi antigens, including trans-sialidase (TS) (Eickhoff et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pcDNA3.1 (Eickhoff et al., 2011)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004376
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • amastigote surface protein-2 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pcDNA3.1 expressed amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP-2 ) (Chou et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pcDNA3.1 (Chou et al., 2010)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0001391
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • par1 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: aluminum vaccine adjuvant
  • Adjuvant: IL-12 vacince adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: Subcutaneous Injection
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0001392
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Tc00.1047053434931.10 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: aluminum vaccine adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: Subcutaneous Injection
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0001393
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Cruzipain gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: IL-12 vacince adjuvant
  • Vector: χ4550 attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain
  • Immunization Route: Intranasally
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0001394
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Parasite antigen amastigote surface protein-2 (ASP2) (Duan et al., 2009).
  • amastigote surface protein-2 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: recombinant Sendai virus vector rSeV/dF
  • Immunization Route: Intranasally
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: Vaccination with a plasmid expressing amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP-2) generates specific CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ Tc1 immune responses (Araújo et al., 2005).
  • Efficacy: DNA vaccination with the gene encoding amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP-2) protects approximately 65% of highly susceptible A/Sn mice against the lethal Trypanosoma cruzi infection (Araújo et al., 2005).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c and C3H/HeJ
  • Vaccination Protocol: 100 μg of pBC12BI.crp-daf DNA or vector DNA was dissolved in 50 μl of PBS and injected intramuscularly in the tibialis anterior muscles of mice that had been briefly anesthetized by metaphane inhalation (Sepulveda et al., 2000).
  • Challenge Protocol: BALB/c mice immunized with DNA were challenged intravenously (i.v.) 2 weeks after the last boost with 2 × 106 T. cruzi strain Y trypomastigotes (Sepulveda et al., 2000).
  • Efficacy: Mice immunized with the crp DNA plasmid produced antibodies capable of lysing the parasites in the presence of complement and were protected against a lethal challenge with T. cruzi trypomastigotes (Sepulveda et al., 2000).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: C57BL/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: C57BL/6 mice were injected in the quadriceps muscle thrice at 2-week intervals with antigen-encoding plasmid (pCDNA3.TcG2 25 μg per DNA/mouse) and cytokine-encoding plasmids (pcDNA3.msp35, pcDNA3.msp40 [IL-12], and pCMVI.GM-CSF; 25 μg per plasmid DNA/mouse) (Bhatia and Garg, 2008).
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the last immunization, mice were challenged with culture-derived T. cruzi trypomastigotes (2.5 × 104/mouse, intraperitoneally) and sacrificed at days 30, 75, and 120 postinfection (p.i.), corresponding to the acute phase of peak parasitemia, the intermediate phase of immune control of parasites, and the chronic phase of disease development, respectively (Bhatia and Garg, 2008).
  • Efficacy: The dominant IgG2b/IgG1 antibody response was maintained after a challenge infection and was associated with 50% control of the acute-phase tissue parasite burden and an almost undetectable level of tissue parasites during the chronic phase (Bhatia and Garg, 2008).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: C57BL/6 mice were injected in the quadriceps muscle thrice at 2-week intervals with antigen-encoding plasmid (pCDNA3.TcG4 25 μg per DNA/mouse) and cytokine-encoding plasmids (pcDNA3.msp35, pcDNA3.msp40 [IL-12], and pCMVI.GM-CSF; 25 μg per plasmid DNA/mouse) (Bhatia and Garg, 2008).
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the last immunization, mice were challenged with culture-derived T. cruzi trypomastigotes (2.5 × 104/mouse, intraperitoneally) and sacrificed at days 30, 75, and 120 postinfection (p.i.), corresponding to the acute phase of peak parasitemia, the intermediate phase of immune control of parasites, and the chronic phase of disease development, respectively (Bhatia and Garg, 2008).
  • Efficacy: The dominant IgG2b/IgG1 antibody response was maintained after a challenge infection and was associated with 50% control of the acute-phase tissue parasite burden and an almost undetectable level of tissue parasites during the chronic phase (Bhatia and Garg, 2008).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: B6 and BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Groups of B6 and BALB/c mice were injected intramuscularly into each tibialis anterior muscle with 50 μg of VR1012 TSA1.7, VR1012 TSA2.1, or control VR1012 suspended in 50 μl of PBS by using a 27-gauge needle. Mice were boosted 4 weeks later with an identical dose of plasmid (100 μg total) given by the same bilateral intramuscular injection (Wizel et al., 1998).
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the second dose, animals were infected by intraperitoneal injection of 105 (B6) or 103 (BALB/c) T. cruzi BFT. Parasitemias were monitored periodically by hemacytometer counts of 10 μl of tail vein blood in an ammonium chloride solution (Wizel et al., 1998).
  • Efficacy: When TSA-1 DNA-vaccinated animals were challenged with T. cruzi, 14 of 22 (64%) H-2(b) and 16 of 18 (89%) H-2(d) mice survived the infection (Wizel et al., 1998).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: Immunization of mice with plasmids encoding ASP-1, ASP-2, or TSA-1 elicited poor antigen-specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity and T. cruzi-specific antibody responses. Codelivery of interleukin-12 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor plasmids with antigen-encoding plasmids resulted in a substantial increase in CTL activity and antibody production and in increased resistance to T. cruzi infection (Garg and Tarleton, 2002).
  • Efficacy: Immunization with this mixture of ts-encoding plasmids elicited moderate parasite-specific antibody responses and substantial CTL activity and subsequently provided significant resistance to T. cruzi infection. In conclusion, genetic vaccines composed of ASP-1, ASP-2, and TSA-1 provide partial protection from lethal T. cruzi infection (Garg and Tarleton, 2002).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: C57BL/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: B6 mice were immunized four times at two-week intervals with 6 μg of each plasmid using a Helios Gene Gun (BioRad, NY, USA) (Chou et al., 2008).
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the last vaccination, mice were infected with 1000 blood-derived T. cruzi trypomastigotes by s.c. injection at the base of the tail. Parasitemia levels were evaluated by counting the number of parasites in 5 μl of blood from the tail vein (Chou et al., 2008).
  • Efficacy: C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with this plasmid showed suppressed parasitemia and prolonged survival. Vaccination with pGFP-TSA1 enhanced epitope-specific cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma secretion by CD8(+)T cells (Chou et al., 2008).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: Vaccination of mice with pTS alone or pTS + pIL-15 elicited strong TS-specific T cell responses as detected 3 months after vaccination. In addition to enhancing TS-specific CD8+ T cell responses, the pIL-15 adjuvant enhanced TS-specific CD4+ T cell responses induced by pTS vaccination (Eickhoff et al., 2011).
  • Efficacy: We challenged 5 mice per group with a lethal dose of T. cruzi BFT (5,000 BFT s.c.) 30 days following the final immunization, and followed survival for >2 months. All mice vaccinated with pTS (with or without pIL-15 co-immunization) survived lethal T. cruzi challenge, whereas all mice vaccinated with pIL-15 alone died (Eickhoff et al., 2011).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: The absolute number of both IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells and GZM-b+CD8+ T cells in the spleen was significantly higher in pUB-ASP-2 immunized mice. Immunization with pUB-ASP-2 promotes CD8+ T cell activation, and enhances the expression level of IFN-γ and GZM-b in CD8+ T cells (Chou et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: After being challenged with T. cruzi, mice immunized with pUB-ASP-2 developed a lower parasitemia than control pcDNA immunized groups; survival was also prolonged by immunization with pUB-ASP-2. Six out of seven pUB-ASP-2 immunized mice survived until the end of the experiment (Chou et al., 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: C57BL/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: Six-to-eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were immunized by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 40 μg of pPFR or rPFR proteins co-adsorbed to alum with 0.5 μg recombinant murine IL-12 and were boosted twice at 2-week intervals with 20 μg protein co-adsorbed to alum with 0.5 μg rIL-12 (Luhrs et al., 2003).
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the last injection, mice were challenged with s.c. injection of 102 bloodstream Peru strain trypomastigotes (Luhrs et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: rPFR-1 immunized animals were able to successfully resolve parasitemia by day 30 p.i., with the peak parasitemia occurring between days 17 and 21 p.i. (Luhrs et al., 2003).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: C57BL/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: Six-to-eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were immunized by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 40 μg of pPFR or rPFR proteins co-adsorbed to alum with 0.5 μg recombinant murine IL-12 and were boosted twice at 2-week intervals with 20 μg protein co-adsorbed to alum with 0.5 μg rIL-12 (Luhrs et al., 2003).
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the last injection, mice were challenged with s.c. injection of 102 bloodstream Peru strain trypomastigotes (Luhrs et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: rPFR-2 immunized animals were able to successfully resolve parasitemia by day 30 p.i., with the peak parasitemia occurring between days 17 and 21 p.i. (Luhrs et al., 2003).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were vaccinated four times intranasally with control and cruzipain-expressing salmonella cells. The mice were lightly anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine given intraperitoneally, and salmonella vaccines were administered in 10-μl volumes of PBS. A total of 2 × 106 CFU of salmonella was given for primary vaccinations, and 2 × 107 CFU of salmonella was given for booster vaccinations. The second vaccinations were given 4 weeks after the priming doses, and the three booster vaccinations were given at 2-week intervals (Schnapp et al., 2002).
  • Challenge Protocol: One month after the final vaccinations, the mice were challenged orally with 2,000 T. cruzi IMT (Schnapp et al., 2002).
  • Efficacy: As early as 15 days after immunization, the parasitemias detected in the cruzipain-immunized group were significantly lower than those in the phage10-immunized and unimmunized groups. Significantly reduced parasitemias persisted in the cruzipain-immunized group throughout the remainder of the first month postchallenge (Schnapp et al., 2002).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: C57BL/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: B6 mice were administrated intranasally with 5 × 106 CIU SeV-GFP or SeV-ASP2 (Duan et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: For challenge infections, mice were inoculated with 1000 blood-derived trypomastigotes at the base of the tail 2 weeks after immunization (Duan et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: C57BL/6 mice immunized intranasally with rSeV/dF expressing ASP2 showed significantly suppressed parasitemia and could be protected from lethal T. cruzi challenge (Duan et al., 2009).
References References References References References References References References References References References References References
Araújo et al., 2005: Araújo AF, de Alencar BC, Vasconcelos JR, Hiyane MI, Marinho CR, Penido ML, Boscardin SB, Hoft DF, Gazzinelli RT, Rodrigues MM. CD8+-T-cell-dependent control of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a highly susceptible mouse strain after immunization with recombinant proteins based on amastigote surface protein 2. Infection and immunity. 2005; 73(9); 6017-6025. [PubMed: 16113322].
Sepulveda et al., 2000: Sepulveda P, Hontebeyrie M, Liegeard P, Mascilli A, Norris KA. DNA-Based immunization with Trypanosoma cruzi complement regulatory protein elicits complement lytic antibodies and confers protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Infection and immunity. 2000; 68(9); 4986-4991. [PubMed: 10948115].
Bhatia and Garg, 2008: Bhatia V, Garg NJ. Previously unrecognized vaccine candidates control Trypanosoma cruzi infection and immunopathology in mice. Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI. 2008; 15(8); 1158-1164. [PubMed: 18550728].
Bhatia and Garg, 2008: Bhatia V, Garg NJ. Previously unrecognized vaccine candidates control Trypanosoma cruzi infection and immunopathology in mice. Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI. 2008; 15(8); 1158-1164. [PubMed: 18550728].
Wizel et al., 1998: Wizel B, Garg N, Tarleton RL. Vaccination with trypomastigote surface antigen 1-encoding plasmid DNA confers protection against lethal Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Infection and immunity. 1998; 66(11); 5073-5081. [PubMed: 9784506].
Garg and Tarleton, 2002: Garg N, Tarleton RL. Genetic immunization elicits antigen-specific protective immune responses and decreases disease severity in Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Infection and immunity. 2002; 70(10); 5547-5555. [PubMed: 12228281].
Chou et al., 2008: Chou B, Hisaeda H, Shen J, Duan X, Imai T, Tu L, Murata S, Tanaka K, Himeno K. Critical contribution of immunoproteasomes in the induction of protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi in mice vaccinated with a plasmid encoding a CTL epitope fused to green fluorescence protein. Microbes and infection / Institut Pasteur. 2008; 10(3); 241-250. [PubMed: 18321749].
Eickhoff et al., 2011: Eickhoff CS, Vasconcelos JR, Sullivan NL, Blazevic A, Bruna-Romero O, Rodrigues MM, Hoft DF. Co-administration of a plasmid DNA encoding IL-15 improves long-term protection of a genetic vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2011; 5(3); e983. [PubMed: 21408124].
Chou et al., 2010: Chou B, Hiromatsu K, Hisaeda H, Duan X, Imai T, Murata S, Tanaka K, Himeno K. Genetic immunization based on the ubiquitin-fusion degradation pathway against Trypanosoma cruzi. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2010; 392(3); 277-282. [PubMed: 20059980].
Luhrs et al., 2003: Luhrs KA, Fouts DL, Manning JE. Immunization with recombinant paraflagellar rod protein induces protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Vaccine. 2003; 21(21-22); 3058-3069. [PubMed: 12798650].
Luhrs et al., 2003: Luhrs KA, Fouts DL, Manning JE. Immunization with recombinant paraflagellar rod protein induces protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Vaccine. 2003; 21(21-22); 3058-3069. [PubMed: 12798650].
Schnapp et al., 2002: Schnapp AR, Eickhoff CS, Sizemore D, Curtiss R 3rd, Hoft DF. Cruzipain induces both mucosal and systemic protection against Trypanosoma cruzi in mice. Infection and immunity. 2002; 70(9); 5065-5074. [PubMed: 12183554].
Duan et al., 2009: Duan X, Yonemitsu Y, Chou B, Yoshida K, Tanaka S, Hasegawa M, Tetsutani K, Ishida H, Himeno K, Hisaeda H. Efficient protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi infection after nasal vaccination with recombinant Sendai virus vector expressing amastigote surface protein-2. Vaccine. 2009; 27(44); 6154-6159. [PubMed: 19712768].