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Vaccine Comparison

N. caninum DNA vaccine encoding NcSAG1 and NcSRS2, combined with recombinant NcSAG1 and NcSRS2 Proteins N. caninum MIC10 and p24 protein vaccine N. caninum NcMAG1 Protein Vaccine N. caninum NcMIC1 Protein Vaccine N. caninum NcPDI Protein Vaccine RB51--MIC3/GRA6/MIC1/SRS2 RB51-SRS2
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004163
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • SAG1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • srs2 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pcDNA3 prime, recombinant antigen boost (Cannas et al., 2003)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004164
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • MIC10 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: VSA-3
  • Immunization Route: Subcutaneous injection
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011564
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • MAG1 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: saponin vaccine adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011563
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • MIC1 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: Ribi vaccine adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004009
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Recombinant NcPDI protein (Debache et al., 2010).
  • PDI gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: cholera toxin
    • VO ID: VO_0000143
    • Description: Cholera toxin adjuvant (Debache et al., 2010).
  • Immunization Route: Intranasally
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004649
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • MIC1 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: Neospora caninum protective antigens MIC1, MIC3, GRA2, GRA6 and RS2 were expressed in strain RB51 (Ramamoorthy et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • srs2 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: Neospora caninum protective antigens MIC1, MIC3, GRA2, GRA6 and RS2 were expressed in strain RB51 (Ramamoorthy et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: A recombinant strain RB51 expressing N. caninum antigen. Neospora caninum protective antigens MIC1, MIC3, GRA2, GRA6 and SRS2 were expressed in strain RB51 (Ramamoorthy et al., 2007).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004648
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • srs2 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: Recombinant RB51 strains each expressing SRS2 (RB51/SRS2) or GRA7 (RB51/GRA7) antigens of N. caninum (Alaeddine et al., 2005).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: RB51 strains expressing SRS2 (RB51/SRS2) or GRA7 (RB51/GRA7) antigens of N. caninum (Vemulapalli et al., 2007).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: C57BL/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: The infected positive control group was treated as before. To the mice of the adjuvant control group, 100μl of the pcDNA3 vector without insert (used at a concentration of 1 mg/ml) was inoculated intramuscularly, with 50 μl (corresponding to 50 μg of DNA) being injected into the right and left hind limb muscle, respectively, on day 0 and on day 28. On day 49, these adjuvant control mice received one single i.p. injection of PBS–RAS as in the previous experiments. Group 3 received similar intramuscular applications of pcDNA3–NcSAG1 at day 0 and day 28, followed by a single i.p. injection of 200 [mu]l of recNcSAG1 (75 μg/ml) emulsified in PBS at day 49. Group 4 received treatment with pcDNA3–NcSRS2 and recNcSRS2 as in group 3 (Cannas et al., 2003).
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 59, all mice were challenged i.p. with 2×106 live N. caninum tachyzoites suspended in 200 μl of PBS (Cannas et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: Results suggest that a combined DNA/recombinant antigen-vaccine, based on NcSAG1 and NcSRS2, respectively, exhibited a highly significant protective effect against experimentally induced cerebral neosporosis in mice (Cannas et al., 2003).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: Qs
  • Vaccination Protocol: Briefly female Qs mice at 4–5 weeks of age were divided into groups that were injected subcutaneously (s.c.). VSA-3 was used as adjuvant (comprising 1/3 v/v of the immunogen) and 10 μg of each recombinant protein or lysate was injected per mouse. Four weeks later the same mice were given a booster s.c. injection of the same formulation received earlier (Ellis et al., 2008).
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 5 of gestation, pregnant mice in the treatment groups were injected s.c with 106 tachyzoites of NC-Liverpool recovered from in vitro culture as described above. A control group (pregnant uninfected mice) were injected s.c. with 0.9% saline. On approx. day 14 of gestation pregnant dams were placed in individual boxes and allowed to carry their pregnancy to term. Mice were checked daily until all that were obviously pregnant had given birth and the date of birth and number of pups (live and dead) noted (Ellis et al., 2008).
  • Efficacy: A mixture of MIC10 and p24B produced partial protection against transplacental transmission of N. caninum in this mouse model (Ellis et al., 2008).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: C57Bl/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: At the age of 8–9 weeks, mice were randomly distributed into 10 experimental groups of 10 mice each, and the serological status (Neospora-negative) was checked by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mice in groups 1–5 were treated by i.p. injection; mice in group 1 received 100 μl of PBS each (i.p. infection control), group 2 received 100 μl saponin adjuvant (SAP) at 100 μg/ml, group 3 received 10 μg of recNcPDI in SAP, group 4 received 10 μg recNcROP2 in SAP, group 5 received 10 μg recNcMAG1 in SAP. Mice in groups 6–10 were treated by i.n. application through the nares, which was performed under mild isoflurane anaesthesia. Mice in group 6 received 100 μl of PBS/mouse (i.n. infection control), group 7 received 20 μl of cholera toxin adjuvant (CT) at 250 μg/ml, group 8 received 10 μg recNcPDI/mouse in CT, group 9 received 10 μg recROP2 in CT, group 10 received 10 μg recNcMAG1 in CT. These procedures were carried out on days 1, 15 and 30 (Debache et al., 2010).
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 46 all animals were challenged by i.p. inoculation of 1×106 freshly purified N. caninum tachyzoites. On day 74, the experiment was terminated and mice were euthanized by CO2 asphyxiation. Those animals exhibiting clinical signs of neosporosis (ruffled coat, apathy, hind limb paralysis) prior to day 74 were euthanized at the onset of these signs (Debache et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: recNcMAG1 provided protection in 7 and 5 out of 10 mice, respectively, that did not develop any clinical signs (Debache et al., 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: C57BL/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: Group 1 was immunized 3 times with 100 μl recNcMIC1 (75 μg/ ml) emulsified in RIBI Adjuvant System (PBS-RAS; RIBI ImmunoChem Research, Inc., Hamilton, Montana) according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Inoculations were carried out by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 200 μl of respective preparations. Group 2 was vaccinated 3 times with 100 μl of pcDNA-NcMIC1 (1 mg/ml) by i.m. injections (50 μg into each hind limb muscle). Group 3 was treated twice by i.m. pcDNA-NcMIC1 injections followed by 1 i.p. recNcMIC1 antigen. Control groups 4, 5, and 6 included corresponding treatments with PBS emulsified in RIBI adjuvant (i.p.), pcDNA3.1 (100 μg i.m., plasmid without insert), and PBS (= infection control, i.p. treatment), respectively. Vaccination started on day 0 and booster injections were administered at days 31 and 58, respectively (Alaeddine et al., 2005).
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 100, all mice groups were challenged i.p. with 2 × 106 live N. caninum tachyzoites (NC1 strain) suspended in 100 μl PBS (Alaeddine et al., 2005).
  • Efficacy: Despite the fact that cerebral infection occurred, none of the animals in the recNcMIC1-vaccinated group experienced clinical signs of disease during the 3-wk time frame. The recNcMIC1-vaccinated group showed a significant reduction of parasite number compared with the adjuvant control group (Alaeddine et al., 2005).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: C57Bl/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: At the age of 8–9 weeks, mice were randomly distributed into 10 experimental groups of 10 mice each, and the serological status (Neospora-negative) was checked by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mice in groups 1–5 were treated by i.p. injection; mice in group 1 received 100 μl of PBS each (i.p. infection control), group 2 received 100 μl saponin adjuvant (SAP) at 100 μg/ml, group 3 received 10 μg of recNcPDI in SAP, group 4 received 10 μg recNcROP2 in SAP, group 5 received 10 μg recNcMAG1 in SAP. Mice in groups 6–10 were treated by i.n. application through the nares, which was performed under mild isoflurane anaesthesia. Mice in group 6 received 100 μl of PBS/mouse (i.n. infection control), group 7 received 20 μl of cholera toxin adjuvant (CT) at 250 μg/ml, group 8 received 10 μg recNcPDI/mouse in CT, group 9 received 10 μg recROP2 in CT, group 10 received 10 μg recNcMAG1 in CT. These procedures were carried out on days 1, 15 and 30 (Debache et al., 2010).
  • Challenge Protocol: On day 46 all animals were challenged by i.p. inoculation of 1×106 freshly purified N. caninum tachyzoites. On day 74, the experiment was terminated and mice were euthanized by CO2 asphyxiation. Those animals exhibiting clinical signs of neosporosis (ruffled coat, apathy, hind limb paralysis) prior to day 74 were euthanized at the onset of these signs (Debache et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: A 90% protection rate was achieved following intra-nasal vaccination with recNcPDI emulsified in cholera toxin employing the C57Bl/6 mouse cerebral infection model when challenged with Neospora caninum tachyzoites (Debache et al., 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Female C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with a recombinant strain RB51 expressing N. caninum antigen or irradiated tachyzoites, boosted 4 weeks later and then bred (Ramamoorthy et al., 2007).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: Vaccinated mice were challenged with 5 x 106 N caninum tachyzoites between days 11-13 of pregnancy (Ramamoorthy et al., 2007).
  • Efficacy: The RB51-MIC3, RB51-GRA6, irradiated tachyzoite vaccine, pooled strain RB51-Neospora vaccine, RB51-MIC1 and RB51-SRS2 vaccines elicited approximately 6-38% protection against vertical transmission. B. abortus strain RB51 expressing the specific N. caninum antigens induced substantial protection against vertical transmission of N. caninum in mice (Ramamoorthy et al., 2007).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized by single intraperitoneal inoculation of the recombinant RB51 strains (Vemulapalli et al., 2007).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: The vaccinated mice were challenged with N. caninum tachyzoites (Vemulapalli et al., 2007).
  • Efficacy: Mice vaccinated with strain RB51/SRS2, but not RB51/GRA7, showed significant resistance to cerebral infection when compared to the RB51 vaccinated mice. Interestingly, mice vaccinated with either strain RB51 or RB51/GRA7 also contained significantly lower parasite burden in their brains compared to those inoculated with saline. Mice vaccinated with strain RB51/SRS2 or RB51/GRA7 were protected to the same extent as the strain RB51 vaccinated mice against challenge with B. abortus virulent strain 2308 (Vemulapalli et al., 2007).
References References References References References References References
Cannas et al., 2003: Cannas A, Naguleswaran A, Müller N, Eperon S, Gottstein B, Hemphill A. Vaccination of mice against experimental Neospora caninum infection using NcSAG1- and NcSRS2-based recombinant antigens and DNA vaccines. Parasitology. 2003; 126(Pt 4); 303-312. [PubMed: 12741509].
Ellis et al., 2008: Ellis J, Miller C, Quinn H, Ryce C, Reichel MP. Evaluation of recombinant proteins of Neospora caninum as vaccine candidates (in a mouse model). Vaccine. 2008; 26(47); 5989-5996. [PubMed: 18789996].
Debache et al., 2010: Debache K, Guionaud C, Alaeddine F, Hemphill A. Intraperitoneal and intra-nasal vaccination of mice with three distinct recombinant Neospora caninum antigens results in differential effects with regard to protection against experimental challenge with Neospora caninum tachyzoites. Parasitology. 2010; 137(2); 229-240. [PubMed: 19835644].
Alaeddine et al., 2005: Alaeddine F, Keller N, Leepin A, Hemphill A. Reduced infection and protection from clinical signs of cerebral neosporosis in C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with recombinant microneme antigen NcMIC1. The Journal of parasitology. 2005; 91(3); 657-665. [PubMed: 16108562].
Debache et al., 2010: Debache K, Guionaud C, Alaeddine F, Hemphill A. Intraperitoneal and intra-nasal vaccination of mice with three distinct recombinant Neospora caninum antigens results in differential effects with regard to protection against experimental challenge with Neospora caninum tachyzoites. Parasitology. 2010; 137(2); 229-240. [PubMed: 19835644].
Ramamoorthy et al., 2007: Ramamoorthy S, Sanakkayala N, Vemulapalli R, Jain N, Lindsay DS, Schurig GS, Boyle SM, Sriranganathan N. Prevention of vertical transmission of Neospora caninum in C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 expressing N. caninum protective antigens. International journal for parasitology. 2007; 37(13); 1531-1538. [PubMed: 17575983].
Alaeddine et al., 2005: Alaeddine F, Keller N, Leepin A, Hemphill A. Reduced infection and protection from clinical signs of cerebral neosporosis in C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with recombinant microneme antigen NcMIC1. The Journal of parasitology. 2005; 91(3); 657-665. [PubMed: 16108562].
Vemulapalli et al., 2007: Vemulapalli R, Sanakkayala N, Gulani J, Schurig GG, Boyle SM, Lindsay DS, Sriranganathan N. Reduced cerebral infection of Neospora caninum in BALB/c mice vaccinated with recombinant Brucella abortus RB51 strains expressing N. caninum SRS2 and GRA7 proteins. Veterinary parasitology. 2007; 148(3-4); 219-230. [PubMed: 17651896].