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Vaccine Comparison

rBCGpMV361-TgCyP T. gondii DNA vaccine encoding MIC8 T. gondii DNA vaccine pcDNA3-MIC3 T. gondii DNA vaccine pcDNA3.1-SAG1-ROP2 T. gondii DNA vaccine pMIC3i encoding the complete MIC3-ORF (RH(ERP) strain) T. gondii DNA vaccine pSAG1-ROP2-SAG2 T. gondii DNA vaccine pVAX-TgMIC13 T. gondii DNA vaccine pVR1020-GRA1 T. gondii DNA vaccine ROP8-pVAX-1 T. gondii DNA vaccine T.g.HSP70 T. gondii recombinant vaccine vector rBCGpMV361-TgCyP T. gondii Subunit Rop2-Hsp83 Fusion Protein Vaccine Toxoplasma gondii mic2 mutant vaccine Toxoplasma gondii OMPDC mutant vaccine Toxoplasma gondii OMPDC/UP mutant vaccine
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004656
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • Preparation: Following amplification of the T. gondii cyclophilin gene, the shuttle expression plasmid pMV261-TgCyP and integrative expression plasmid pMV361-TgCyP were constructed, and their expression was stimulated after transfection into BCG (Yu et al., 2013).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004219
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: MIC8
  • MIC8 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: To construct the pVAX-MIC8 expression plasmid, the coding sequence of the T. gondii MIC8 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from genomic DNA of T. gondii. The PCR product was cloned in pGEM-T easy vector (Promega, USA) and sequenced in both directions to ensure fidelity and generated pGEM-MIC8. The MIC8 fragment was inserted into the BamH I/Xba I sites of pVAX I by double digestion with BamH I/Xba I restriction enzymes, and ligation was finally done using T4 DNA ligase. The resulting plasmid was named pVAX-MIC8 (Liu et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pVAX1 (Liu et al., 2010)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011523
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • MIC3 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Protein MIC3 (Xiang et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pcDNA3 (Xiang et al., 2009)
  • Immunization Route: Footpad injection
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004313
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • p30 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pcDNA3.1 expressed SAG1 (Xue et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Rop2 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pcDNA3.1 expressed ROP2 (Xue et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pcDNA3.1 (Xue et al., 2008)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004453
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • MIC3 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pcDNA3 expressed MIC3 (Ismael et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCDNA3 (Ismael et al., 2009)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004312
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • p30 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pcDNA3·1 (–) expressed SAG1-ROP2 and SAG2 gene fragments (Cui et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • SAG2 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pcDNA3·1 (–) expressed SAG1-ROP2 and SAG2 gene fragments (Cui et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • ROP2 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pcDNA3·1 (–) expressed SAG1-ROP2 and SAG2 gene fragments (Cui et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pcDNA3.1 (Cui et al., 2008)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004528
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • MIC13 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pVAX I (Yuan et al., 2013)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004454
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • GRA1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector VR1020 expressed T. gondii excreted-secreted dense granule proteins GRA1 (Scorza et al., 2003).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: VR1020 (Scorza et al., 2003)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004531
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • ROP8 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pVAX1 (Parthasarathy et al., 2013)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004455
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • hsp70 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pME18100 (Kikumura et al., 2010)
  • Immunization Route: Gene gun
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004602
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • Antigen: TgCyP(Yu et al., 2013)
  • Vector: BCG
  • Immunization Route: Intravenous injection (i.v.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011521
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Rop2 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Footpad Injection
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0003012
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • mic2 gene engineering:
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0003013
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • OMPDC gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This OMPDC mutant is from Toxoplasma gondii (Fox and Bzik, 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • OMPDC gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: This OMPDC/UP mutant is from Toxoplasma gondii (Fox and Bzik, 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • UP gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This OMPDC/UP mutant is from Toxoplasma gondii (Fox and Bzik, 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: rBCGpMV261-TgCyP and rBCGpMV361-TgCyP (106 CFU) were used to immunise the mice in two different manners (through an i.v. or oral route) (Yu et al., 2013).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the third vaccination, mice were selected randomly from each group and challenged intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 103 highly virulent T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites (Yu et al., 2013).
  • Efficacy: The levels of Th1-type IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12 were significantly increased following immunisation with the rBCG vaccines via the i.v. or oral route, which indicated that catalytic activity against T. gondii infection was generated in the mice. rBCGpMV361-TgCyP i.v. inoculation resulted in a higher protection efficiency, as demonstrated by the increased survival time and survival rate (17%) of BALB/c mice (Yu et al., 2013).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: Kunming
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice (20 per group) received injections of 100 μl of pVAXMIC8 plasmid or empty pVAX I vector into each anterior tibial muscle (final plasmid concentration, 100 μg/100 μl). The injections were repeated using the same protocol 2 and 4 weeks after vaccination. Tail bleeds were performed on vaccinated mice on the day of first vaccination, second vaccination, and third vaccination and pre-challenge to ascertain the presence of specific anti-T. gondii antibodies (Liu et al., 2010).
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice in all groups were intraperitoneally challenged with the virulent T. gondii RH strain (103 tachyzoites per mouse) 2 weeks after the last immunization (Liu et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: Immunization of mice with pVAXMIC8 dramatically increased the survival time (10.3± 0.9 days) compared with control mice which died within 5 days of challenge (Liu et al., 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: Kunming
  • Vaccination Protocol: All studies were done with 6–8 weeks old Kunming mice. For experimental group, 100 μg pcDNA3-MIC3 were injected into mouse hind footpad three times, at week 0, 3 and 6, respectively. The mice of control groups were vaccinated with 100 μg pcDNA3 or normal saline (NS) three times (Xiang et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: Immunized Kunming mice were challenged intraperitoneally with 500 tachyzoites of RH strain T. gondii 9 weeks after the first immunization (Xiang et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: The survival time of mice in pcDNA3-MIC3 group was significantly longer than those of in group pcDNA3 and NS (Xiang et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: When challenged with Toxoplasma gondii RH strain, mice immunized with pIL-12 co-administration had significantly higher survival rates compared to co-administration with pCTA2/B or pcDNA3.1-SAG1-ROP2 alone (control) (Xue et al., 2008).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Mice immunized with pMIC3i displayed significant protection against an oral challenge with 76K T. gondii strain cysts, exhibiting fewer brain cysts than the control mice immunized with the empty plasmid pcDNA3. The co-administration of pGM-CSF enhanced this protection (Ismael et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Higher survival rates after lethal challenge were obtained in mice immunized with pSAG1-ROP2-SAG2 as compared to the mice immunized with PBS, expression vector alone or pSAG2, or pSAG1-ROP2. In addition, the protection induced by pSAG1-ROP2-SAG2 was remarkably enhanced by pIL-12 co-administration (Cui et al., 2008).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: Immunization with pVAX-TgMIC13 induced a strong immune responses demonstrated by significant lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and antibody responses (Yuan et al., 2013).
  • Efficacy: Immunized mice showed increased survival time (21.3±11.3 days) and reduced number of cysts in brain of mice (57.14%) after challenge with tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii RH strain and cysts of the T. gondii PRU strain, respectively (Yuan et al., 2013).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: All control pVR1020-vaccinated mice succumbed to infection after challenge, while 75% of the mice vaccinated with pVR1020-GRA1 were protected against infection with strain IPB-G. In the second experiment, all mice vaccinated with GRA1 DNA survived, while 75% of the mice vaccinated with control DNA succumbed to infection (P < 0.05) (Scorza et al., 2003).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: splenocytes from mice immunized with ROP8-pVAX-1 secreted significantly high levels of IFN-γ (816 ± 26.3 pg/mL) compared with spleen cells cultured from mice immunized with pVAX-1 (48 ± 10.8) or PBS (45 ± 6.6). Only a low level of IL-4 was detected in the culture supernatant of splenocytes from mice immunized with ROP8-pVAX-1 (148 ± 18.3) but was significantly higher compared with mice immunized with pVAX-1 (50 ± 13.6) or PBS (47 ± 6.1) (Parthasarathy et al., 2013).
  • Efficacy: Mice immunized with ROP8-pVAX-1 DNA had a 100% survival rate until Day 9, whereas all the control mice died. On top of that, mice immunized with ROP8-pVAX-1 DNA showed a significant increase in the survival time (29 days, P < 0.05) (Parthasarathy et al., 2013).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: The T.g.HSP70 gene vaccination induced protective immunity against T.g.HSP70-induced anaphylactic reaction not only at the acute phase but also at acute exacerbation of the chronic phase of infection, although the protective effect was partial (Kikumura et al., 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c mice
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Greater proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells; levels of Th1-type IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12 were significantly increased (Yu et al., 2013)
  • Efficacy: rBCGpMV361-TgCyP i.v. inoculation protected the BALB/c mice, as shown by the 17% increased survival rate compared to those mice not inoculated (Yu et al., 2013)

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: Balb/c, C57BL/6 and C3H
  • Vaccination Protocol: The immunization doses and boosters of each antigen were the following: Rop2 (44 kDa, 2 μg), LiHsp83 (86 kDa, 6 μg), Rop2-LiHsp83 (not, vert, similar120 kDa, 9 μg) and the mixture of Rop2 and LiHsp83 (2 + 6 μg, respectively). Balb/c, C57BL/6 and C3H mice were immunized by footpad injections on days 0, 21, 35 and 45 with PBS (control) or recombinant proteins (Echeverria et al., 2006).
  • Challenge Protocol: To analyze protection against virulent T. gondii strain (lethal challenge) immunized mice were challenged intraperitoneally with 105 T. gondii RH tachyzoites 2 weeks after the last immunization. To analyze protection against non-lethal challenge, immunized mice were orally infected with 20 cysts of the ME49 T. gondii strain 2 weeks after the last booster. The brain parasite load was evaluated 1 month after infection (Echeverria et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: Vaccination with fusion protein conferred a remarkable resistance against oral infection with ME49 cysts in C57BL/6 and C3H mice, in comparison to mice immunized with Rop2 alone or the protein mixture. Following lethal challenge, a significant survival rate was observed in Rop2-83 immunized Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice in comparison to control groups (Echeverria et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: A mic2 mutant is attenuated in mice (Huynh and Carruthers, 2006).
  • Efficacy: A mic2 mutant induces protection in mice from challenge with wild type T. gondii (Huynh and Carruthers, 2006).
  • Host Ccl2 response
    • Description: Levels of serum MCP-1 (Ccl2) were higher in mice infected with MIC2 deletion mutants than in uninfected mice on days 4, 6 and 8 post infection (Huynh and Carruthers, 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host Ifng (Interferon gamma) response
    • Description: Levels of serum IFN-gamma were higher in mice infected with MIC2 deletion mutants than in uninfected mice on days 4, 6 and 8 post-infection (Huynh and Carruthers, 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IL-6 response
    • Description: Levels of serum IL-6 were higher in mice infected with MIC2 deletion mutants than in uninfected mice on days 4, 6 and 8 post infection (Huynh and Carruthers, 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host Il12b response
    • Description: Levels of serum IL-12p40 (IL-12b) were higher than those of uninfected mice on days 4, 6 and 8 post-infection (Huynh and Carruthers, 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host TNF-alpha response
    • Description: Levels of serum TNF-alpha were higher in mice infected with MIC2 deletion mutants than in uninfected mice on days 4, 6 and 8 post infection (Huynh and Carruthers, 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: An OMPDC mutant is attenuated in mice (Fox and Bzik, 2010).
  • Efficacy: An OMPDC mutant induces significant protection in mice from challenge with wild type T. gondii (Fox and Bzik, 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: An OMPDC/UP mutant is attenuated in mice (Fox and Bzik, 2010).
  • Efficacy: An OMPDC/UP mutant induces significant protection in mice from challenge with wild type T. gondii (Fox and Bzik, 2010).
References References References References References References References References References References References References References References References
Yu et al., 2013: Yu Q, Huang X, Gong P, Zhang Q, Li J, Zhang G, Yang J, Li H, Wang N, Zhang X. Protective immunity induced by a recombinant BCG vaccine encoding the cyclophilin gene of Toxoplasma gondii. Vaccine. 2013; ; . [PubMed: 24176493].
Liu et al., 2010: Liu MM, Yuan ZG, Peng GH, Zhou DH, He XH, Yan C, Yin CC, He Y, Lin RQ, Song HQ, Zhu XQ. Toxoplasma gondii microneme protein 8 (MIC8) is a potential vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis. Parasitology research. 2010; 106(5); 1079-1084. [PubMed: 20177910].
Xiang et al., 2009: Xiang W, Qiong Z, Li-peng L, Kui T, Jian-wu G, Heng-ping S. The location of invasion-related protein MIC3 of Toxoplasma gondii and protective effect of its DNA vaccine in mice. Veterinary parasitology. 2009; 166(1-2); 1-7. [PubMed: 19800170].
Xue et al., 2008: Xue M, He S, Zhang J, Cui Y, Yao Y, Wang H. Comparison of cholera toxin A2/B and murine interleukin-12 as adjuvants of Toxoplasma multi-antigenic SAG1-ROP2 DNA vaccine. Experimental parasitology. 2008; 119(3); 352-357. [PubMed: 18442818].
Ismael et al., 2009: Ismael AB, Hedhli D, Cérède O, Lebrun M, Dimier-Poisson I, Mévélec MN. Further analysis of protection induced by the MIC3 DNA vaccine against T. gondii: CD4 and CD8 T cells are the major effectors of the MIC3 DNA vaccine-induced protection, both Lectin-like and EGF-like domains of MIC3 conferred protection. Vaccine. 2009; 27(22); 2959-2966. [PubMed: 19428907].
Cui et al., 2008: Cui YL, He SY, Xue MF, Zhang J, Wang HX, Yao Y. Protective effect of a multiantigenic DNA vaccine against Toxoplasma gondii with co-delivery of IL-12 in mice. Parasite immunology. 2008; 30(5); 309-313. [PubMed: 18331395].
Yuan et al., 2013: Yuan ZG, Ren D, Zhou DH, Zhang XX, Petersen E, Li XZ, Zhou Y, Yang GL, Zhu XQ. Evaluation of protective effect of pVAX-TgMIC13 plasmid against acute and chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection in a murine model. Vaccine. 2013; ; . [PubMed: 23707448].
Scorza et al., 2003: Scorza T, D'Souza S, Laloup M, Dewit J, De Braekeleer J, Verschueren H, Vercammen M, Huygen K, Jongert E. A GRA1 DNA vaccine primes cytolytic CD8(+) T cells to control acute Toxoplasma gondii infection. Infection and immunity. 2003; 71(1); 309-316. [PubMed: 12496180].
Parthasarathy et al., 2013: Parthasarathy S, Fong MY, Ramaswamy K, Lau YL. Protective Immune Response in BALB/c Mice Induced by DNA Vaccine of the ROP8 gene of Toxoplasma gondii. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2013; 88(5); 883-887. [PubMed: 23509124].
Kikumura et al., 2010: Kikumura A, Fang H, Mun HS, Uemura N, Makino M, Sayama Y, Norose K, Aosai F. Protective immunity against lethal anaphylactic reaction in Toxoplasma gondii-infected mice by DNA vaccination with T. gondii-derived heat shock protein 70 gene. Parasitology international. 2010; 59(2); 105-111. [PubMed: 20346412].
Yu et al., 2013: Yu Q, Huang X, Gong P, Zhang Q, Li J, Zhang G, Yang J, Li H, Wang N, Zhang X. Protective immunity induced by a recombinant BCG vaccine encoding the cyclophilin gene of Toxoplasma gondii. Vaccine. 2013; ; . [PubMed: 24176493].
Echeverria et al., 2006: Echeverria PC, de Miguel N, Costas M, Angel SO. Potent antigen-specific immunity to Toxoplasma gondii in adjuvant-free vaccination system using Rop2-Leishmania infantum Hsp83 fusion protein. Vaccine. 2006; 24(19); 4102-4110. [PubMed: 16545504].
Huynh and Carruthers, 2006: Huynh MH, Carruthers VB. Toxoplasma MIC2 is a major determinant of invasion and virulence. PLoS pathogens. 2006; 2(8); e84. [PubMed: 16933991].
Fox and Bzik, 2010: Fox BA, Bzik DJ. Avirulent uracil auxotrophs based on disruption of orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase elicit protective immunity to Toxoplasma gondii. Infection and immunity. 2010; 78(9); 3744-3752. [PubMed: 20605980].
Fox and Bzik, 2010: Fox BA, Bzik DJ. Avirulent uracil auxotrophs based on disruption of orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase elicit protective immunity to Toxoplasma gondii. Infection and immunity. 2010; 78(9); 3744-3752. [PubMed: 20605980].