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Vaccine Comparison

rBCG-SIVgag SabRV-SIV SIV DNA vaccine pSIVgag and pmacIL-15 encoding SIV core protein SIV DNA vaccine pVacc4 encoding env from mac239 SIV recombinant vector vaccine rAd5/rLCMV
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004789
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Macaque
  • Antigen: M. bovis BCG-SIV Gag followed by boosting with rDIsSIVgag (Ami et al., 2005).
  • gag gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: The SIV gag gene was used in generation of a recombinant vector vaccine (Ami et al., 2005).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intradermal injection (i.d.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004704
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • env gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: To construct pSabRV1, first the EcoRI and XhoI sites upstream of the T7 promoter of pS1 were eliminated to create plasmid pS1XT. Then the 747-bp BstEII fragment of pMoV2.11—containing the duplicated 2Apro cleavage site, the 5-glycine spacer, and the EcoRI, NotI, and XhoI cloning sites—was swapped into pS1XT to create pSabRV1 (Crotty et al., 2001).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • env receptor binding subunit gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: To construct pSabRV1, first the EcoRI and XhoI sites upstream of the T7 promoter of pS1 were eliminated to create plasmid pS1XT. Then the 747-bp BstEII fragment of pMoV2.11—containing the duplicated 2Apro cleavage site, the 5-glycine spacer, and the EcoRI, NotI, and XhoI cloning sites—was swapped into pS1XT to create pSabRV1 (Crotty et al., 2001).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • gag-pol gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: To construct pSabRV1, first the EcoRI and XhoI sites upstream of the T7 promoter of pS1 were eliminated to create plasmid pS1XT. Then the 747-bp BstEII fragment of pMoV2.11—containing the duplicated 2Apro cleavage site, the 5-glycine spacer, and the EcoRI, NotI, and XhoI cloning sites—was swapped into pS1XT to create pSabRV1 (Crotty et al., 2001).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: New poliovirus vectors based on Sabin 1 and 2 vaccine strain viruses were constructed, and these vectors were used to generate a series of new viruses containing SIV gag, pol, env, nef, and tat in overlapping fragments (Crotty et al., 2001).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004346
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Macaque
  • Core protein gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: This DNA vaccine expressed a 37-kDa fragment of the SIV core protein (Boyer et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCSIVgag plasmid (Boyer et al., 2007)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004343
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Macaque
  • env gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pVacc4, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) (Bertley et al., 2004)
  • Immunization Route: oculo-nasal route
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004564
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Macaques
  • Antigen: a mismatched SIV envelope (Env) gene derived from simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 (Flatz et al., 2012)
  • Vector: Recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) priming, replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus boosting (Flatz et al., 2012)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Macaque Response

  • Host Strain: Macaca fascicularis
  • Vaccination Protocol: The macaques were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 (control group) received rBCG-PSO246 followed by two inoculations of rDIsLacZ. Group 2 (rBCG group) received rBCG-SIVgag followed by two inoculations of rDIsLacZ. Group 3 (rBCG/rDIs group) received rBCG-SIVgag followed by two inoculations of rDIsSIVgag. Group 4 (rDIS group) received two inoculations of rDIsSIVgag followed by rBCG-pSO246. Group 5 (rDIs/rBCG group) received two inoculations of rDIsSIVgag followed by rBCG-SIVgag (Ami et al., 2005).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: All groups were mucosally challenged with two thousand 50% tissue culture infectious doses of SHIV KS661c at 64 weeks after immunization, these were intrarectally administered (Ami et al., 2005).
  • Efficacy: Only the macaques in group 3 (rBCG/rDIs) showed evidence of protective immune responses, the macaques in this group remained clinically healthy for a one year observation period. During this same observation period, by day 170, 6 macaques in the other 4 groups had died with symptoms consistent with simian AIDS. The rBCG/rDIs group vaccinated with the priming-boosting regimen had a superior survival rate than the other groups receiving vaccine protocols and the control group (Ami et al., 2005).

Macaque Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Seven animals were inoculated intranasally with 1 ml (5 × 107 PFU) of SabRV1-SIV on days 1, 3, 14, and 16, for a total of four immunizations. Nineteen weeks after the first series of inoculations, these same seven animals were given boosters of two intranasal inoculations of 1 ml (106 PFU/ml) of SabRV2-SIV, one at week 19 and a second at week 21 (Crotty et al., 2001).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: The animals were challenged with 105 TCID50 of SIVmac251 intravaginally, using the SIVmac251 (5/98) stock (Crotty et al., 2001).
  • Efficacy: Four of the seven vaccinated animals exhibited substantial protection against the vaginal SIV challenge (Crotty et al., 2001).

Macaque Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: The vaccine groups were protected from ongoing infection, and the IL-15 covaccinated group showed a more rapidly controlled infection than the group treated with DNA vaccine alone (Boyer et al., 2007).

Macaque Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: After rectal challenge of vaccinated and naive animals with SHIV89.6P, all animals became infected. However a subset were protected from CD4+ T cell loss and AIDS development. Thus, nasal vaccination with SHIV-DNA plus IL-2/Ig DNA and rMVA can provide significant protection from disease progression (Bertley et al., 2004).

Macaque Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) prime followed by replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) boost elicited robust CD4 and CD8 T-cell and humoral immune responses. In addition, there was a presence of neutralizing antibodies to the challenge viruses tested in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (Flatz et al., 2012).
  • Efficacy: To evaluate the infectibility of immunized and control animals, 10 vaccinated Macaca mulatta animals and 10 controls were challenged intrarectally with SIVsmE660 six weeks after the rLCMV boost. In the vaccinated group, three of the 10 monkeys became infected after 99 challenges (3% infection rate per challenge), while in the control null group, eight of the 10 monkeys were infected after 47 challenges (17% infection rate per challenge), indicating a protective efficacy of 82% per challenge (Flatz et al., 2012).
References References References References References
Ami et al., 2005: Ami Y, Izumi Y, Matsuo K, Someya K, Kanekiyo M, Horibata S, Yoshino N, Sakai K, Shinohara K, Matsumoto S, Yamada T, Yamazaki S, Yamamoto N, Honda M. Priming-boosting vaccination with recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin and a nonreplicating vaccinia virus recombinant leads to long-lasting and effective immunity. Journal of virology. 2005; 79(20); 12871-12879. [PubMed: 16188989].
Crotty et al., 2001: Crotty S, Miller CJ, Lohman BL, Neagu MR, Compton L, Lu D, Lü FX, Fritts L, Lifson JD, Andino R. Protection against simian immunodeficiency virus vaginal challenge by using Sabin poliovirus vectors. Journal of virology. 2001; 75(16); 7435-7452. [PubMed: 11462016].
Boyer et al., 2007: Boyer JD, Robinson TM, Kutzler MA, Vansant G, Hokey DA, Kumar S, Parkinson R, Wu L, Sidhu MK, Pavlakis GN, Felber BK, Brown C, Silvera P, Lewis MG, Monforte J, Waldmann TA, Eldridge J, Weiner DB. Protection against simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) 89.6P in macaques after coimmunization with SHIV antigen and IL-15 plasmid. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2007; 104(47); 18648-18653. [PubMed: 18000037].
Bertley et al., 2004: Bertley FM, Kozlowski PA, Wang SW, Chappelle J, Patel J, Sonuyi O, Mazzara G, Montefiori D, Carville A, Mansfield KG, Aldovini A. Control of simian/human immunodeficiency virus viremia and disease progression after IL-2-augmented DNA-modified vaccinia virus Ankara nasal vaccination in nonhuman primates. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2004; 172(6); 3745-3757. [PubMed: 15004179].
Flatz et al., 2012: Flatz L, Cheng C, Wang L, Foulds KE, Ko SY, Kong WP, Roychoudhuri R, Shi W, Bao S, Todd JP, Asmal M, Shen L, Donaldson M, Schmidt SD, Gall JG, Pinschewer DD, Letvin NL, Rao S, Mascola JR, Roederer M, Nabel GJ. Gene-based vaccination with a mismatched envelope protects against simian immunodeficiency virus infection in nonhuman primates. Journal of virology. 2012; 86(15); 7760-7770. [PubMed: 22593152].