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Vaccine Comparison

Herpes simplex virus 1 gD mutant vaccine Herpes simplex virus 1 gH mutant vaccine Herpes simplex virus 1 TK mutant vaccine Herpes simplex virus 1 UL29 mutant vaccine Herpes Simplex Virus 2 DNA Vaccine encoding gD Herpes Simplex Virus 2 DNA Vaccine encoding gD with CD40L Herpes Simplex Virus 2 DNA Vaccine Vaxfectin-gD2 Herpes simplex virus 2 ICP0 mutant vaccine Herpes simplex virus DNA vaccine ∆gB-2 encoding gB Herpes simplex virus DNA vaccine gB-DNA encoding gB Herpes simplex virus DNA vaccine gBDNA encoding gB Herpes simplex virus DNA vaccine gD-2 encoding gD Herpes simplex virus DNA vaccine ICP-27 DNA encoding ICP-27 Herpes simplex virus DNA vaccine pCI-gB encoding gB Herpes simplex virus DNA vaccine pSIN-gB encoding gB Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 DNA Vaccine encoding 5gP Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA vaccine encoding GC Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA vaccine encoding GD Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA vaccine encoding GE Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 DNA Vaccine pRSC-gD-IL-21 Herpes simplex virus type 2 DNA vaccine encoding GB Herpes simplex virus type 2 DNA vaccine encoding ICP27 Herpes simplex virus type 2 vaccine using phage displaying GG protein HSV 2 DNA vaccine pVAX–HSV–2gD–Hsp70 pRP-RSV-HSV-1-gB
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Product Name: KOS-gDA3C
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002970
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • gD gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This gD mutant is from human herpesvirus 1 (Awasthi et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Flank scratch
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002971
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • gH gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This gH mutant is from Herpes simplex virus type 1 (Farrell et al., 1994).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Ear pinna
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002973
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • TK gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This TK mutant is from human herpesvirus type 1 (Field and Wildy, 1978).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intracerebral immunization
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002974
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • UL29 gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This UL29 mutant is from human herpesvirus type 1 (Morrison and Knipe, 1994).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: subcutaneous injection
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004522
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • gD gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pDNAVACC (Tirabassi et al., 2011)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004523
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • gD gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCDNA3-CD40L (Sin et al., 2001)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004521
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • gD gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: VR1012 (Shlapobersky et al., 2012)
  • Immunization Route: Intravaginal injection
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002972
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • ICP0 gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This ICP0 mutant is from Human herpesvirus type 2 (Halford et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Vaginal immunization
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004366
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse, guinea pig
  • UL27 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector V1Jns expressed the hsV-2 gB gene (McClements et al., 1996).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: V1Jns (McClements et al., 1996)
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004368
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • UL27 from Herpes simplex virus type 1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: This DNA vaccine encodes glycoprotein B (gB) (Manickan et al., 1997).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004369
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • UL27 from Herpes simplex virus type 1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: This DNA vaccine expressed glycoprotein B of HSV (gBDNA) (Toka and Rouse, 2005).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pIL-15 (Toka and Rouse, 2005).
  • Immunization Route: intranasal immunization
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004365
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse, guinea pig
  • gD gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector V1Jns expressed the HSV-2 gD gene (McClements et al., 1996).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: V1Jns (McClements et al., 1996)
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004367
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • ICP27 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: This DNA vaccine expresses infectious cell polypeptide 27(ICP-27) (Manickan et al., 1997).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004412
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • gB gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pCI expressed glycoprotein B of herpes simplex virus type 1 (Hariharan et al., 1998).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCI (Hariharan et al., 1998)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004411
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • UL27 from Herpes simplex virus type 1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector Sindbis virus-based (pSIN vectors) expressed glycoprotein B of herpes simplex virus type 1 (Hariharan et al., 1998).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Sindbis virus-based (pSIN vectors) (Hariharan et al., 1998)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004520
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • UL27 from Herpes simplex virus type 1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • UL44 from HSV-1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • gD gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • US8 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • US7 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: VR-1055 (Osorio et al., 2004)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011408
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein C
  • UL44 from HSV-1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: The HSV-1 KOS gC gene was isolated by PCR. Each gene was initially cloned into a TA cloning vector and then into a eukaryotic plasmic expression vector that uses the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter for expression (pRc/CMV for gC) (Nass et al., 1998).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pRc/CMV
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011421
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Herpes simplex virus type1 glycoprotein D
  • US5 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Plasmid DNA encoding HSV-1 glycoprotein D1 (gD1) was constructed by insertion of the gD1 gene into pcDNA3 (Jamali et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pcDNA3
  • Immunization Route: Intradermal injection (i.d.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011423
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein E
  • US8 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: The HSV-1 KOS gE gene was isolated by PCR. Each gene was initially cloned into a TA cloning vector and then into a eukaryotic plasmic expression vector that uses the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter for expression (pRc/CMV for gE) (Nass et al., 1998).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pRc/CMV
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004519
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • gD gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Eye-drop immunization
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011406
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein B (UL27)
  • UL27 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: The plasmid DNA used for immunization was purified by polyethylene glycol precipitation. Briefly, the cellular proteins were precipitated with 1 volume of 7.5 M ammonium acetate. The supernatant was then precipitated with isopropanol, after which the plasmids were extracted three times with phenol-chloroform and then precipitated with pure ethanol. The DNA quality was then checked by electrophoresis in 1% agarose gel. Next, the concentration of the plasmid DNA was measured using a GeneQuant RNA/DNA calculator (Biochrom, Cambridge, UK). The amount of endotoxin was then determined using the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test (< 0.05 EU/µg) (Kim et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: cytomegalovirus promoter (pCI)
  • Immunization Route: Intranasal
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011405
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Herpes simplex virus type 2 transcriptional regulator ICP27
  • ICP27 from Herpes simplex virus type 2 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: The plasmid-encoding HSV-2 ICP27 was generated by inserting a PCR fragment incorporating the entire ICP27 gene (UL54) into pTarget (Promega, Madison, WI) (Haynes et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pTarget, and a plasmid vector encoding the A and B subunits of the Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011420
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Herpes simplex virus type 2 envelope glycoprotein G (US4)
  • US4 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: Phage clones were isolated that express peptides that mimic single epitopes of the glycoprotein G of HSV-2, gG2 (Grabowska et al., 2000).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Filamentous phage
  • Immunization Route: Subcutaneous injection
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004578
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • Antigen: HSV–2gD gene fragment and Tubercle bacillus Hsp70 gene (Fan and Yang, 2010)
  • gD gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pVAX (Fan and Yang, 2010)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004723
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • gB gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein B (gB-1) gene, was cloned under control of the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat in the episomal replicating vector pRP-RSV (Manservigi et al., 1990).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein B (gB-1) gene, deleted of 639 nucleotides that encode the transmembrane anchor sequence and reconstructed with the extramembrane and intracytoplasmic domains, was cloned under control of the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat in the episomal replicating vector pRP-RSV (Manservigi et al., 1990).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Mouse Response

Mouse Response

Mouse Response

Mouse Response

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: gD DNA vaccine or empty plasmid was administered intramuscularly on days 0 and 2. gD-liposomes or empty liposomes were administered 3 weeks after the DNA prime (50 μl total dose per mouse per time point in both nostrils) (Tirabassi et al., 2011).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: The vaccine stimulated high titers of serum neutralising antibodies, a DNA priming dose dependent T helper type response, enhanced mucosal immune responses and potent protective immunity at the vaginal cavity, the portal of entry for the virus (Tirabassi et al., 2011).
  • Challenge Protocol: The clinical isolate, HSV-2 strain MS was grown and titered in Vero cells. LD50 was titrated in Balb/c mice prior to the challenge experiments. Five days prior to infection, mice were injected subcutaneously with 2 mg of medroxyprogesterone. On the day of infection, animals were anesthetised intraperitoneally with a ketamine/xylazine mixture and instilled intravaginally with a 20 μl suspension containing the indicated virus dose (Tirabassi et al., 2011).
  • Efficacy: The vaccine induced durable protection in mice, demonstrated by a 60% survival rate when lethal infections were performed 20 weeks after the immunisation primed with 0.5 μg of DNA vaccine (Tirabassi et al., 2011).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: The quadriceps muscles of BALB/c mice were injected with 10–60 mg of pgD DNA constructs formulated in a final volume of 100 ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 0.25% bupi- vacaine-HCl, using a 28-gauge needle. Forty micrograms of CD40 and CD40L gene expression cassettes was mixed with pgD plasmid solution prior to injection (Sin et al., 2001).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: When coinjected with CD40L plus pgD vaccines, a significant increase in Th cell-proliferative responses was observed. Specifically, CD40L drives immune responses toward a Th1 phenotype (Sin et al., 2001).
  • Challenge Protocol: After DNA injection, mice were challenged intravaginally with HSV-2 strain 186 with some modification. Before inoculating the virus, the intravaginal area was
    swabbed with a cotton-tipped applicator soaked with 0.1 M NaOH solution and then cleared with dried cotton applicators (Sin et al., 2001).
  • Efficacy: When mice were immunized with gD plasmid DNA and then challenged with 4 LD50, 60% survival of gD plasmid-vaccinated animals was noted. When covaccinated with CD40L, 100% of the challenged animals survived (Sin et al., 2001).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: Both FL and S forms of gD2 formulated with Vaxfectin showed significantly higher antibody titres, compared with gD2 alone (Shlapobersky et al., 2012).
  • Efficacy: At a high viral challenge, the 0.1 µg dose of FL gD2 Vaxfectin-formulated pDNA yielded 80 % survival. In addition, 40 % of mice vaccinated with adjuvanted FL pDNA had no detectable HSV-2 viral genomes in the dorsal root ganglia (Shlapobersky et al., 2012).

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: An ICP0 mutant is attenuated in mice (Halford et al., 2011).
  • Efficacy: An ICP0 mutant induces protection in mice from challenge with wild type HSV-2 (Halford et al., 2011).
  • Host IgG response
    • Description: Immunization with the live-attenuated HSV-2 0ΔNLS virus elicited a significant IgG antibody response directed against HSV-2's entry receptor, gD-2. gD-2 specific IgG antibodies were detected at levels significantly higher than levels detected in naive mice at day 50 after inoculation (Halford et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: The DNA immunization has the capacity to elicit cell-mediated, as well as humoral immune responses. In addition, injection of mice showed that each construction induced neutralizing serum antibodies (McClements et al., 1996).
  • Efficacy: Immunized and control (saline-injected) mice were challenged by i.p. injection of HSV-2 and observed daily for survival. Significant protection from death was found for each dose tested (P< 0.01 for the 30, 10, and 3 ug groups, and P = 0.027 for the 1 ug group) (McClements et al., 1996).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: The majority of mice immunized with plasmid DNA encoding gB resisted challenge with 10 ID50 of virus (Manickan et al., 1997).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: pIL-15 generated memory CD8 T cell responses that were threefold higher and mainly maintained in the spleen, but high levels of immunoglobulin A antibodies were induced and maintained long-term in the vaginal mucosa (Toka and Rouse, 2005).
  • Efficacy: The enhanced immune responses ensuing from this strategy of immunization were protective upon lethal challenge with HSV-1. Five out of six mice survived after challenge (Toka and Rouse, 2005).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: The DNA immunization has the capacity to elicit cell-mediated, as well as humoral immune responses. In addition, injection of mice showed that each construction induced neutralizing serum antibodies (McClements et al., 1996).
  • Efficacy: Immunized and control (saline-injected) mice were challenged by i.p. injection of HSV-2 and observed daily for survival. Significant protection from death (P< 0.001) was achieved for each dose. Eighty-two of eighty-six gD-2 DNA-immunized mice survived challenge (McClements et al., 1996).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: DC-delivered DNA appeared to be associated mainly with an increased Thi CD4 T cell response (Manickan et al., 1997).
  • Efficacy: The majority of mice immunized with plasmid DNA encoding ICP 27 resisted challenge with 10 ID50 of virus (Manickan et al., 1997).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: A single intramuscular immunization of BALB/c mice with pSIN vectors expressing the glycoprotein B of herpes simplex virus type 1 induced a broad spectrum of immune responses, including virus-specific antibodies, cytotoxic T cells, and protection from lethal virus challenge in two different murine models (Hariharan et al., 1998).
  • Efficacy: 100% of the mice surviving the lethal i.p. McKrae challenge, demonstrating complete protection. None of the mice immunized with 100-μg doses of either negative control plasmid (pCI-HBVe or pSIN1.5-HBVe) survived (Hariharan et al., 1998).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: A single intramuscular immunization of BALB/c mice with pSIN vectors expressing the glycoprotein B of herpes simplex virus type 1 induced a broad spectrum of immune responses, including virus-specific antibodies, cytotoxic T cells, and protection from lethal virus challenge in two different murine models (Hariharan et al., 1998).
  • Efficacy: 100% of the mice surviving the lethal i.p. McKrae challenge, demonstrating complete protection. None of the mice immunized with 100-μg doses of either negative control plasmid (pCI-HBVe or pSIN1.5-HBVe) survived (Hariharan et al., 1998).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: The complete open reading frame for each of the five HSV-1 glycoproteins (gB, gC, gD, gE, and gI) was cloned into the VR-1055 expression vector and grown in bacteria. Plasmid DNA encoding each glycoprotein was purified on a cesium chloride gradient. In each experiment, 10 mice per group were inoculated intramuscularly (IM) into each quadriceps on days 0, 21, and 42 with a cocktail consisting of 10 μg of each cesium chloride–purified DNA (Osorio et al., 2004).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: All immunized groups had significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers than mock-vaccinated mice (Osorio et al., 2004).
  • Challenge Protocol: Ocular challenge was performed 3 weeks after the final immunization. An inoculum of 2 × 105 or 2 × 106 pfu of HSV-1 strain McKrae in 5 μL tissue culture medium was placed in each eye without anesthesia and without corneal scarification, and the lid was gently rubbed for 30 seconds (Osorio et al., 2004).
  • Efficacy: In all vaccine groups, 10 of 10 (100%) of the mice survived, whereas only 15 of 70 (21%) mock groups showed similar survival patterns after ocular infection (Osorio et al., 2004).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Groups of 5 BALB/cByJ mice received 100-uL injections of purified plasmids into the quadriceps muscles of the hind legs. In most cases, injections were 3 weeks apart; blood samples were taken from the tail vein 1 day before injection or challenge, and approximately equal volumes of blood from individual mice were pooled within a group (Nass et al., 1998).
  • Challenge Protocol: Three weeks after the final injection, mice were challenged ip with 5 x 104 pfu of HSV-1 McKrae, which was ~10 LD50S, as determied in BALB/cByJ mice (Nass et al., 1998).
  • Efficacy: Protection against a lethal intraperitoneal challenge of HSV-1 (5 x 104 pfu) with gC (UL44) or gE plasmid vaccination could be demonstrated if the inoculating dose of DNA was 250 microg. All mice immunized with vaccinia recombinants expressing either gC or gE survived HSV-1 challenge (Nass et al., 1998).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: BALB/c mice were immunized three times intra-dermally with 50 µg of pcDNA3 gD1 in a total volume of 100 µl on days 0, 21 and 42 (gD1 group). NLX (Sigma) was dissolved in 100 µl PBS containing 50 µg of the pcDNA3 gD1 construct at a concentration of 5 mg kg–1 and injected to each mouse with the same protocol, i.e. NLX was administered intra-dermally in combination with the pcDNA3 gD1 on days 0, 21 and 42 (NLX-gD1 group). PBS was injected according to the same protocol into the third group of mice as a negative control (PBS group). Finally, the last control group of mice was inoculated according to the same protocol with 100 µl of inoculums containing 105 plaque-forming units (pfu) of KOS strain virus (KOS group) (Jamali et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: Three weeks after the last immunization, mice were challenged with a low dose [four mouse lethal dose fifty percent (MLD50) = 1 x 105 pfu] or a high dose (10 MLD50 = 1 x 105 pfu) of wild-type virus. The mortality rate was followed for 2 weeks (Jamali et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: BALB/c mice receiving a glycoprotein D1 (gD1, US5) DNA vaccine alone were 80% protected against a subsequent HSV-1 challenge. Results also indicate that the administration of NLX as an adjuvant improved protective immunity against HSV-1 (Jamali et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Groups of 5 BALB/cByJ mice received 100-uL injections of purified plasmids into the quadriceps muscles of the hind legs. In most cases, injections were 3 weeks apart; blood samples were taken from the tail vein 1 day before injection or challenge, and approximately equal volumes of blood from individual mice were pooled within a group (Nass et al., 1998).
  • Challenge Protocol: Three weeks after the final injection, mice were challenged ip with 5 x 104 pfu of HSV-1 McKrae, which was ~10 LD50S, as determied in BALB/cByJ mice (Nass et al., 1998).
  • Efficacy: Protection against a lethal intraperitoneal challenge of HSV-1 (5 x 104 pfu) with gC or gE (US8) plasmid vaccination could be demonstrated if the inoculating dose of DNA was 250 microg. All mice immunized with vaccinia recombinants expressing either gC or gE survived HSV-1 challenge (Nass et al., 1998).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: For the vaccination experiments, Balb/c mice were randomly divided into pRSC-group (mock plasmid), pRSC-gD group, pRSC-gD-IL-21 group and pRSC-gD-IL-21+ nanoparticles group in order. 12 mice per group were used routinely. In the nanoparticles group, 20 μl (40 μg DNA) of the nanoparticles containing DNA vaccine pRSC-gD-IL-21 were topically dropped into the eye of each mouse on days 0, 14 and 28. In other groups, each mouse was inoculated topically into the eye with 40 μg DNA vaccine pRSC-gD-IL-21 or pRSC-gD or mock plasmid in 20 μl PBS 3 times at two week intervals (Hu et al., 2011).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: The nanoparticles containing DNA vaccine pRSC-gD-IL-21 induced mice to generate higher levels of specific neutralizing antibody, sIgA in tears, and IFN-γ, IL-4 in serum (Hu et al., 2011).
  • Challenge Protocol: Three weeks after the final immunization, 6 mice per group were sacrificed and used for detecting immune efficiency, and the other 6 mice were used for HSV-1 challenge experiments. Mice were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital (1.5 mg/0.15 ml) and the corneas of mice were scarified 10 times with 1 ml needle and the ocular mucosa of each eye were dropped with HSV-1 (10 μl of 5 × 106 plaque forming unit (PFU)/ml) (Hu et al., 2011).
  • Efficacy: On day 10 after viral challenge, there was no keratitis in the mouse of the pRSC-gD-IL-21+ nanoparticles group, demonstrating that the pRSC-gD-IL-21+ nanoparticles vaccine was efficient to inhibit HSK in a mouse model (Hu et al., 2011).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Groups of 5- to 6-week old female mice (n = 7) were co-immunized intranasally (i.n.) with 100 µg of pCIgB in the presence of β2-adrenergic agonist, salbutamol (10, 50, 100, and 200 µg). To examine the effect of plasmid DNA backbone (e.g. CpG motif), some of mice were immunized i.n. with 100 µg of the control vector (pCI-neo) in parallel. The i.n. immunization was performed three times at 7-day intervals (days 0, 7, and 14) by depositing pCIgB dissolved in a total volume of 20 µl of PBS (pH 7.2) containing the indicated dose of salbutamol onto the nares of deeply anesthetized mice (Kim et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected with Depo-Provera (DP) (Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, MI) at 2 mg per mouse. Five days following the injection of DP, the mice were challenged intravaginally with 106 PFU of HSV-1 McKrae. The mice were examined daily for vaginal inflammation, neurological illness, and death (Kim et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: The present study evaluated the modulatory functions of salbutamol co-administered with DNA vaccine expressing gB (UL27) of herpes simplex virus (HSV) via intranasal (i.n.) route. The enhanced immune responses caused by co-administration of salbutamol provided effective and rapid responses to HSV mucosal challenge, thereby conferring prolonged survival and reduced inflammation against viral infection (Kim et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Each immunization of 6–8-week-old female Balb/c mice consisted of a single PMED™ delivery to the ventral abdominal skin in which each delivery contained 0.5 mg of gold coated with a total of 0.5 μg of the DNA vaccine-DEI vector formulation. Two such “single shot” immunizations were administered 4 weeks apart and animals were sacrificed or challenged 2 weeks following the second immunization (Haynes et al., 2006).
  • Challenge Protocol: Anesthetized Balb/c mice were intranasally challenged with 30 μl of PBS containing approximately 50 LD50 (2 × 106 PFU) of HSV-2 strain MS. Mice were followed for 20 days after infection and scored for morbidity and mortality (Haynes et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: Particle-mediated DNA vaccination of mice with a DNA plasmid-encoding ICP27 resulted in the induction of ICP27-specific IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production in Balb/c mice. When the DNA vaccine was supplemented with as little as 50ng of a vector encoding the A and B subunits of the Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT), animals were profoundly protected from morbidity and mortality (Haynes et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: BALB/c mice were obtained from a randomly bred, closed colony at the Sheffield University animal facility. Immunisations were administered subcutaneously at 2-week intervals. The dose given is the quantity of phage used per mouse per immunisation in a 200 ml volume of TBS. Prebleeds were obtained from a random selection of the mice prior to immunisation, and further bleeds were taken from all mice 2 weeks after each immunisation (Grabowska et al., 2000).
  • Challenge Protocol: Four weeks after the last immunisation, mice were challenged with 5±6 mouse lethal doses of HSV-2 (strain 333). Survival of the mice was monitored daily (Grabowska et al., 2000).
  • Efficacy: In two experiments, mice immunised with phage displaying a single epitope of gG2 (US4) were protected against challenge with a lethal dose of whole HSV-2 (Grabowska et al., 2000).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: The IgG response in serum in vaccinated mice with pVAX–HSV–2gD and pVAX–HSV–2gD–Hsp70 differed significantly (P < 0.05) from those in immunized mice with pVAX and pVAX–Hsp70, which did not generate antibody levels above background. The highest IgG concentration was observed in serum of mice immunized with pVAX–HSV–2gD–Hsp70, which showed significant differences compared with the other three groups (P < 0.05) (Fan and Yang, 2010).
  • Efficacy: Eight of the animals (8/10) have survived in group pVAX–HSV–2gD–Hsp70. Only one survived in the pVAX and pVAX–Hsp70 groups (Fan and Yang, 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized with secreted gB-1 produced HSV-1- and HSV-2-neutralizing antibodies (Manservigi et al., 1990).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were challenged with HSV-1 or LV (Manservigi et al., 1990).
  • Efficacy: Mice immunized with secreted gB-1 produced HSV-1- and HSV-2-neutralizing antibodies and were protected against HSV-1 lethal, latent, and recurrent infections (Manservigi et al., 1990).
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