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Vaccine Comparison

HIV DNA vaccine Ad26/Ad5HVR48 encoding HIV or SIV env or gag HIV DNA vaccine pHIS-SHIV-B HIV DNA vaccine SHIV-89.6 DNA (DNA/89.6) HIV DNA vaccine SIVmac239 Gag-Pol-Nef and mock Env with rAd5 boost NYVAC-HIV-1 NYVAC-HIV-2 NYVAC-SIV rBCG-SIVgag and rDIsSIVgag Prime-boost SHIV vaccine rMVA-SIV-CD40L SHIV DNA vaccine encoding env and gag SHIV(Ba-L) DNA vaccine encoding env and gag
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004342
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Human
  • env gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: This recombinant vector vaccine expressed env from HIV-1 (Barouch et al., 2012).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Gag from HIV 1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: This recombinant vector vaccine expressed gag from HIV-1 (Barouch et al., 2012).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • env from SIV gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: This recombinant vector vaccine expressed env from SIV (Barouch et al., 2012).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Gag protein from SIV-mnd 2 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: This recombinant vector vaccine expressed gag from SIV (Barouch et al., 2012).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004348
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Monkey
  • Antigen: full-length unmutated SIVmac239 Gag and Pol, HIV-1AD8, Tat, Rev, and Vpu, and the 5′ third of HIV-1AD8 Env (Dale et al., 2004)
  • env gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: The DNA vaccine strain, pHIS-SHIV-B, encoded full-length unmutated SIVmac239 Gag and Pol, HIV-1AD8, Tat, Rev, and Vpu, and the 5′ third of HIV-1AD8 Env (Dale et al., 2004).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Gag protein from SIV-mnd 2 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Pol SIV gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Tat gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • rev from HIV 1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • vpu gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pHIS-64 (Dale et al., 2004)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004344
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Macaque
  • gag gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • pol gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • env gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • tat gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • rev gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • vif gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • vpr gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • vpu gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pGA (Robinson et al., 2006)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004349
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Macaque
  • Gag protein from SIV-mnd 2 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Pol SIV gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Nef SIV gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • env gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pVR1012 prime, rAd5 boost (Mascola et al., 2005)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004774
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • Preparation: Attenuated poxvirus-HIV-1 recombinants followed by protein boosting (Patterson et al., 2000).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004775
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • Preparation: Attenuated poxvirus-HIV-1 recombinants followed by protein boosting (Patterson et al., 2000).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004779
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • Preparation: The gag, pol, and env genes of SIV(K6W) were expressed in the NYVAC vector (Benson et al., 1998).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004600
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: cynomologus macaque
  • Antigen: gag from simian immunodeficiency viruses
  • gag gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: The SHIV gag gene was inserted to a recombinant BCG vector and a replication-deficient vaccinia virus strain (DIs) vaccine vector (Ami et al., 2005).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-Tokyo and a replication-deficient vaccinia virus strain (DIs) (Ami et al., 2005)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004792
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • Preparation: Co-expressed the CD40L with our DNA/SIV vaccine such that the CD40L is anchored on the membrane of SIV virus-like particle (VLP) (Kwa et al., 2014).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004596
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Rhesus macaques
  • env gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • env gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • env gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • env gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • gag from HIV-1 vector pNL4-3 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pSW3891 (Pal et al., 2006)
  • Immunization Route: Gene gun
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004597
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Macaques
  • env gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • env gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • env gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • env gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • env gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • gag from HIV-1 vector pNL4-3 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pSW3891 (Pal et al., 2005)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Macaque Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: After the high-dose vaginal SHIV-162P3 challenge, 7/8 control animals were infected. Similarly, 7/8 animals in the vaccine-only group (group V) were infected. In the microbicide-only group (group M), 4/8 animals were infected. In the combination group (group V+M), only 2/7 animals were infected. The intervention efficacy in group V+M was 67%. In summary, the data supports that vaccines and microbicides used in combination may confer protection against sexual HIV-1 transmission to women by the vaginal route (Barouch et al., 2012).

Macaque Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: DNA vaccination alone primed for protection almost as effectively as the DNA/fowlpox virus regimen (Dale et al., 2004).
  • Host IFNG from Macaca nemestrina response
    • Description: SIV Gag-specific CD8 T cells expressing IFN-γ were dramatically boosted after challenge. Mean Gag-specific CD8 T cells peaked 3 weeks following challenge at 11.7% of all CD8 T cells in these outbred pigtail macaques immunized with the 2DNA/FPV regimen. The other vaccine groups had lower mean postchallenge CD8 T-cell responses, with peak responses at week 2 following challenge numbering 3.8% in the 3DNA group, 1.1% responses in the 1DNA/FPV group, and 2.0% in the 2DNA/FPV-IFN-γ-immunized animals (Dale et al., 2004).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Macaque Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: Co-delivery of GM-CSF and vaccine DNAs enhanced the temporal appearance of neutralizing Ab and broadened the specificity of the neutralizing activity to include SHIV-89.6P (Robinson et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: The GM-CSF-adjuvanted group showed a trend towards better control of the challenge infection and had better control of re-emergent virus (P < 0.01) than the non-adjuvanted group. After 52 weeks, the non-GM-CSF group continued to show some peaks of re-emergent virus whereas the GM-CSF group continued to maintain control below our level of detection (Robinson et al., 2006).

Macaque Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Immune Response: DNA priming-rAd5 boosting immunization platform can elicit potent anti-HIV-1 cellular immune responses and anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (Mascola et al., 2005).
  • Efficacy: In a challenge study, all monkeys were immunized with DNA plasmids at 0, 4, and 8 weeks and boosted with rAd5 at week 26. Serial plasma dilutions were tested against four of the more neutralization-sensitive viruses, and the plasma dilution that produced 50% virus neutralization, which is required to protect 50% of the cells from virus-induced killing, was determined. The data clearly demonstrates that both the vaccine platform and these immunogens elicit IgG-mediated virus neutralization (Mascola et al., 2005).

Macaque Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Twenty-four macaques were primed with NYVAC (a genetically attenuated Copenhagen vaccinia strain) recombinants with HIV-1 and HIV-2 env and gag-pol or NYVAC vector alone and boosted with homologous, oligomeric gp160 proteins or adjuvant only (Patterson et al., 2000).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000287
  • Challenge Protocol: One half of each immunization and control group were intravenously challenged with SHIV(HXB2) the other half was challenged with HIV-2SBL6669 (Patterson et al., 2000).
  • Efficacy: Virological assessments verified that both NYVAC-HIV-1 and NYVAC-HIV-2 immunization significantly reduced viral burdens and partially protected against HIV-2 challenge, although cross-protection was not at the level that had been previously reported. Humoral antibody and/or CTL and CD8AA were associated with protection against homologous HIV-2 challenge, while cellular immune responses seemed more important for cross-protection. No significant protection was observed in the SHIV-challenged macaques (Patterson et al., 2000).

Macaque Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Twenty-four macaques were primed with NYVAC (a genetically attenuated Copenhagen vaccinia strain) recombinants with HIV-1 and HIV-2 env and gag-pol or NYVAC vector alone and boosted with homologous, oligomeric gp160 proteins or adjuvant only (Patterson et al., 2000).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: One half of each immunization and control group were intravenously challenged with SHIV(HXB2) the other half was challenged with HIV-2SBL6669 (Patterson et al., 2000).
  • Efficacy: Virological assessments verified that both NYVAC-HIV-1 and NYVAC-HIV-2 immunization significantly reduced viral burdens and partially protected against HIV-2 challenge, although cross-protection was not at the level that had been previously reported. Humoral antibody and/or CTL and CD8AA were associated with protection against homologous HIV-2 challenge, while cellular immune responses seemed more important for cross-protection. No significant protection was observed in the SHIV-challenged macaques, although NYVAC-HIV-1 immunization resulted in significantly lower viral burdens compared with controls (Patterson et al., 2000).

Macaque Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: The macaques were immunized with NYVAC-SIV and NYVAC-IL-12 or NYVAC-SIV alone (Benson et al., 1998).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: At the end of the immunization regimen, half of the animals were challenged with SIV(mac251) by the intravenous route and the other half were exposed to SIV(mac251) intrarectally (Benson et al., 1998).
  • Efficacy: Significantly, five of the eleven vaccinees exposed mucosally to SIV(mac251) showed a transient peak of viremia 1 week after viral challenge and subsequently appeared to clear viral infection. In contrast, all 12 animals inoculated intravenously became infected, but 5 to 6 months after viral challenge, 4 animals were able to control viral expression and appeared to progress to disease more slowly than control animals. Protection did not appear to be associated with any of the measured immunological parameters. Further modulation of immune responses by coadministration of NYVAC-cytokine recombinants did not appear to influence the outcome of viral challenge (Benson et al., 1998).

Macaque Response

  • Host Strain: cynomologus macaque
  • Vaccination Protocol: cynomologus macaques were primed with rBCG-SIVgag, and then boosted with rDIsSIVgag (Ami et al., 2005).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: Ten weeks after the second booster immunization, the macaques were challenged by intrarectal inoculation with 2 × 103 TCID50 or 50 50% monkey infectious doses (MID50) of SHIV KS661c, an SHIV-89.6 variant clone (Ami et al., 2005).
  • Efficacy: For the prime-boost vaccination group, plasma viremia levels remained undetectable and CD4+ T-cell counts stayed above 500 cells/μl for the entire year of testing (Ami et al., 2005).

Macaque Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: The macaques were divided into 3 groups and group 1 was vaccinated with a DNA/MVA SIV vaccine, group 2 was vaccinated with the DNA/MVA SIV vaccine with CD40L in the DNA, and the third group was an unvaccinated control (Kwa et al., 2014).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: The macaques were intrarectally challenged with SIVE660 at a dose of 5000 TCID to test the level of protection of the vaccines (Kwa et al., 2014).
  • Efficacy: CD40L adjuvant enhanced the functional quality of anti-Env antibody response and breadth of anti-SIV CD8 and CD4 T cell responses, significantly delayed the acquisition of heterologous mucosal SIV infection and improved viral control. Notably, the CD40L adjuvant enhanced the control of viral replication in the gut at the site of challenge that was associated with lower mucosal CD8 immune activation, one of the strong predictors of disease progression (Kwa et al., 2014).

Macaque Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Efficacy: The immune response elicited by the multivalent DNA prime/protein boost vaccine was able to protect macaques from rectal challenge with SHIV-Ba-L isolate. This polyvalent vaccine formulation was able to confer protection in four out of six animals against SHIV-Ba-L and significantly reduced plasma viremia in the two remaining animals (Pal et al., 2006).

Macaque Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Efficacy: one of six immunized animals was completely protected whereas all six naïve animals were infected. These results demonstrate that a vaccine based on priming with a polyvalent DNA vaccine from multiple HIV-1 subtypes followed by boosting with homologous Env proteins elicits anti-HIV-1 immune responses capable of controlling rectal transmission of SHIV(Ba-L) (Pal et al., 2005).
References References References References References References References References References References References
Barouch et al., 2012: Barouch DH, Klasse PJ, Dufour J, Veazey RS, Moore JP. Macaque studies of vaccine and microbicide combinations for preventing HIV-1 sexual transmission. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2012; 109(22); 8694-8698. [PubMed: 22586094].
Dale et al., 2004: Dale CJ, De Rose R, Stratov I, Chea S, Montefiori DC, Thomson S, Ramshaw IA, Coupar BE, Boyle DB, Law M, Kent SJ. Efficacy of DNA and fowlpox virus priming/boosting vaccines for simian/human immunodeficiency virus. Journal of virology. 2004; 78(24); 13819-13828. [PubMed: 15564490].
Robinson et al., 2006: Robinson HL, Montefiori DC, Villinger F, Robinson JE, Sharma S, Wyatt LS, Earl PL, McClure HM, Moss B, Amara RR. Studies on GM-CSF DNA as an adjuvant for neutralizing Ab elicited by a DNA/MVA immunodeficiency virus vaccine. Virology. 2006; 352(2); 285-294. [PubMed: 16740288].
Mascola et al., 2005: Mascola JR, Sambor A, Beaudry K, Santra S, Welcher B, Louder MK, Vancott TC, Huang Y, Chakrabarti BK, Kong WP, Yang ZY, Xu L, Montefiori DC, Nabel GJ, Letvin NL. Neutralizing antibodies elicited by immunization of monkeys with DNA plasmids and recombinant adenoviral vectors expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteins. Journal of virology. 2005; 79(2); 771-779. [PubMed: 15613305].
Patterson et al., 2000: Patterson LJ, Peng B, Abimiku AG, Aldrich K, Murty L, Markham PD, Kalyanaraman VS, Alvord WG, Tartaglia J, Franchini G, Robert-Guroff M. Cross-protection in NYVAC-HIV-1-immunized/HIV-2-challenged but not in NYVAC-HIV-2-immunized/SHIV-challenged rhesus macaques. AIDS (London, England). 2000; 14(16); 2445-2455. [PubMed: 11101054].
Patterson et al., 2000: Patterson LJ, Peng B, Abimiku AG, Aldrich K, Murty L, Markham PD, Kalyanaraman VS, Alvord WG, Tartaglia J, Franchini G, Robert-Guroff M. Cross-protection in NYVAC-HIV-1-immunized/HIV-2-challenged but not in NYVAC-HIV-2-immunized/SHIV-challenged rhesus macaques. AIDS (London, England). 2000; 14(16); 2445-2455. [PubMed: 11101054].
Benson et al., 1998: Benson J, Chougnet C, Robert-Guroff M, Montefiori D, Markham P, Shearer G, Gallo RC, Cranage M, Paoletti E, Limbach K, Venzon D, Tartaglia J, Franchini G. Recombinant vaccine-induced protection against the highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(mac251): dependence on route of challenge exposure. Journal of virology. 1998; 72(5); 4170-4182. [PubMed: 9557706].
Ami et al., 2005: Ami Y, Izumi Y, Matsuo K, Someya K, Kanekiyo M, Horibata S, Yoshino N, Sakai K, Shinohara K, Matsumoto S, Yamada T, Yamazaki S, Yamamoto N, Honda M. Priming-boosting vaccination with recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin and a nonreplicating vaccinia virus recombinant leads to long-lasting and effective immunity. Journal of virology. 2005; 79(20); 12871-12879. [PubMed: 16188989].
Kwa et al., 2014: Kwa S, Lai L, Gangadhara S, Siddiqui M, Pillai VB, Labranche C, Yu T, Moss B, Montefiori DC, Robinson HL, Kozlowski PA, Amara RR. CD40L-adjuvanted DNA/MVA SIV239 vaccine enhances SIV-specific humoral and cellular immunity, and improves protection against a heterologous SIVE660 mucosal challenge. Journal of virology. 2014; ; . [PubMed: 24920805].
Pal et al., 2006: Pal R, Kalyanaraman VS, Nair BC, Whitney S, Keen T, Hocker L, Hudacik L, Rose N, Mboudjeka I, Shen S, Wu-Chou TH, Montefiori D, Mascola J, Markham P, Lu S. Immunization of rhesus macaques with a polyvalent DNA prime/protein boost human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine elicits protective antibody response against simian human immunodeficiency virus of R5 phenotype. Virology. 2006; 348(2); 341-353. [PubMed: 16460776].
Pal et al., 2005: Pal R, Wang S, Kalyanaraman VS, Nair BC, Whitney S, Keen T, Hocker L, Hudacik L, Rose N, Cristillo A, Mboudjeka I, Shen S, Wu-Chou TH, Montefiori D, Mascola J, Lu S, Markham P. Polyvalent DNA prime and envelope protein boost HIV-1 vaccine elicits humoral and cellular responses and controls plasma viremia in rhesus macaques following rectal challenge with an R5 SHIV isolate. Journal of medical primatology. 2005; 34(5-6); 226-236. [PubMed: 16128917].