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Vaccine Comparison

C. pneumoniae CopN protein vaccine C. pneumoniae DNA vaccine encoding FabD C. pneumoniae DNA vaccine encoding PknD C. pneumoniae DNA vaccine encoding Ssb C. pneumoniae DNA vaccine pHSP-60 C. pneumoniae LcrE protein vaccine
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011432
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: C. pneumoniae copN
  • copN gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: C. pneumoniae CopN (gene lcrE; position 0324 of C. pneumoniae CWL029), was produced in a Bacillus subtilis protein expression system as a soluble protein. Recombinant CopN protein was dissolved in PBS at a concentration of 1 mg/ml and heated to 100 °C for 10 min after which the visible precipitation of protein was discernible. C. pneumoniae preparation was boiled for 10 min in a water bath at a concentration of 2.5 × 107 IFU/ml in SPG. E. coli heat-labile toxin, LT (kindly provided by Prof. G. Dougan, Imperial Collage, London, UK) was added to heat-aggregated protein suspension to a final concentration of 12.5 μg/ml (Tammiruusu et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: E. coli heat-labile toxin, LT
  • Immunization Route: Intranasal
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011434
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: C. pneumoniae fabD
  • FabD gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: The genome sequence of C. pneumoniae isolate CDC/CWL-029 (ATCC strain VR-1310) was extracted from Genbank (AE001363, 1,230,230 bp). The 1052 annotated genes of C. pneumoniae were imported into a gene-splitting and primer prediction program; primer pairs to amplify 1263 ORFs of 1.5 kb or less were exported. A 1.5 kb maximum ORF length was chosen to ensure sufficient PCR quality and yields, and this generated a few additional fragments (Li et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCMVi-UB or linear expression elements (Li et al., 2006)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011424
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: C. pneumoniae serine/threonine-protein kinase, PknD
  • PknD gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: The genome sequence of C. pneumoniae isolate CDC/CWL-029 (ATCC strain VR-1310) was extracted from Genbank (AE001363, 1,230,230 bp). The 1052 annotated genes of C. pneumoniae were imported into a gene-splitting and primer prediction program; primer pairs to amplify 1263 ORFs of 1.5 kb or less were exported. A 1.5 kb maximum ORF length was chosen to ensure sufficient PCR quality and yields, and this generated a few additional fragments (Li et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCMVi-UB or linear expression elements (Li et al., 2006)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011425
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: C. pneumoniae single-stranded DNA-binding protein, ssb
  • Ssb gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: The genome sequence of C. pneumoniae isolate CDC/CWL-029 (ATCC strain VR-1310) was extracted from Genbank (AE001363, 1,230,230 bp). The 1052 annotated genes of C. pneumoniae were imported into a gene-splitting and primer prediction program; primer pairs to amplify 1263 ORFs of 1.5 kb or less were exported. A 1.5 kb maximum ORF length was chosen to ensure sufficient PCR quality and yields, and this generated a few additional fragments (Li et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCMVi-UB or linear expression elements (Li et al., 2006)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004555
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • GroEL gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCI (Svanholm et al., 2000)
  • Immunization Route: intranasal immunization
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011435
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: C. pneumoniae LcrE
  • LcrE gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: A 1218-kb DNA fragment containing the lcrE gene (GenBank ID 15618244, Locus tag CPn0324) was amplified by PCR, using C. pneumoniae (CWL029 ATCC) DNA as template. The PCR was performed in a GeneAmp II (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) thermocycler with Advantage GC cDNA polymerase (Clontech, Mountain View, CA, USA), and the amplification conditions were set as recommended by the manufacturer. The amplicon was digested with NdeI and BamHI and inserted into p6HisF-11d (icl) pET vector by digesting it with the same enzymes and replacing the icl gene (Faludi et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: aluminum vaccine adjuvant
    • VO ID: VO_0000884
    • Description: Either Freund's or Alum adjuvants
  • Adjuvant: Freunds emulsified oil adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: Subcutaneous injection
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized intranasally with 40 μg of heat-aggregated CopN/ 40 μl dose or 106 heat-treated C. pneumoniae inclusion forming unit (IFU) (approximately 1 μg of protein)/40 μl dose. Mice immunized intranasally with disrupted HL cells (Mock) or PBS were used as control. Fourteen days after the first immunization, the mice were boosted once with the same dose of antigen. All immunizations were performed under methoxyflurane anaesthesia (Metofane, Pitman-Moore, Mundelein, IL, USA) (Tammiruusu et al., 2007).
  • Challenge Protocol: At 14 days after the second immunization, the mice were challenged intranasally with 105 IFU of C. pneumoniae in 40 μl of SPG under Metofane anaesthesia. At certain time points after infection, three to six mice were sacrificed, lungs were mechanically homogenized in SPG and dilutions of lung supernatant were cultured on HL cell monolayers (Tammiruusu et al., 2007).
  • Efficacy: Intranasal immunization of BALB/c mice with heat-aggregated CopN protein and an Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) induced a strong immune response. The immunization induced statistically significant protection against intranasal C. pneumoniae challenge, the level of which correlated with the magnitude of CopN-specific lymphocyte proliferation (Tammiruusu et al., 2007).
  • Host Ifng (Interferon gamma) response
    • Description: The results of this study showed that intranasal immunization of BALB/c mice with heat-aggregated CopN protein and an Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) induced a strong immune response, detected as IFN-gamma production. The response was significant as compared to PBS-vaccinated mice in the lungs, spleen, and mediastinal lymph nodes 14 days after challenge (Tammiruusu et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: A/J
  • Vaccination Protocol: For intranasal inoculation, mice received a light isoflurane inhalation anesthesia. Vaccine protection control mice were inoculated with a low dose of 5 × 106 C. pneumoniae elementary bodies in 30 μl SPG buffer (Li et al., 2006).
  • Challenge Protocol: High-dose challenge infection was performed 4 weeks after the last gene gun genetic vaccination or low dose inoculation of live C. pneumoniae, and 6 weeks after the last intramuscular-intradermal genetic vaccination, by intranasal inoculation of 1 × 108 C. pneumoniae elementary bodies in 30 μl SPG buffer. Mice were sacrificed by CO2 inhalation 2 h, 3 days, 10 days, or 15 days after inoculation, and lungs and spleen were weighed, snap frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −80 °C until further processing (Li et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: M-ID vaccination with fabD generated a response that resulted in moderately, but significantly reduced total C. pneumoniae lung loads as compared to control mice vaccinated with a plasmid expressing a non-Chlamydia ORF (p ≤ 0.019). This resulted in the ability of fabD to mediate a moderate, but statistically significant level of protection in an inbred A/J mouse respiratory challenge model (Li et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: A/J
  • Vaccination Protocol: For intranasal inoculation, mice received a light isoflurane inhalation anesthesia. Vaccine protection control mice were inoculated with a low dose of 5 × 106 C. pneumoniae elementary bodies in 30 μl SPG buffer (Li et al., 2006).
  • Challenge Protocol: High-dose challenge infection was performed 4 weeks after the last gene gun genetic vaccination or low dose inoculation of live C. pneumoniae, and 6 weeks after the last intramuscular-intradermal genetic vaccination, by intranasal inoculation of 1 × 108 C. pneumoniae elementary bodies in 30 μl SPG buffer. Mice were sacrificed by CO2 inhalation 2 h, 3 days, 10 days, or 15 days after inoculation, and lungs and spleen were weighed, snap frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −80 °C until further processing (Li et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: IM-ID vaccination with CPn0095 (pknD) generated a response that resulted in moderately, but significantly reduced total C. pneumoniae lung loads as compared to control mice vaccinated with a plasmid expressing a non-Chlamydia ORF (p ≤ 0.019). This resulted in the ability of CPN0095 to mediate a moderate, but statistically significant level of protection in an inbred A/J mouse respiratory challenge model (Li et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: A/J
  • Vaccination Protocol: For intranasal inoculation, mice received a light isoflurane inhalation anesthesia. Vaccine protection control mice were inoculated with a low dose of 5 × 106 C. pneumoniae elementary bodies in 30 μl SPG buffer (Li et al., 2006).
  • Challenge Protocol: High-dose challenge infection was performed 4 weeks after the last gene gun genetic vaccination or low dose inoculation of live C. pneumoniae, and 6 weeks after the last intramuscular-intradermal genetic vaccination, by intranasal inoculation of 1 × 108 C. pneumoniae elementary bodies in 30 μl SPG buffer. Mice were sacrificed by CO2 inhalation 2 h, 3 days, 10 days, or 15 days after inoculation, and lungs and spleen were weighed, snap frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −80 °C until further processing (Li et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: Mice vaccinated with candidate gene ssb showed significant reduction of spleen chlamydial loads as compared to naïve, non-protected control mice (p ≤ 0.048). This resulted in the ability of ssb to mediate a modest, but significant level of protection in an inbred A/J mouse respiratory challenge model (Li et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Efficacy: Immunization with this vaccine resulted in signi®cant protection, as measured by a lower bacterial load and a less severe pathological outcome after infection with C. pneumoniae (Svanholm et al., 2000).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: The mice in groups of 25 were immunized subcutaneously into the tail base with the purified LcrE protein diluted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at a dose of 20 μg mixed with 25 μl Alum (Aluminum hydroxide Gel, Sigma) or 75 μl Freund's adjuvants (Chemicon International, Temecula, CA, USA; 1st inoculation with complete and 2nd and 3rd inoculations with incomplete Freund's adjuvant) in 0.15-ml volume 3 times at 3-week intervals (Faludi et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the last immunization, the immunized and non-immunized mice (absolute naive animals) were challenged with 4×105 inclusion forming unit (IFU) C. pneumoniae (CWL029, ATCC) in 25 μl PBS intranasally under pentobarbital sodium anesthesia (Faludi et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: The immunogenicity and protective effect of recombinant LcrE protein combined either with Freund's or Alum adjuvant were investigated in mice. The immunization with both protocols resulted in a significant reduction of the number of viable C. pneumoniae in the lungs after challenge. Results confirm that LcrE induces protective immunity in mice (Faludi et al., 2009).
  • Host Ifng (Interferon gamma) response
    • Description: The presence of LcrE-specific IFN-gamma-producing cells in LcrE+Alum-immunized mice indicates Th1 type response. IFN-gamma responses were measured in spleen cells collected 2 weeks after last immunization and were significantly higher than mock-immunized mice (Faludi et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IgA response
    • Description: LcrE-specific IgA level was higher in both the sera and the lungs after using Freund's adjuvant than non-immunized mice at the time of the challenge (Faludi et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
References References References References References References
Tammiruusu et al., 2007: Tammiruusu A, Penttilä T, Lahesmaa R, Sarvas M, Puolakkainen M, Vuola JM. Intranasal administration of chlamydial outer protein N (CopN) induces protection against pulmonary Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a mouse model. Vaccine. 2007; 25(2); 283-290. [PubMed: 16949182].
Li et al., 2006: Li D, Borovkov A, Vaglenov A, Wang C, Kim T, Gao D, Sykes KF, Kaltenboeck B. Mouse model of respiratory Chlamydia pneumoniae infection for a genomic screen of subunit vaccine candidates. Vaccine. 2006; 24(15); 2917-2927. [PubMed: 16434129].
Li et al., 2006: Li D, Borovkov A, Vaglenov A, Wang C, Kim T, Gao D, Sykes KF, Kaltenboeck B. Mouse model of respiratory Chlamydia pneumoniae infection for a genomic screen of subunit vaccine candidates. Vaccine. 2006; 24(15); 2917-2927. [PubMed: 16434129].
Li et al., 2006: Li D, Borovkov A, Vaglenov A, Wang C, Kim T, Gao D, Sykes KF, Kaltenboeck B. Mouse model of respiratory Chlamydia pneumoniae infection for a genomic screen of subunit vaccine candidates. Vaccine. 2006; 24(15); 2917-2927. [PubMed: 16434129].
Svanholm et al., 2000: Svanholm C, Bandholtz L, Castaños-Velez E, Wigzell H, Rottenberg ME. Protective DNA immunization against Chlamydia pneumoniae. Scandinavian journal of immunology. 2000; 51(4); 345-353. [PubMed: 10736106].
Faludi et al., 2009: Faludi I, Burian K, Csanadi A, Miczak A, Lu X, Kakkar VV, Gonczol E, Endresz V. Adjuvant modulation of the immune response of mice against the LcrE protein of Chlamydophila pneumoniae. International journal of medical microbiology : IJMM. 2009; 299(7); 520-528. [PubMed: 19451031].