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Vaccine Comparison

AcHERV-sH1N1-HA AdH5-FluA NP Avian influenza virus DNA vaccine pH5HA Avian influenza virus DNA vaccine pN1NA encoding N1 neuraminidase Avian influenza virus DNA vaccine pNP BacHA derived from Influenza A virus (A/Indonesia/CDC669/2006(H5N1)) BPZE1- FHA (H1N1/PR8 influenza A virus) dVV-HA5(H5N1) Flagellin-based HA globular head fusion vaccine using HA protein from Influenza A virus (A/Viet Nam/1203/2004(H5N1)) Inactivated H1N1(2009) Vaccine with AF03 adjuvant Inactivated split Mem 71 Virus with SPT adjuvant Influenza virus CTA1-3M2e-DD protein vaccine Influenza virus DNA vaccine A/NP Influenza virus DNA vaccine BacPAKHA encoding EqfKY HA Influenza virus DNA vaccine d1TTFC-NP encoding NP Influenza virus DNA vaccine encoding HA from Influenza A virus (A/chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1)) Influenza virus DNA vaccine encoding HA from Influenza A virus (A/environment/Hong Kong/156/1997(H5N1)) Influenza virus DNA vaccine encoding HA from Influenza A virus (A/Hong Kong/1/68(H3N2)) Influenza virus DNA vaccine encoding HA from Influenza A virus (A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/2004(H5N1)) Influenza virus DNA vaccine encoding HA from Influenza B virus (B/Ibaraki/2/85) Influenza virus DNA vaccine encoding M1 from Influenza A virus (A/chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1)) Influenza virus DNA vaccine encoding NA from Influenza A virus (A/chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1)) Influenza virus DNA vaccine encoding NA from Influenza B virus (B/Ibaraki/2/85) Influenza virus DNA vaccine encoding NP from Influenza A virus (A/chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1)) Influenza virus DNA vaccine encoding NP from Influenza A virus (A/chicken/Hubei/489/2004(H5N1)) Influenza virus DNA vaccine HA DNA Influenza virus DNA vaccine NA-DNA Influenza virus DNA vaccine NP DNA Influenza virus DNA vaccine pBK-SFV-HA Influenza virus DNA vaccine pBK-SFV-NP Influenza virus DNA vaccine pCMV/H7 Influenza virus DNA vaccine pCMV/Hl encoding H1 Influenza virus DNA vaccine pDNA encoding M2 and NP Influenza virus DNA vaccine pHA/NP147–155 encoding NP147-155 Influenza virus DNA vaccine pIRES/HA encoding HA Influenza virus DNA vaccine pIRES/HA/GM-CSF encoding HA Influenza virus DNA vaccine pIRES/HA/IL-12p35 + pIRES/NA/IL-12p40 Influenza virus DNA vaccine pIRES/HA/IL-2 expressing HA Influenza virus DNA vaccine pIRES/NA expressing NA Influenza virus DNA vaccine pIRES/NA/GM-CSF encoding NA Influenza virus DNA vaccine pIRES/NA/IL-2 encoding NA Influenza virus DNA vaccine pRSV-NP encoding the coding sequence from influenza virus A/PR/8/34. Influenza virus HA protein vaccine (Influenza A virus (A/Fukuoka/C29/85(H3N2))) Influenza virus HA protein vaccine (Influenza A virus (A/Yamagata/120/1986(H1N1))) Influenza virus NP protein vaccine (Influenza A virus (A/nt/60/1968(H3N2))) Influenza virus NS1 mutant vaccine M2 mutant from Influenza A Mutagrip Vaccine with P40 Adjuvant MVTT-HA-QH PAV3-HA (H5N1) RCN-HA (H5N1) RE Recombinant baculovirus encoding HA from Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1)) Recombinant vaccinia virus encoding HA from Influenza B virus (Strain B/England/222/82) Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus encoding HA from Influenza A virus (A/WSN/1933(H1N1)) rHA with IL-1β adjuvant rHA with IL-2 adjuvant rHA with IL-7 adjuvant rMVTT-HA-QH (H5N1) rORFV-D1701-V-HAh5n (H5N1) rPIV5-H3 (influenza virus) rVEE-HA(H1N1) Schmidt-Ruppin Rous sarcoma virus-H7 (H7N7)
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004653
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: This gene was inserted to a baculovirus vaccine vector (Choi et al., 2013).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) envelope-coated, nonreplicable, baculovirus-based HA vaccine against swine influenza A/California/04/2009(H1N1) hemagglutin (HA) (AcHERV-sH1N1-HA) (Choi et al., 2013).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Product Name: AdC7 encoding NP from Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1))
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004178
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1)) NP nucleocapsid protein
  • NP from Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: The nucleotide sequence encoding the H1N1 influenza A virus NP (A/Puerto Rico/8/34/Mount Sinai, GenBank accession number AF389119.1) was codon optimized and completely synthesized (Celtek Genes, Nashville, TN). An expression cassette (approximately 2.5 kb) composed of the human cytomegalovirus early promoter, the codon optimized influenza A NP coding sequence and the bovine growth hormone polyadenylation signal was inserted in place of an E1 deletion in Ad5 or chimpanzee adenovirus Pan 7 (simian adenovirus 24) by the construction of plasmid molecular clones. The recombinant adenoviruses (AdH5-FluA NP and AdC7-FluA NP, respectively) were rescued by transfecting the plasmids into HEK 293 cells (Roy et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: serotype 5 (Ad5)-based vector
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004497
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse, ferret, macaque
  • HA from Influenza A virus (A/Viet Nam/1203/2004(H5N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: This DNA vaccine expressed H5 hemagglutinin (Laddy et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pVax (Laddy et al., 2008)
  • Immunization Route: Gene gun
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004498
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse, ferret, macaque
  • NA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pVax (Laddy et al., 2008)
  • Immunization Route: Gene gun
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004499
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse, ferret, macaque
  • NP gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: This DNA vaccine expressed nucleoprotein antigen (Laddy et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pVax (Laddy et al., 2008)
  • Immunization Route: Gene gun
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004174
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/Indonesia/CDC669/2006(H5N1)) HA hemagglutinin
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: For the construction of recombinant baculovirus BacHA, the full-length open reading frame (ORF) of the HA gene (CDC/669/Indonesia/06 and CDC/594/Indonesia/06) was amplified and inserted into pFASTBacHT A (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA) using RsrII and HindIII restriction sites. The ie1 promoter was amplified from WSSV DNA using the primers WSSVie1F (5'-CCTACGTATCAATTTTATGTGGCTAATGGAGA-3') and WSSVie1R (5'-CGCGTCGACCTTGAGTGGAGAGAGAGCTAGTTATAA-3') and then inserted into pFASTBacHT A using AccI and RsrII restriction sites. For the generation of recombinant baculoviruses, the constructs were integrated into the baculovirus genome within DH10Bac (Invitrogen) through site-specific transposition using Bac-To-Bac system (Invitrogen). The recombinant bacmids were then transfected into Sf9 cells, and the budded virus particles released into the medium were harvested at 4 days posttransfection (Prabakaran et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: For the construction of recombinant baculovirus BacHA, the full-length open reading frame (ORF) of the HA gene (CDC/669/Indonesia/06 and CDC/594/Indonesia/06) was amplified and inserted into pFASTBacHT A (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA) using RsrII and HindIII restriction sites. The ie1 promoter was amplified from WSSV DNA using the primers WSSVie1F (5'-CCTACGTATCAATTTTATGTGGCTAATGGAGA-3') and WSSVie1R (5'-CGCGTCGACCTTGAGTGGAGAGAGAGCTAGTTATAA-3') and then inserted into pFASTBacHT A using AccI and RsrII restriction sites. For the generation of recombinant baculoviruses, the constructs were integrated into the baculovirus genome within DH10Bac (Invitrogen) through site-specific transposition using Bac-To-Bac system (Invitrogen). The recombinant bacmids were then transfected into Sf9 cells, and the budded virus particles released into the medium were harvested at 4 days posttransfection (Prabakaran et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: cholera toxin B subunit
  • Vector: recombinant baculovirus
  • Immunization Route: Oral
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004650
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • M2 from Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: One, two and three copies of the Cys-containing ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) from influenza A virus were genetically fused to full length FHA and expressed in BPZE1 (Li et al., 2011).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: (Mielcarek et al., 2006)
  • Preparation: One, two and three copies of the Cys-containing ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) from influenza A virus were genetically fused to full length FHA and expressed in BPZE1 (Li et al., 2011).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004787
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • HA from Influenza A virus (A/Viet Nam/1203/2004(H5N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: H5N1 live vaccine, dVV-HA5, expressing the hemagglutinin of a virulent clade 1 H5N1 strain (Mayrhofer et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: H5N1 live vaccine, dVV-HA5, expressing the hemagglutinin of a virulent clade 1 H5N1 strain (Mayrhofer et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: Replication-deficient vaccinia virus vector H5N1 live vaccine, dVV-HA5, expressing the hemagglutinin of a virulent clade 1 H5N1 strain (Mayrhofer et al., 2009).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004175
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/Viet Nam/1203/2004(H5N1)) HA hemagglutinin
  • HA from Influenza A virus (A/Viet Nam/1203/2004(H5N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: Panel of flagellin-based hemagglutinin (HA) globular head fusion vaccines in inbred mice. The HA globular head of these vaccines was derived from the A/Vietnam/1203/04 (VN04; H5N1) HA molecule (Song et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Subcutaneous injection
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004253
  • Type: Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Adjuvant: AF03 vaccine adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004244
  • Type: Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Inactivated Mem 71virus (A/Memphis/l/71 x A/Bellamy/42 (H3N1) recombinant) (Deliyannis et al., 1998).
  • Adjuvant: SPT (Antigen Formulation)
  • Immunization Route: subcutaneous injection
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002980
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1)) matrix protein 2 (M2)
  • M2 from Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: The fusion proteins were expressed in E. coli DH5 cells, transformed with the expression vectors for the CTA1-DD, CTA1-M2e-DD or the CTA1-3M2e-DD fusion proteins, and grown in 500 ml cultures over night in SYPPG medium with 100 μg/ml carbenicillin, at 37 °C. The cells were harvested by centrifugation and the fusion proteins, produced as inclusion bodies, were washed before extraction by treatment with 8 M urea. After refolding the proteins by slowly diluting them 35–40x in Tris–HCl pH 7.4 at +4 °C, the fusion proteins were purified in two steps, by ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. After concentration and sterile filtration the purified fusion proteins were stored in PBS at −80 °C until use (Eliasson et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: Cholera toxin A1-subunit-ProteinA D-fragment fusion protein
  • Immunization Route: Intranasal
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004307
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • NP gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector VR1012 expressed NP (Epstein et al., 2005).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: VR1012 prime, recombinant adenovirus boost (Epstein et al., 2005)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004290
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: The EqfKY HA, hemagglutinin(HA) of a prototypical equine influenza virus was inserted into vector pBacPAK9 (Olsen et al., 1997).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pBacPAK9 (Olsen et al., 1997)
  • Immunization Route: Gene gun
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004306
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • NP gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pcDNA3.1 expressed influenza A nucleonucleoprotein epitope (amino acids 366–374; NP366) fused to the carboxy terminus of a tetanus toxin fragment (d1TTFC-NP) (Bins et al., 2005).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pcDNA3.1 (Bins et al., 2005)
  • Immunization Route: Intradermal injection (i.d.)
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1)) HA hemagglutinin
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Plasmid pCAGGSP7/HA was constructed by cloning the PCR product of HA from the A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1) influenza virus strain into the plasmid expression vector pCAGGSP7 (Chen et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Plasmid expression vector pCAGGSP7
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004016
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/environment/Hong Kong/156/1997(H5N1)) HA hemagglutinin
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: A full-length cDNA copy of the HA gene of HK97 was cloned into the EcoRI and BglII sites of pCAGGS/MCS, a vector that contains a chicken β-actin promoter. This construct was designated pHKHA. Plasmids were grown in HB101 bacteria and purified on purification columns (Qiagen, Inc., Valencia, Calif.) (Kodihalli et al., 1999).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCAGGS/MCS (Kodihalli et al., 1999)
  • Immunization Route: Gene gun
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004015
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/Hong Kong/1/68(H3N2)) HA hemagglutinin
  • HA from Influenza A virus (A/Hong Kong/1/68(H3N2)) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: RNA from a single construct expressing both VEE nonstructural proteins and HK68 HA in place of VEE structural proteins was transfected into baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells by electroporation. Concurrently, RNA from two helper constructs that expressed VEE structural proteins but lacked packaging signals was transfected into BHK cells. Coelectroporation of these three RNA constructs results in the production of VRP that express the nonstructural proteins of VEE and the influenza HA. Supernatants from transfected BHK cells containing VRP were purified and concentrated prior to inoculation (Huber et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pHW2000
  • Immunization Route: Subcutaneous injection
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004020
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/2004(H5N1)) HA hemagglutinin
  • HA from Influenza A virus (A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/2004(H5N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Plasmid encoding HA (A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/2004, GenBank AY555150) was synthesized using human-preferred codons and constructed in a CMV/R backbone by GeneArt (Regensburg, Germany) (Rao et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: CMV/R (Rao et al., 2010)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004019
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza B virus (B/Ibaraki/2/85) HA hemagglutinin
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Plasmid pCAGGSP7/HA was constructed by cloning the PCR product of HA from B/B/Ibaraki/2/85 influenza virus strain (B/Ibaraki) into the plasmid expression vector pCAGGSP7 (Chen et al., 2001).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Expression vector pCAGGSP7
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004177
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1)) matrix protein 1 (M1)
  • M1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Plasmid pCAGGSP7/M1 was constructed by cloning the PCR product M1 from the A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1) influenza virus strain into the plasmid expression vector pCAGGSP7 (Chen et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Plasmid expression vector pCAGGSP7
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011541
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1)) NA neuraminidase
  • NA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Plasmid pCAGGSP7/NA was constructed by cloning the PCR product NA gene from the A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1) influenza virus strain into the plasmid expression vector pCAGGSP7 (Chen et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Plasmid expression vector pCAGGSP7
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011540
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza B virus (B/Ibaraki/2/85) NA neuraminidase
  • NA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Plasmid pCAGGSP7/NA was constructed by cloning the PCR product NA from B/B/Ibaraki/2/85 influenza virus strain (B/Ibaraki) into the plasmid expression vector pCAGGSP7 (Chen et al., 2001).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Plasmid expression vector pCAGGSP7
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011528
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1)) NP nucleocapsid protein
  • NP gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Plasmid pCAGGSP7/NP was constructed by cloning the PCR product NP from the A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1) influenza virus strain into the plasmid expression vector pCAGGSP7 (Chen et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Plasmid expression vector pCAGGSP7
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011529
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/chicken/Hubei/489/2004(H5N1)) NP nucleocapsid protein
  • NP gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: The plasmid pMD-NP containing the NP gene (GenBank Accession# AY770081), which was derived from avian influenza virus A/chicken/Hubei/489/2004 (H5N1), was used as a PCR template. A eukaryotic expression vector, pVAX1 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), was used to construct the DNA vaccine. To construct ptPAs/NP, the tissue plasminogen activator signal sequence and the full-length NP gene fragment were amplified by PCR, respectively (Luo et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Expression vector pVAX1
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004309
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pCAGGSP7 expressed the viral surface glycoproteins (HA)of A/PR/8/34 (PR8, H1N1) influenza virus (Chen et al., 1999).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCAGGSP7 (Chen et al., 1999)
  • Immunization Route: Gene gun
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004310
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • NA from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector Pcaggsp7 expressed neuraminidase (NA) of A/PR/8/34 (PR8, H1N1) influenza virus (Chen et al., 1999).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Pcaggsp7 (Chen et al., 1999)
  • Immunization Route: Gene gun
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004308
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • NP from Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector V1J expressed the NP gene from influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) (Fu et al., 1999).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: V1J (Fu et al., 1999)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004304
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pBK-SFV expressed surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) (Berglund et al., 1998).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pBK-SFV (Berglund et al., 1998)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004303
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • NP from Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pBK-SFV expressed influenza nucleoprotein(NP) (Berglund et al., 1998).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pBK-SFV (Berglund et al., 1998)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004293
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Chicken
  • HA from A/equine/Sao Paulo/1/76(H7N7) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pCMV expressed influenza virus hemagglutinin subtype 1 (H7) glycoproteins (Fynan et al., 1993).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCMV (Fynan et al., 1993)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004292
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pCMV expressed influenza virus hemagglutinin subtype 1 (H1) glycoproteins (Fynan et al., 1993).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCMV (Fynan et al., 1993)
  • Immunization Route: Gene gun epidermis delivery
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004355
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • M2 from Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: This DNA vaccine used the plasmid vector VR10551 to express highly‑conserved influenza gene M2 (Jimenez et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • NP from Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: This DNA vaccine used the plasmid vector VR10551 to express highly‑conserved influenza gene NP (Jimenez et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: VR10551 (Jimenez et al., 2007)
  • Immunization Route: intranasal immunization
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004302
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • NP gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pVAX1 expressed nucleoprotein (NP) specific CTL epitope (NP147–155) (Tao et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pVAX1 expressed surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) (Tao et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pVAX1 (Tao et al., 2009)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004294
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pIRES expressing surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) (Henke et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pIRES (Henke et al., 2006)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004298
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pIRES encoding surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) (Henke et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pIRES (Henke et al., 2006)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004300
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pIRES expressing surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) (Henke et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • NA from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pIRES expressed neuraminidase (NA) (Henke et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pIRES (Henke et al., 2006)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004296
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pIRES expressed surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) (Henke et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pIRES (Henke et al., 2006)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004295
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • NA from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pIRES expressing neuraminidase (NA) (Henke et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pIRES (Henke et al., 2006)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004299
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • NA from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pIRES expressing neuraminidase (NA) (Henke et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pIRES (Henke et al., 2006)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004297
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • NA from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pIRES expressed neuraminidase (NA) (Henke et al., 2006).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pIRES (Henke et al., 2006)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004301
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • NP from Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector Rous sarcoma virus expressed the nucleoprotein (Raz et al., 1994).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) (Raz et al., 1994)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004018
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/Fukuoka/C29/85(H3N2)) HA hemagglutinin
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: cholera toxin B subunit
  • Immunization Route: Intranasal
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004017
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/Yamagata/120/1986(H1N1)) HA hemagglutinin
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: HA vaccines were prepared from influenza viruses A/PR/8/34 (H1NI), A. Yamagata/120/86 (HINI), A/ Fukuoka/C29/85 (H3N2) and B/Ibaraki/2/85 by the method of Davenport et al. in the Kitasato Institute, Tokyo, Japan (Tamura et al., 1989).

      Davenport, FM., Hennessy, A.V., Brandon, F.M., Webster, R.G.,Barrett, C.D. Jr. and Lease, G.O. Comparisons of serologic andfebrile responses in human to vaccination with influenza A viruses ortheir hemagglutinins. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1964, 63, 5
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: cholera toxin B subunit
  • Immunization Route: Intranasal
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011531
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/nt/60/1968(H3N2)) NP nucleocapsid protein
  • NP from Influenza A virus (A/nt/60/1968(H3N2)) gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: Recombinant-derived nucleoprotein (rNP) from S. typhimurium expressing the cloned NP gene from A/NT/60/68 (Tite et al., 1990)
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: Alhydrogel
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002981
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse, pig, horse, macaque
  • NS1 from Influenza virus gene engineering:
  • Immunization Route: intranasal immunization
  • Product Name: M2KO
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004287
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse
  • M2 from Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This M2 gene is from Influenza A (Watanabe et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: intranasal immunization
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004249
  • Type: Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Adjuvant: Corynebacterium-derived P40 vaccine adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: subcutaneous injection
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004667
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • Preparation: MVTTHA-QH and MVTTHA-AH, which expresses the H5 gene of a goose-derived Qinghai strain A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 or human-derived Anhui Strain A/Anhui/1/2005 (Xiao et al., 2013).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004695
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • Preparation: Replication-incompetent porcine adenovirus 3 (PAV3) vector (Patel et al., 2010).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004691
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Mouse
  • Preparation: Recombinant raccoonpox (RCN) virus acted as a vector to express the hemagglutinin (HA) from H5N1 viruses (Kingstad-Bakke et al., 2012).
  • Immunization Route: Intradermal injection (i.d.)
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Licensed
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: lyophilized whole virion preparation of inactivated influenza virus (Momose et al., 2015).
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004169
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1)) HA hemagglutinin
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: The baculovirus transfer vector, pAcCAG-HA, was constructed by inserting the full-length HA cDNA (kindly provided by Dr. S. Nakada, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical, Tokyo, Japan) into the cloning site of the baculovirus transfer vector, pAcCAGMCS. The recombinant baculovirus containing the influenza virus HA genome (AcCAG-HA) was generated by homologous recombination of the transfer vector and linearized baculovirus DNAs (BD PharMingen) after cotransfection into S. frugiperda 9 cells (Abe et al., 2003).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: baculovirus
  • Immunization Route: Intranasal
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004170
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza B virus (Strain B/England/222/82) HA hemagglutinin
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: The HA genes were excised from the pUC-derived plasmids by digestion with BamHl and EcoRl, gel purified, and ligated to BamHl-EcoRl-digested pGS62 (Esposito et at, 1987). The pGS62-derived plasmids containing the B/Eng HA genes were designated pGSBHAM and pGSBHAE. The cloned HA genes were inserted into vaccinia virus using a transfection procedure (Rota et al., 1987).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004168
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/WSN/1933(H1N1)) HA hemagglutinin
  • HA from Influenza A virus (A/WSN/1933(H1N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing an influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein (Roberts et al., 1999)
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pVSVCT-1XMN vector
  • Immunization Route: Intranasal
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004235
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Baculovirus-expressed recombinant influenza virus hemagglutinin (rHA) derived from influenza virus A/New Caledonia/20/1999 (Kayamuro et al., 2010).
  • Adjuvant: interleukin-1b vaccine adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: intranasal immunization
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004236
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Baculovirus-expressed recombinant influenza virus hemagglutinin (rHA) derived from influenza virus A/New Caledonia/20/1999 (Kayamuro et al., 2010).
  • Adjuvant: interleukin-2
  • Immunization Route: intranasal immunization
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004237
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Baculovirus-expressed recombinant influenza virus hemagglutinin (rHA) derived from influenza virus A/New Caledonia/20/1999 (Kayamuro et al., 2010).
  • Adjuvant: interleukin-7
  • Immunization Route: intranasal immunization
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004759
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • Vector: (Xiao et al., 2013)
  • Preparation: Using a replicating modified vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (MVTT) as a vaccine vector, MVTTHA-QH and MVTTHA-AH were constructed, which expresses the H5 gene of a goose-derived Qinghai strain A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 or human-derived Anhui Strain A/Anhui/1/2005 (Xiao et al., 2013).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004765
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • Preparation: ORFV recombinants expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) or nucleoprotein (NP) of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 (Rohde et al., 2013).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004783
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • Preparation: DNA vaccine expressing full-length consensus-sequence M2 (M2-DNA) induced M2-specific antibody responses (Tompkins et al., 2007).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004784
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: The HA gene was transferred into the VEE vector (Davis et al., 1996).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: (Davis et al., 1996) a VEE vector containing the complete influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H1N1 influenza virus.
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004677
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: An influenza virus hemagglutinin gene, H7, has been expressed in a replication-competent Schmidt-Ruppin Rous sarcoma virus-derived vector (Hunt et al., 1988).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: Recombinant baculovirus expressing the hemagglutinin gene of the influenza virus, A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), under the control of the chicken beta-actin promoter, (Hunt et al., 1988).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were intramuscularly administered AcHERV-sH1N1-HA or the commercial vaccine and subsequently given two booster injections (Choi et al., 2013).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Efficacy: After challenge with 10-times the median lethal dose (MLD50) of sH1N1 virus, 100% of BALB/c mice immunized with the commercial vaccine or AcHERV-sH1N1-HA survived. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice immunized with AcHERV-sH1N1-HA or the commercial vaccine showed 60% and 70% survival respectively, after challenge with sH1N1 virus (Choi et al., 2013).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: The chimpanzee adenovirus vector AdC7-FluA NP and the human Ad5 vector AdH5-FluA NP, both expressing the NP from H1N1 strain A/PR/8/34, were used to vaccinate BALB/c mice. Mice were sedated with intra-peritoneal ketamine/xylazine, and the total adenovirus dose (1011 viral particles per mouse) divided into two 25 μl injections given intra-muscularly to the hind leg tibialis anterior (Roy et al., 2007).
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were anesthetized in an atmosphere of 5% isoflurane and challenged with influenza A/PR/8/34, influenza A/Vietnam/1203/04 or influenza A/Hong Kong/483/1997 in 50 μl MEM/BSA, via the intra-nasal route (Roy et al., 2007).
  • Efficacy: A simian adenovirus 24 (AdC7) vector expressing the influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 NP was tested for its efficacy in protecting BALB/c mice against two H5N1 strains. When tested in a mouse challenge model, there was a significantly improved survival rate following challenge with the Vietnam/1203/04 strain of H5N1 that has caused human outbreaks (Roy et al., 2007).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: After challenge, protection from morbidity and mortality was seen in mice and ferrets, with significant reductions in viral shedding and disease progression seen in vaccinated animals (Laddy et al., 2008).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: After challenge, protection from morbidity and mortality was seen in mice and ferrets, with significant reductions in viral shedding and disease progression seen in vaccinated animals (Laddy et al., 2008).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: After challenge, protection from morbidity and mortality was seen in mice and ferrets, with significant reductions in viral shedding and disease progression seen in vaccinated animals (Laddy et al., 2008).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Prior to immunization, all mice were starved for 2 h; otherwise food and water were supplied ad libitum. Thirty mice per each experimental group (n = 30/group) were immunized intragastrically by oral gavage on days 0, 7, and 21 with 200 µl containing inactivated or live recombinant baculovirus vaccine at a log2 HA titer of 8 suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, either adjuvanted with 10 µg rCTB or unadjvanted (Prabakaran et al., 2010).
  • Challenge Protocol: Six mice per group were challenged intranasally with 5 50% mouse lethal doses (MLD50) of homologous (CDC/669/Indonesia/06 clade 2.1) and heterologous (Vietnam/1203/2004 clade 1.0) HPAI H5N1 virus strains. The MLD50 of the influenza virus required for intranasal challenge experiments was predetermined. To determine the effect of adjuvant efficacy, animals immunized with vaccines without adjuvant or only with rCTB were also maintained as control groups. Mice were observed daily to monitor body weight and mortality (Prabakaran et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: Viral challenge studies showed that live BacHA derived from Influenza A virus (A/Indonesia/CDC669/2006(H5N1)) was able to provide 100% protection against 5 50% mouse lethal doses (MLD(50)) of homologous (clade 2.1) and heterologous (clade 1) H5N1 (Prabakaran et al., 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: The mice were immunized with BPLR3 or BPZE1 (Li et al., 2011).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: The mice were challenged with H1N1/PR8 influenza A virus and the survival rate was determined based on the body weight loss (Li et al., 2011).
  • Efficacy: Nasal immunization with BPLR3 bacteria resulted in a significant reduction in the viral loads upon challenge with H1N1/PR8 influenza A virus, but did not improve the survival rate compared to BPZE1-immunized mice (Li et al., 2011).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized by intramuscular injections of the indicated doses in a volume of 50 μl in Tris-buffered saline-0.01% human serum albumin buffer (Mayrhofer et al., 2009).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000287
  • Challenge Protocol: Immunized mice faced a high-dose challenge with the highly virulent A/Vietnam/1203/2004(H5N1) strain (Mayrhofer et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: A single dose of the defective live vaccine induced complete protection from lethal homologous virus challenge and also full cross-protection against clade 0 and 2 challenge viruses (Mayrhofer et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Six-week-old female BALB/c mice (Harlan) were vaccinated subcutaneously (s.c.) with two or three doses of vaccine (day −28, −14) or (−42, −28, −14) in 100 μl of vehicle (F147). The animals were bled 7 or 12 days following the last vaccination. Seroconversion was then evaluated via HAI assay. For efficacy studies, H5N1 infection was subsequently performed (Song et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: Prior to virus infection, anesthesia was performed using 5% isofluorane. The mice were then infected intranasally (i.n.) with influenza A/Vietnam/1203/04 at a dose determined in units of TCID50 per animal of H5N1 in 40 μl of PBS (day 0) (Song et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: Researchers evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a panel of flagellin-based hemagglutinin (HA) globular head fusion vaccines in inbred mice. The HA globular head of these vaccines was derived from the A/Vietnam/1203/04 (VN04; H5N1) HA molecule. Results show that replacement of domain D3 of flagellin with the VN04 HA globular head creates a highly effective vaccine that elicits protective HAI titers which protect mice against disease and death in a lethal challenge model with H5 VN virus (Song et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were primed with injection of one of two formulations of Vaxigrip. Forty days post-TIV priming (designated as Day 0), vaccinated mice were divided into four subgroups of 10 animals each and were re-vaccinated with a monovalent inactivated pandemic H1N1 (2009) vaccine prepared using the NYMC X-179A (A/California/07/2009 H1N1) reassortant strain. Four formulations were evaluated: 3 μg HA or 0.3 μg HA, as 1/10th and 1/100th of the highest immunization doses used in clinical trials; each HA dose was formulated with or without an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant (AF03; sanofi pasteur, Lyon, France) (Caillet et al., 2010).
  • Immune Response: The immunogenicity results of these studies with AF03-adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine in mice are consistent with clinical studies of H5N1 influenza vaccines, in which HI responses were significantly increased by the addition of this emulsion-based adjuvant (Caillet et al., 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized subcutaneously on day 0 with 0.1 ml of vaccine containing various doses of split Mem 71 virus with or without adjuvant (Deliyannis et al., 1998).
  • Challenge Protocol: MIce were challenged intranasally with 104.5 plaque forming units (p.f.u.) of live Mem 71 influenza virus (Deliyannis et al., 1998).
  • Efficacy: Protection from subsequent influenza infection was assessed by examining the ability of vaccinated mice to clear a challenge dose of virus from their lungs by 3 days postinfection. Mice immunized with virus in SPT adjuvant had greater levels of viral clearance than in mice immunized without adjuvant (Deliyannis et al., 1998).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Age- and sex matched mice were immunized intranasally (i.n.) twice, 3 weeks apart, with 20–50 μl containing 10 μg of the M2e-HBc particle 1818 admixed with 5 μg CTA1-DD-adjuvant, 10 μg of HBc admixed with 5 μg CTA1-DD-adjuvant, a range of doses as indicated were tested; CTA1-M2e-DD, CTA1-3M2e-DD (carrying three copies of M2e), CTA1-DD adjuvant alone or PBS. Groups with 3–12 individuals in each experiment were used as indicated (Eliasson et al., 2008).
  • Challenge Protocol: Challenge experiments were performed in Ghent. Before the first, and 2 weeks after each immunization, blood samples were collected from the ventral tail vein. The final bleeding of surviving mice was performed 2 weeks after challenge (Eliasson et al., 2008).
  • Efficacy: A targeted fusion protein based on the CTA1-DD adjuvant and containing tandem repeats of the matrix protein 2 (M2e) ectodomain epitope derived from Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1)), CTA1-3M2e-DD, confers strong protective immunity against a potentially lethal challenge infection with influenza virus in mice. The formulation was highly effective for mucosal immunizations and promoted high M2e-specific serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibody titers and an hitherto unknown anti-M2e CD4 T cell immunity (Eliasson et al., 2008).
  • Host IgA response
    • Description: The CTA1-3M2e-DD construct stimulated significant anti-M2e IgA antibody titers in bronchial lavage. By contrast, soluble M2e-peptide, given even at high doses, 100 μg, together with CTA1-DD (WT), failed completely to stimulate specific serum antibody titers. Antibody titer experiments were repeated at least twice with similar results (Eliasson et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host Ighg1 response
    • Description: CTA1-M2e-DD elicited a strong IgG1 response. By contrast, soluble M2e-peptide, given even at high doses, 100 μg, together with CTA1-DD (WT), failed completely to stimulate specific serum antibody titers. Antibody titer experiments were repeated at least twice with similar results (Eliasson et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host Ighv1-9 response
    • Description: CTA1-M2e-DD elicited a strong IgG2a response. By contrast, soluble M2e-peptide, given even at high doses, 100 μg, together with CTA1-DD (WT), failed completely to stimulate specific serum antibody titers. Antibody titer experiments were repeated at least twice with similar results (Eliasson et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: DNA prime-recombinant adenoviral boost immunization to nucleoprotein (NP) (Epstein et al., 2005).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Vaccination protected against lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H5N1 virus (Epstein et al., 2005).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: When two doses of DNA vaccine were administered 3 weeks apart, mice were not protected from challenge, although they cleared the infection more rapidly than control mice. However, when the second DNA vaccination was delayed until 9 weeks after the first, 9 out of 10 vaccinated mice were completely protected (Olsen et al., 1997).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: This vaccination strategy confers protecting humoral immunity against influenza A infection within 2 weeks after the start of vaccination. In the week after infection, mice that had previously been exposed to influenza A virus showed a minimal weight loss (1% at day 4 after infection). In contrast, mice given tattoo vaccination with the control plasmid or given an intramuscular injection of the hemagglutinin construct showed a sizable (10% and 14%, respectively) drop in body weight. Notably, mice that had received a short-interval hemagglutinin tattoo were largely protected from influenza A−induced morbidity (maximal weight loss of 4%; Student t-test, P = 0.039 versus control vaccine). The protection correlated with the induction of neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, intradermal DNA tattooing also conferred long-term (4 months) protection (Bins et al., 2005).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized with plasmid DNA dissolved in 30 μl of Tris–EDTA buffer at a dosage of 50 μg by injection into the quadriceps muscles. After injection in the right quadriceps muscle, a pair of electrode needles with 5 mm apart was inserted into the muscle to cover the DNA injection sites and electric pulses were delivered using an electric pulse generator (Electro Square Porator T830 M; BTX, San Diego, CA). Three pulses of 100 V each, followed by three pulses of the opposite polarity, were delivered to each injection site at a rate of one pulse per second. Each pulse lasted for 50 ms. A booster was given 2 weeks after the first immunization. The non-immunized mice were set up as controls (Chen et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the last immunization, the mice were anesthetized and challenged with 20 μl of the viral suspension containing 5LD50 influenza virus A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1) or A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) by intranasal drip (Chen et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: Plasmids carrying the HA, NA, NP, M1, and M2 genes, respectively, of the avian influenza virus (AIV) A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1) strain were administered to mice, and the mice were challenged with the homologous virus later. The mice immunized with HA plasmid once and the NA plasmid twice survived 100% (Chen et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Six- to seven-week-old BALB/c mice (n = 50) were inoculated via gene gun with 1 μg of either pTyIrHA or pHKHA affixed to gold particles and were given boosters of the same dose 4 weeks later. Sixty-four control mice were left untreated (Kodihalli et al., 1999).
  • Challenge Protocol: Ten days after receiving the boosters, the mice were challenged with 10 50% lethal doses (LD50) of either CkHK97 or HK97 in 100-μl volumes, intranasally. The mice were monitored daily for weight loss, clinical signs, and mortality, and samples were taken from three or four from each group on day 5 postinfection for virus replication (Kodihalli et al., 1999).
  • Efficacy: Researchers report that a DNA vaccine encoding hemagglutinin from the index human influenza isolate A/HK/156/97 provides immunity against H5N1 infection of mice. Gene gun immunization of 12 mice with 1 μg of pHKHA provided 100% protection against death from homologous challenge with HK97 virus (Kodihalli et al., 1999).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: For DNA vaccination, 2.5 μg of either HA- or vector control DNA-coated gold particles (1 mg) was delivered at two nonoverlapping sites on the abdomen, using a Helios (Bio-Rad) gene gun, at 21-day intervals. Mice that were boosted with VRP received 1 × 106 infectious units expressing either HA or GFP (vector control) delivered subcutaneously in a 10-μl volume in the right rear footpad at 28-day intervals. For an additional control group, mice were inoculated in the right rear footpad with PBS (Huber et al., 2006).
  • Challenge Protocol: Lethal influenza challenge
  • Efficacy: Vaccination with HA-VRP derived from Influenza A virus (A/Hong Kong/1/68(H3N2)) did not strongly stimulate either neutralizing or IgG1 antibodies but did induce IgG2a antibodies. Expression of IgG2a antibodies in this context correlated with clearance of virus and increased protection against lethal influenza challenge (Huber et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: BALB/c mice (10 animals for each group of HA alone, HA+NP, and HA+NP+M2; and 5 animals for the NP alone and vector control) were immunized three times with a total of 15 µg plasmid DNA in 100 µl of PBS (pH 7.4) intramuscularly at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. For the single HA or NP plasmid group, each group received 5 µg DNA for each plasmid with 10 µg of control vector as filler DNA (total 15 µg) (Rao et al., 2010).
  • Challenge Protocol: Viral challenge experiments were performed 3 weeks after the last immunization. All challenged animals were exposed under CO2 anesthesia to an intranasal viral inoculum of 100 LD50 of A/Vietnam/1203/2004 virus. Body weight and survival were monitored for 21 days (Rao et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: All animals in the control and NP alone groups died within 6 days after viral challenge, whereas animals immunized with HA alone, HA+NP and HA+NP+M2 showed survival rates of 100, 90 and 70%, respectively (Rao et al., 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: BALB/c mice were immunized twice, 3 weeks apart, by injection of 30 μg of DNA into the quadriceps muscles with a 26-gauge needle under light anesthesia. A pair of electrode needles were inserted 5 mm apart into the muscle to encompass the DNA injection sites, and electrical pulses were delivered using an electric pulse generator (Electro Square Porator T820M; BTX, San Diego, CA). Three pulses of 100 V each, followed by three pulses of the opposite polarity, each pulse lasting for 50 ms, were delivered to each injection site at a rate of one pulse per second (Chen et al., 2001).
  • Challenge Protocol: Three weeks after the second immunization, mice were challenged with the mouse-adapted B virus, B/Ibaraki/2/85 (40×50% lethal dose (LD50), 104.3 50% egg-infecting dose (EID50)), by intranasal administration of 20 μl of the viral suspension. This virus rapidly replicates in the lung, causing death in 6–8 days in unimmunized mice (Chen et al., 2001).
  • Efficacy: Protection against a lethal influenza B virus infection was examined in BALB/c mice immunized with plasmid DNAs encoding hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA and NB) and nucleoprotein (NP) from the B/Ibaraki/2/85 virus. Both HA and NA DNAs conferred complete protection against the lethal challenge in all the tested mouse strains (Chen et al., 2001).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized with plasmid DNA dissolved in 30 μl of Tris–EDTA buffer at a dosage of 50 μg by injection into the quadriceps muscles. After injection in the right quadriceps muscle, a pair of electrode needles with 5 mm apart was inserted into the muscle to cover the DNA injection sites and electric pulses were delivered using an electric pulse generator (Electro Square Porator T830 M; BTX, San Diego, CA). Three pulses of 100 V each, followed by three pulses of the opposite polarity, were delivered to each injection site at a rate of one pulse per second. Each pulse lasted for 50 ms. A booster was given 2 weeks after the first immunization. The non-immunized mice were set up as controls (Chen et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the last immunization, the mice were anesthetized and challenged with 20 μl of the viral suspension containing 5LD50 influenza virus A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1) or A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) by intranasal drip (Chen et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: Plasmids carrying the HA, NA, NP, M1, and M2 genes, respectively, of the avian influenza virus (AIV) A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1) strain were administered to mice, and the mice were challenged with the homologous virus later. The mice immunized with M1 plasmid survived 25% with five immunizations. The mixture of M1 and NP plasmids protected 95% of the mice against the homologous virus, and 80% of the mice against a challenge with heterologous H1N1 (PR8) virus (Chen et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized with plasmid DNA dissolved in 30 μl of Tris–EDTA buffer at a dosage of 50 μg by injection into the quadriceps muscles. After injection in the right quadriceps muscle, a pair of electrode needles with 5 mm apart was inserted into the muscle to cover the DNA injection sites and electric pulses were delivered using an electric pulse generator (Electro Square Porator T830 M; BTX, San Diego, CA). Three pulses of 100 V each, followed by three pulses of the opposite polarity, were delivered to each injection site at a rate of one pulse per second. Each pulse lasted for 50 ms. A booster was given 2 weeks after the first immunization. The non-immunized mice were set up as controls (Chen et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the last immunization, the mice were anesthetized and challenged with 20 μl of the viral suspension containing 5LD50 influenza virus A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1) or A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) by intranasal drip (Chen et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: Plasmids carrying the HA, NA, NP, M1, and M2 genes, respectively, of the avian influenza virus (AIV) A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1) strain were administered to mice, and the mice were challenged with the homologous virus later. The mice immunized with HA plasmid once and the NA plasmid twice survived 100% (Chen et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: BALB/c mice were immunized twice, 3 weeks apart, by injection of 30 μg of DNA into the quadriceps muscles with a 26-gauge needle under light anesthesia. A pair of electrode needles were inserted 5 mm apart into the muscle to encompass the DNA injection sites, and electrical pulses were delivered using an electric pulse generator (Electro Square Porator T820M; BTX, San Diego, CA). Three pulses of 100 V each, followed by three pulses of the opposite polarity, each pulse lasting for 50 ms, were delivered to each injection site at a rate of one pulse per second (Chen et al., 2001).
  • Challenge Protocol: Three weeks after the second immunization, mice were challenged with the mouse-adapted B virus, B/Ibaraki/2/85 (40×50% lethal dose (LD50), 104.3 50% egg-infecting dose (EID50)), by intranasal administration of 20 μl of the viral suspension. This virus rapidly replicates in the lung, causing death in 6–8 days in unimmunized mice (Chen et al., 2001).
  • Efficacy: Protection against a lethal influenza B virus infection was examined in BALB/c mice immunized with plasmid DNAs encoding hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA and NB) and nucleoprotein (NP) from the B/Ibaraki/2/85 virus. Both HA and NA DNAs conferred complete protection against the lethal challenge in all the tested mouse strains (Chen et al., 2001).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized with plasmid DNA dissolved in 30 μl of Tris–EDTA buffer at a dosage of 50 μg by injection into the quadriceps muscles. After injection in the right quadriceps muscle, a pair of electrode needles with 5 mm apart was inserted into the muscle to cover the DNA injection sites and electric pulses were delivered using an electric pulse generator (Electro Square Porator T830 M; BTX, San Diego, CA). Three pulses of 100 V each, followed by three pulses of the opposite polarity, were delivered to each injection site at a rate of one pulse per second. Each pulse lasted for 50 ms. A booster was given 2 weeks after the first immunization. The non-immunized mice were set up as controls (Chen et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: Two weeks after the last immunization, the mice were anesthetized and challenged with 20 μl of the viral suspension containing 5LD50 influenza virus A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1) or A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) by intranasal drip (Chen et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: Plasmids carrying the HA, NA, NP, M1, and M2 genes, respectively, of the avian influenza virus (AIV) A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004(H5N1) strain were administered to mice, and the mice were challenged with the homologous virus later. The mice immunized with NP plasmid showed 60-80% survival rate with at least three immunizations. The mixture of M1 and NP plasmids protected 95% of the mice against the homologous virus, and 80% of the mice against a challenge with heterologous H1N1 (PR8) virus (Chen et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: For immunization, all DNA constructs were purified using Qiagen columns (endotoxin free). Six-week-old female BALB/C mice were immunized via intramuscular (i.m.) route with 100 μg of different DNA constructs on days 0, 14 and 28, respectively. Negative control mice were immunized with the empty vector pVAX1. Serum samples were taken 14 days after the last immunization and the mice were sacrificed. Splenocytes from vaccinated mice were collected for ELISpot and intracellular cytokine staining (ICCS) assays (Luo et al., 2008).
  • Challenge Protocol: For challenge experiments, 14 days after the last immunization, the mice were challenged by the intranasal route using either 103 EID50 of A/Hubei/489 or 10 LD50 A/Hunan/211 strains in 50 μl of PBS. Mice infected with A/Hubei/489 were kept under daily observation for 7 days, and were then sacrificed. Virus titers (represented by lgEID50) from the lung were determined using the Reed-Muench method. Mice infected with A/Hunan/211 were kept under daily observation for 14 days and the survival rates were calculated (Luo et al., 2008).
  • Efficacy: Vaccination with ptPAs/NP derived from Influenza A virus (A/chicken/Hubei/489/2004(H5N1)) efficiently cleared the homologous H5N1 influenza virus in the infected lungs and induced partial cross-protection against heterologous, highly pathogenic H5N1 strains in mice (Luo et al., 2008).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were inoculated with each DNA construct twice, 3 weeks apart, at a dose of 1 microg per mouse by particle-mediated DNA transfer (gene gun) to the epidermis (Chen et al., 1999).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were challenged with a lethal dose of the homologous virus 7 days after the second vaccination (Chen et al., 1999).
  • Efficacy: HA-DNA afforded significant protection only in BALB/c mice (Chen et al., 1999)

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were inoculated with each DNA construct twice, 3 weeks apart, at a dose of 1 microg per mouse by particle-mediated DNA transfer (gene gun) to the epidermis (Chen et al., 1999).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Challenge Protocol: They were challenged with a lethal dose of the homologous virus 7 days after the second vaccination (Chen et al., 1999).
  • Efficacy: NA-DNA provided significant protection in all strains of mouse (Chen et al., 1999).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: To assess the effectiveness of NP DNA immunization in comparison with influenza virus infection in the induction of CTL responses, we monitored the frequency of CTL precursors (CTLp) in mice following i.m. injection with NP DNA. We observed a positive correlation between the frequency of NP147-155 epitope-specific CTLp and the extent of protective immunity against cross-strain influenza challenge induced by NP DNA injection. In these studies immunization with NP DNA conferred protection against a lethal dose challenge with the influenza virus A/HK/68 (H3N2), a virus strain that conserves the sequence encoding NP including the H-2Kd-restricted CTL epitope 147–155, but contains significant changes in the viral surface glycoproteins (hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase) compared with A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) (Fu et al., 1999).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Immunized animals acquired protective immunity to lethal influenza challenge. Five of seven immunized mice survived viral challenge, compared to one of four surviving mice in the saline-immunized control group (Berglund et al., 1998).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Immunized animals acquired protective immunity to lethal influenza challenge. Five of seven immunized mice survived viral challenge, compared to one of four surviving mice in the saline-immunized control group (Berglund et al., 1998).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: In mice, 95% protection was achieved by two immunizations with beads loaded with as little as 0.4 micrograms of DNA (Fynan et al., 1993).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: In mice, 95% protection was achieved by two immunizations with beads loaded with as little as 0.4 micrograms of DNA (Fynan et al., 1993).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: For instance, NP + M2 may induce both CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses against both antigens and a humoral immune response against the extracellular domain of M2 which collectively contribute to antiviral immunity (Jimenez et al., 2007)
  • Efficacy: 100% protection from challenge with A/HK/8/68 (H3N2) was provided in mice by Vaxfectin-formulated NP+M2 (Jimenez et al., 2007).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Mice vaccinated with pHA/NP147–155 had significantly reduced lung viral titers, compared with control mice vaccinated with the pVAX1vector. Our data showed that vaccination of mice with pHA/NP147–155 induced the enhanced protection against H5N1 influenza virus infection in BALB/c mice, suggesting that it is feasible to use DNA vaccines that express multiple epitopes to fight against H5N1 influenza viruses. the enhanced protection against the H5N1 influenza virus by pHA/NP147–155 vaccination was dependent on the recognition of the H-2d dominant CD8+ T cell epitope in mice (Tao et al., 2009).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Mice vaccinated with pIRES/HA were protected to 30% (Henke et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Vaccination with pIRES/HA/GM-CSF induced 66.67% protection (Henke et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Vaccination with pIRES/HA/IL-12p35 + pIRES/NA/IL-12p40 induced 41.67% protection (Henke et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Two inoculations of pIRES/HA/IL-2 protected 83.33% of mice against lethal influenza challenge (Henke et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Mice vaccinated with pIRES/NA were protected to 40% (Henke et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Vaccination with pIRES/NA/GM-CSF induced 50% protection (Henke et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Two inoculations of pIRES/NA/IL-2 protected 83.33% of mice against lethal influenza challenge (Henke et al., 2006).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Five of the i.d. vaccinated mice (vaccinated with pRSV-NP), but only one of the control mice, survived influenza infection (Raz et al., 1994).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were anaesthetized by an intraperitoneal injection of amobarbital sodium (0.25 ml of a solution of 1 p.g ml-1) and then immunized by an intranasal inoculation of 10lal phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing the required dose of HA vaccine and CTB (Tamura et al., 1989).
  • Challenge Protocol: Viral challenge four weeks after intranasal inoculation (Tamura et al., 1989).
  • Efficacy: The inoculation of HA vaccine prepared from influenza viruses A/Yamagata/120/86 (H1N1) or A/Fukuoka/C29/85 (H3N2) together with CTB provided partial protection against PR-8 infection in Balb/c mice (Tamura et al., 1989).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were anaesthetized by an intraperitoneal injection of amobarbital sodium (0.25 ml of a solution of 1 p.g ml-1) and then immunized by an
    intranasal inoculation of 10lal phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing the required dose of HA vaccine and CTB (Tamura et al., 1989).
  • Challenge Protocol: Viral challenge four weeks after intranasal inoculation (Tamura et al., 1989).
  • Efficacy: The inoculation of HA vaccine prepared from influenza viruses A/Yamagata/120/86 (H1N1) or A/Fukuoka/C29/85 (H3N2) together with CTB provided partial protection against PR-8 infection in Balb/c mice (Tamura et al., 1989).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized with alhydrogel-precipitated antigen intraperitoneally or subcutaneously in the base of the tail, as indicated in the text. Alhydrogel was obtained from Wellcome Biotech (Tite et al., 1990).
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were challenged with A/R8 virus of B/Lee/40 either by aerosol inhalation in a chamber or by intranasal application of solution applied to the nose-pad of mice anaesthetized with ether. In the case oflethal challenge, deaths were recorded over a 21-day period (Tite et al., 1990).
  • Efficacy: Mice immunized with Recombinant-derived nucleoprotein (rNP) from S. typhimurium expressing the cloned NP gene from A/NT/60/68 (Jones & Brownlee, 1985) were protected against a lethal challenge with Influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (A/PR8) virus but showed considerable morbidity before recovery (Tite et al., 1990).

Mouse Response

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Intranasal vaccination of 4-week-old female BALB/c mice with different doses of M2KO virus (Watanabe et al., 2009).
  • Persistence: In nasal turbinates, no virus was recovered from any mice inoculated with the M2KO virus on days 3 and 6 post infection. Mice infected with 3 × 106 PFU of M2KO virus showed no body weight loss. Thus, the M2KO virus is attenuated (Watanabe et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: Mice intranasally inoculated with M2KO virus, formalin-inactivated PR8, or PBS were challenged with a lethal dose of PR8 at 4 and 12 weeks postimmunization. We could not detect virus in organs of mice inoculated either with 3 × 106 or 3 × 105 PFU of M2KO viruses, indicating that vaccination with these amounts of M2KO virus gave mice sterile immunity (Watanabe et al., 2009).
  • Host IgA response
    • Description: IgG and IgA titers were determined by examination of sera, trachea/lungs, and nasal washes. Mice inoculated with M2KO had significantly higher IgG and IgA antibodies as compared to PBS inoculated mice. Antibody responses correlated with dosage of M2KO. Samples were obtained 4 weeks post-immunization (Watanabe et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IgG response
    • Description: IgG and IgA titers were determined by examination of sera, trachea/lungs, and nasal washes. Mice inoculated with M2KO had significantly higher IgG and IgA antibodies as compared to PBS inoculated mice. Antibody responses correlated with dosage of M2KO. Samples were obtained 4 weeks post-immunization (Watanabe et al., 2009).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: Swiss
  • Vaccination Protocol: Female swiss mice were vaccinated with the "Mutagrip" influenza vaccine, consisting of a mix of strains: A/Mississipi/1/85, A/Chili/1/83, B/Ann Arbor/1/86. One tenth of a human vaccinal dose was injected subcutaneously into the inguinal fold of each mouse 10 days before challenge. The immunomodulator p40 was administered in combination with the vaccine (Fattal-German et al., 1988).
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were challenged with a mouse adapted strain of influenza (H1N1) and was given to mice via aerosol (Fattal-German et al., 1988).
  • Efficacy: When given the vaccine plus p40, 50% of mice survived virus challenge (Fattal-German et al., 1988).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were either immunized with 1.5×106 or 3.0×106 PFU of MVTTHA-QH and MVTTS, respectively, twice, with a one month interval (Xiao et al., 2013).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: Immunized mice were challenged with either 100 MLD50 of A/BhG/QH/1/05 or 100 MLD50 of A/VN/1194/04 at 3 weeks post second immunization (Xiao et al., 2013).
  • Efficacy: Mice vaccinated with intranasal MVTTHA-QH were completely protected from challenge with lethal dosages of A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 and the A/Viet Nam/1194/2004, respectively, but not control mice that received a mock MVTTS vaccine (Xiao et al., 2013).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were vaccinated with different doses of the PAV3 vector expressing an optimized A/Hanoi/30408/2005 H5N1 hemagglutinin antigen (PAV3-HA) and compared with an AdHu5-HA contro (Patel et al., 2010).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were challenged with a lethal dose of H5N1-H05 virus (Patel et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: The PAV3-HA vaccine, demonstrated improved survival and lower virus load. Evaluation of long-term vaccine efficacy at 12 months post-vaccination showed better protection with the PAV3-HA than with the AdHu5-HA vaccine (Patel et al., 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Efficacy: RCN-HA provided strong protection when administered intradermally (ID), but not intranasally (IN) (Kingstad-Bakke et al., 2012).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Eight week-old male Wistar rats weighing 160–200 g were obtained from SLC (Tokyo, Japan). Rats were housed in rooms maintained at 23 ± 1°C, with 50 ± 10% relative humidity, and 12 h light/dark cycles for at least one week prior to the test challenge (Momose et al., 2015).
  • Host Ifi47 response
    • Description: RE induced upregulation of IFI47 in lung lysates on day 7 (Momose et al., 2015).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host Ifi47 response
    • Description: RE induced upregulation of IFI47 in lung lysates on day 7 (Momose et al., 2015).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host Ifi47 response
    • Description: RE induced upregulation of IFI47 in lung lysates on day 7 (Momose et al., 2015).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host Ifi47 response
    • Description: RE induced upregulation of IFI47 in lung lysates on day 7 (Momose et al., 2015).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host Ifi47 response
    • Description: RE induced upregulation of IFI47 in lung lysates on day 7 (Momose et al., 2015).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host Ifi47 response
    • Description: RE induced upregulation of IFI47 in lung lysates on day 7 (Momose et al., 2015).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host LGALS9 response
    • Description: RE induced upregulation of LGALS9 in lung lysates on day 7 (Momose et al., 2015).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host MX2 response
    • Description: RE induced upregulation of MX2 in lung lysates on day 7 (Momose et al., 2015).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host ZBP1 response
    • Description: RE induced upregulation of ZBP1 in lung lysates on day 7 (Momose et al., 2015).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: The baculoviruses (AcCAG-HA or AcNPV) (1.1 x 108 PFU/mouse) were inoculated twice, 2 wk apart, into the abdominal epidermis of BALB/c female mice (6-wk-old) obtained from Charles River Breeding Laboratories (Kanagawa, Japan) (Abe et al., 2003).
  • Challenge Protocol: A lethal challenge with influenza virus consisting of 5.6 x 105 PFU of mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 influenza virus (100 LD50) in 50 µl of saline was administered intranasally 3 wk after the second immunization (Abe et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: A recombinant baculovirus expressing the hemagglutinin gene of the influenza virus, A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), under the control of the chicken beta-actin promoter, was constructed. Protection from a lethal challenge of the influenza virus was achieved by intranasal immunization of the recombinant baculovirus (Abe et al., 2003).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: A/J
  • Vaccination Protocol: ANJ mice (six to nine mice per experiment) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 10' PFU of recombinant (v .v.BHAE, v.v.BHAM) or wild-type vaccinia virus . Serum samples were obtained from these animals and analyzed for neutralizing antibody using a microneutralization assay (Anderson et at, 1986; Harmon et at, in preparation) modified for use with influenza . In some cases, sera were preabsorbed with inactivated, purified B/Eng virions prior to the neutralization assay (Rota et al., 1987).
  • Challenge Protocol: For mouse challenge experiments, vaccinated mice were given 20,000 TCID 50 of either egg- or MDCK cell-derived B/Eng intranasally in a volume of 25 μl . Lung homogenates, prepared 3 days after infection, were tested for influenza B antigen using a capture time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay and for infectious virus by a plaque assay on MDCK cell monolayers (Rota et al., 1987).
  • Efficacy: Immunization and challenge experiments in mice indicated that even though vaccination with the recombinant HA vaccinia viruses derived from Influenza B virus (Strain B/England/222/82) induced different levels of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies, mice vaccinated with either recombinant vaccinia virus were protected from infection with either subpopulation of influenza virus (Rota et al., 1987).

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Five- to 6-week-old female BALB/c mice from Charles River Laboratories were housed in filter-isolette cages upon arrival. The mice were inoculated no earlier than 4 days after arrival. Prior to inoculation (day 0), the mice were lightly anesthetized with Methoxyflurane (Mallinckrodt Veterinary, Inc., Mundelein, Ill.) and marked by ear punch. Twenty-five microliters of inoculum were delivered intranasally by 200-μl pipette to the anesthetized mice, and the mice were weighed in a plastic beaker to ±0.02 g. Boosts were administered in an identical fashion with viruses of equal kind, titer, and volume on day 21, unless otherwise indicated (Roberts et al., 1999).
  • Challenge Protocol: Challenge was administered in a total volume of 50 μl per mouse on day 35 (Roberts et al., 1999) .
  • Efficacy: A nonpathogenic vector of the cytoplasmic domain of the VSV G protein and expressing influenza virus HA (derived from Influenza A virus (A/WSN/1933(H1N1))) provides complete protection from lethal influenza virus challenge after intranasal administration. A second vector with VSV G deleted and expressing HA (DeltaG-HA) is also protective and nonpathogenic and has the advantage of not inducing neutralizing antibodies to the vector itself (Roberts et al., 1999).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized intranasally with rHA alone (1 µg/mouse), rHA (1 µg/mouse) plus CT (1 µg/mouse), or rHA (1 µg/mouse) plus one of the IL cytokines (0.1 µg, 0.3 µg, or 1.0 µg/mouse) on days 0 and 28 (Kayamuro et al., 2010).
  • Immune Response: Immunization with rHA plus IL-1{alpha}, IL-1β, IL-18, or IL-33, referred to as IL-1 family cytokines, resulted in the highest rHA-specific IgG responses among the IL cytokines. IL-1β elicited both Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses (Kayamuro et al., 2010).
  • Challenge Protocol: Fourteen days after the final immunization, mice were fully anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital, and each was infected by intranasal application of 25 µl PBS containing 256 hemagglutinating units (HAU) of influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) (Kayamuro et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: Mice immunized with PR8 HA plus IL-1β or IL-18 had 100% survival 14 days after challenge, though with a slight loss of body weight (Kayamuro et al., 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized intranasally with rHA alone (1 µg/mouse), rHA (1 µg/mouse) plus CT (1 µg/mouse), or rHA (1 µg/mouse) plus one of the IL cytokines (0.1 µg, 0.3 µg, or 1.0 µg/mouse) on days 0 and 28 (Kayamuro et al., 2010).
  • Immune Response: Consistent with the rHA-specific IgG responses, intranasal immunization with rHA plus IL-2 produced a greater rHA-specific IgG1 subclass response than immunization with rHA alone but a similar IgG2a response to that with rHA alone (Kayamuro et al., 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized intranasally with rHA alone (1 µg/mouse), rHA (1 µg/mouse) plus CT (1 µg/mouse), or rHA (1 µg/mouse) plus one of the IL cytokines (0.1 µg, 0.3 µg, or 1.0 µg/mouse) on days 0 and 28 (Kayamuro et al., 2010).
  • Immune Response: Consistent with the rHA-specific IgG responses, intranasal immunization with rHA plus IL-7 produced a greater rHA-specific IgG1 subclass response than immunization with rHA alone but a similar IgG2a response to that with rHA alone (Kayamuro et al., 2010).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Groups of nine mice were either immunized with 1.5×106 or 3.0×106 PFU of MVTTHA-QH and MVTTS, respectively, twice, with a one month interval (Xiao et al., 2013).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000287
  • Challenge Protocol: Immunized mice were challenged with either 100 MLD50 of A/BhG/QH/1/05 or 100 MLD50 of A/VN/1194/04 at 3 weeks post second immunization (Xiao et al., 2013).
  • Efficacy: Mice vaccinated with intranasal MVTTHA-QH were completely protected from challenge with lethal dosages of A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 and the A/Viet Nam/1194/2004, respectively, but not control mice that received a mock MVTTS vaccine (Xiao et al., 2013).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: The mice were immunized with varying doses of D1701-V-HAh5n (Rohde et al., 2013).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were instilled intranasally (i.n.) under anaesthesia [20] using 50 µl of the indicated mouse 50% lethal dose (MLD50) of HPAIV. For BALB/c mice 1× MLD50 corresponded to 7×101 plaque-forming units (pfu) of strain MB1, 2×101 pfu of strain SN1 and 1×104 pfu of strain PR8. For C57BL/6 mice 2×103 pfu of strain MB1, 1.4×103^ pfu of strain PR8 matched to 1× MLD50 (Rohde et al., 2013).
  • Efficacy: Despite adequate expression of NP, the recombinant D1701-V-NPh5 completely failed to protect mice from lethal challenge. However, the H5 HA-expressing recombinant D1701-V-HAh5n mediated solid protection in a dose-dependent manner. Two intramuscular (i.m.) injections of the HA-expressing recombinant protected all animals from lethal HPAIV infection without loss of body weight. Notably, the immunized mice resisted cross-clade H5N1 and heterologous H1N1 (strain PR8) influenza virus challenge (Rohde et al., 2013).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of 40 μg peptide-KLH or unconjugated KLH in complete Freund’s adjuvant (emulsified 1:1 with antigen in PBS). Three weeks later, the mice were given an intraperitoneal booster injection with peptide-KLH in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant; 13 days later blood was collected (Tompkins et al., 2007).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000287
  • Challenge Protocol: Challenge virus in 50 μL of PBS was administered intranasally to anesthetized mice. Isoflurane or ketamine/xylazine was used for mice challenged with H1N1 subtype. Reported 50% lethal dose (LD50) for H1N1 subtype was determined for 8-week-old naive BALB/c mice for each anesthetic (and may vary from the actual LD50 for the older vaccinated mice that were challenged). Subtype H5N1 was administered intranasally to mice anesthetized with 2,2,2-tribromoethanol in tert-amyl alcohol (Tompkins et al., 2007).
  • Efficacy: ice primed with M2-DNA and then boosted with recombinant adenovirus expressing M2 (M2-Ad) had enhanced antibody responses that crossreacted with human and avian M2 sequences and produced T-cell responses. This M2 prime-boost vaccination conferred broad protection against challenge with lethal influenza A, including an H5N1 strain (Tompkins et al., 2007).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized by subcutaneous inoculation of 104 PFU of vector without insert or HA vector in a 10-µl volume of diluent into each rear footpad (Davis et al., 1996).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: Immunized mice were challenged intranasally with a virulent strain of influenza virus (Davis et al., 1996).
  • Efficacy: For the immunized mice, replication of challenge virus in their lungs was restricted, and they were completely protected from signs of disease (Davis et al., 1996).

Mouse Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: The baculoviruses (AcCAG-HA or AcNPV) (1.1 × 108 PFU/mouse) were inoculated twice, 2 wk apart, into the abdominal epidermis of the mice (Hunt et al., 1988).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: A lethal challenge with influenza virus consisting of 5.6 × 105 PFU of mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 influenza virus (100 LD50) in 50 μl of saline was administered intranasally 3 wk after the second immunization (Hunt et al., 1988).
  • Efficacy: However, protection from a lethal challenge of the influenza virus was only achieved by intranasal immunization of the recombinant baculovirus. Surprisingly, sufficient protection from the lethal influenza challenge was also observed in mice inoculated intranasally with a wild-type baculovirus, as evaluated by reductions in the virus titer, inflammatory cytokine production, and pulmonary consolidations (Hunt et al., 1988).

Pig Response

Horse Response

Macaque Response

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