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Vaccine Comparison

Avian influenza DNA vaccine pCMV-M Avian influenza virus DNA vaccine pCMV-HA FP-AI-H5(H5N1) Influenza virus DNA vaccine p188 encoding H7 Influenza virus DNA vaccine pCAGGHA Influenza virus DNA vaccine pCAGGoptiHA Influenza virus DNA vaccine pCMVH5HA Influenza virus DNA vaccine pβactinH7HA pCAGGoptiHA rDEV-re6 (H5) rFPV-H5AI-L2 rHVT-H5 rHVT-H5 (clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAIV) rNDV-H5 rNDV-H6 RSV-H7 vFP89-HA (H5N1 HPAI virus) VSV*ΔG-H5 (H5N1)
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004504
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Chicken
  • M1 gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pcDNA 3.1 expressed M1 viral proteins from an Italian H7N1 LPAI virus (Le et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pcDNA 3.1 (Le et al., 2007)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004505
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Chicken
  • ha gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pcDNA 3.1 expressed H7 viral proteins from an Italian H7N1 LPAI virus (Le et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pcDNA 3.1 (Le et al., 2007)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004729
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: (vFP89) expressing the native hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H5N8 A/turkey/ Ireland/1378/83 and the other (vFP2211) expressing a modified synthetic HA gene from H5N1 A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003. (Bublot et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Description: (vFP89) expressing the native hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H5N8 A/turkey/ Ireland/1378/83 and the other (vFP2211) expressing a modified synthetic HA gene from H5N1 A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003. (Bublot et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: (vFP89) expressing the native hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H5N8 A/turkey/ Ireland/1378/83 and the other (vFP2211) expressing a modified synthetic HA gene from H5N1 A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (Bublot et al., 2010).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004291
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Chicken
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector p188 expressed a replication-defective derivative of avian leucosis virus that expresses the haemagglutinin type 7 (HT) gene of A/Seal/Mass/I/80 (H7N7) (Robinson et al., 1993).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: p188 (Robinson et al., 1993).
  • Immunization Route: Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004503
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Chicken
  • HA from Influenza A virus (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pCAGGS expressed chicken biased codons based on the HA amino acid sequence of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (GS/GD/96) (Jiang et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCAGGS (Jiang et al., 2007)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004502
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Chicken
  • HA from Influenza A virus (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pCAGGS expressed chicken biased codons based on the HA amino acid sequence of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (GS/GD/96) (Jiang et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCAGGS (Jiang et al., 2007)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004500
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Chicken
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pCMV expressed a full-length cDNA copy of the HA gene of Ty/Ire/83 (Kodihalli et al., 2000).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCMV (Kodihalli et al., 2000)
  • Immunization Route: Gene gun
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004501
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Chicken
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: This vaccine also expressed HA from A/Chick/Victoria/1/85 (H7N7) (Kodihalli et al., 2000).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pCMV (Kodihalli et al., 2000)
  • Immunization Route: Gene gun
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004173
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Influenza A virus (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1)) HA hemagglutinin
  • HA from Influenza A virus (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1)) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Both the wild-type HA gene of GS/GD/96 virus and optiHA were cloned into the plasmid vector pCAGGS (kindly provided by Dr. Y. Kawaoka) under the control of the chicken β-actin promoter, and plasmid pCI (Promega) under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (Jiang et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: plasmid vector pCAGGS
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004623
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Chicken
  • Vector: (Liu et al., 2013)
  • Preparation: A recombinant duck enteritis virus was generated that expresses the HA gene of an H5N1 virus (rDEV-re6) (Liu et al., 2013).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004746
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • Preparation: Recombinant fowlpox virus coexpressing the inserted HA and chiIL2 genes (rFPV-H5AIL2). (Yun et al., 2009).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004633
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Chicken
  • Vector: (Soejoedono et al., 2012)
  • Preparation: A recombinant turkey herpesvirus (rHVT)-AI vaccine, rHVT-H5, was used to express the HA gene of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 clade 2.2 A/Swan/Hungary/499/ 2006 strain inserted into FC-126 strain of HVT vector (Soejoedono et al., 2012).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004634
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • Vector: Turkey herpesvirus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain (rHVT-H5) (Rauw et al., 2012).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004681
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Chicken
  • Preparation: Enterotropic NDV vector expressing an H5 haemagglutinin (rNDV-H5) (Ferreira et al., 2014).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004683
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Chicken
  • Preparation: A recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing H6 hemagglutinin (HA) of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) was generated by reverse genetics (NDVH6) (Schröer et al., 2011).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004724
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: Plasmid DNAs used for vector construction included pSV153, containing the H7 gene of Seal/Mass/80 (H7N7) (17) (Hunt et al., 1988).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: The HA selected for expression was that of A/Seal/Mass/1/80 (H7N7) (Seal/Mass/80) (Hunt et al., 1988).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004745
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: Fowlpox (FP) vector vaccines expressing the native hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H5N8 (Bublot et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: Compare one (vFP89) expressing the native hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H5N8 A/turkey/ Ireland/1378/83 and the other (vFP2211) expressing a modified synthetic HA gene from H5N1 A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (Bublot et al., 2010).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004659
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Baboon
  • HA gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant vector construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vector was used to express HA of subtype H5 (Halbherr et al., 2013).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Chicken Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: After the homologous challenge, chickens of every vaccinated group displayed a significant decrease in cloacal shedding, whereas tracheal shedding was not significantly reduced in the protein/protein group (Le et al., 2007).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: After the homologous challenge, chickens of every vaccinated group displayed a significant decrease in cloacal shedding, whereas tracheal shedding was not significantly reduced in the protein/protein group (Le et al., 2007).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Four groups of 20 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were made: Groups 1 and 2 were immunized with 3 log10 tissue-culture infectious dose 50% (TCID50) of vFP89 and vFP2211, respectively, whereas group 3 was immunized with vFP89, but received a booster immunization at 2 wk of age with an inactivated vaccine containing A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 H5N9 virus (inH5N9); group 4 was left unvaccinated (Bublot et al., 2010).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000287
  • Challenge Protocol: Ten birds from each group were challenged on day 21 with A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI virus (Bublot et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: All directly challenged and 9/10 nonvaccinated contact chickens died after challenge (mean death time of 2.3 and 6.1 days, respectively) and most of them shed virus before death via cloacal and buccal routes. All vaccinated birds were clinically protected from HPAI challenge (Bublot et al., 2010).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: In a series of four experiments, 50% (28/56) of the DNA-vaccinated and < 2% (1/67) of the control chickens survived the challenge (Robinson et al., 1993).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: All chickens receiving pCAGGHA developed high levels of HI and NT antibodies at 3 weeks p.v., and were completely protected from lethal H5 virus challenge (Jiang et al., 2007).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: All chickens receiving pCAGGoptiHA developed high levels of HI and NT antibodies at 3 weeks p.v., and were completely protected from lethal H5 virus challenge (Jiang et al., 2007).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Chickens given a single dose of plasmids expressing H5 and H7 hemagglutinins protected the birds from infection by either subtype (Kodihalli et al., 2000).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Chickens given a single dose of plasmids expressing H5 and H7 hemagglutinins protected the birds from infection by either subtype (Kodihalli et al., 2000).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: The plasmids were diluted to the desired concentration and were administered by intramuscular injection in a 200 μl volume at the leg muscle (Jiang et al., 2007).
  • Challenge Protocol: Chickens were challenged with 1000 LD50 of H5N1 viruses in 0.1 ml intranasally. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from all chickens at 3, 5 and 7 days post-challenge (p.c.) for virus titration in eggs, and chickens were observed daily for disease signs and death for 2 weeks (Jiang et al., 2007).
  • Efficacy: Results indicated that two doses of 10 microg of pCAGGoptiHA derived from Influenza A virus (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1)) could induce complete protection in chickens against H5 lethal virus challenge (Jiang et al., 2007).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Efficacy: This new rDEV-re6 virus to be safe in chickens and to induce rapid and solid protection after a single dose (Liu et al., 2013).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Chickens were divided into two groups and immunized with rFPV-HA or rFPV-H5AIL2 (Yun et al., 2009).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Efficacy: The group immunized with the rFPV-H5AIL2 exhibited the similar ratios of protective efficacy and virus shedding as the group immunized with the rFPV-HA in SPF chicken. However, in commercial chicken, the group immunized with the rFPV-H5AIL2 generated significantly higher protection against H5N1 avian influenza virus challenge and lower virus shedding than the group immunized with the rFPV-HA (Yun et al., 2009).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Efficacy: Challenge was performed at 28 days of age using a different H5N1 isolate, clade 2.1.3 A/Ck/Purwakarta-Cilingga/142/10. Clinical protection was 95%, 75%, and 90% in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Shedding of challenge virus was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups compared with controls in both experiments (Soejoedono et al., 2012).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Birds carrying MDAs against both HVT and Asian H5N1 HPAIV were vaccinated on the first day of age with rHVT-H5, with or without boosting vaccination by an inactivated vaccine after 10 days (Rauw et al., 2012).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000287
  • Challenge Protocol: The different groups were challenged with two antigenically highly divergent Egyptian dade 2.2.1 H5N1 HPAIVs at 4 wk of age (Rauw et al., 2012).
  • Efficacy: Protection against challenge was compared with unvaccinated birds or vaccinated birds without MDAs. Between 70% and 90% clinical protection could be observed in the vaccinated groups possessing MDAs, indicating no or very low interference of MDAs with vaccination (Rauw et al., 2012).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: 1-day-old specific pathogen free chickens inoculated once, twice or once with rNDV-H5 followed by a heterologous boost with an inactivated H5N9 vaccine (iH5N9) (Ferreira et al., 2014).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: The chicks were challenged with H5N1 at 6 weeks of age (Ferreira et al., 2014).
  • Efficacy: Two rNDV-H5 administrations conferred a good level of protection after challenge, although only a cellular H5-specific response could be detected. Interestingly, a single administration of rNDV-H5 gave the same level of protection as the double administration but without any detectable H5-specific immune response (Ferreira et al., 2014).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Efficacy: A single vaccination protected specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens against a subsequent lethal NDV infection and prevented shedding of AIV after homologous H6 LPAIV infection (Schröer et al., 2011).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: A P1/H7 stock which expressed 5 to 10% of the level of H7 observed in influenza virus-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts was used to immunize 1-month-old chickens (Hunt et al., 1988).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: The chickens were inoculated via the nares with 104 EID50 of A/Chicken/Victoria/1/85 (H7N7) influenza virus (Hunt et al., 1988).
  • Efficacy: This immunization resulted in low or undetectable levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing antibody. Despite the low serum response, challenge with a highly pathogenic H7N7 virus revealed complete protection against lethal infection (Hunt et al., 1988).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Four groups of 20 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were made: Groups 1 and 2 were immunized with 3 log10 tissue-culture infectious dose 50% (TCID50) of vFP89 and vFP2211, respectively, whereas group 3 was immunized with vFP89, but received a booster immunization at 2 wk of age with an inactivated vaccine containing A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 H5N9 virus (inH5N9); group 4 was left unvaccinated (Bublot et al., 2010).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: Ten birds from each group were challenged on day 21 with A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI virus (Bublot et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: All directly challenged and 9/10 nonvaccinated contact chickens died after challenge (mean death time of 2.3 and 6.1 days, respectively) and most of them shed virus before death via cloacal and buccal routes. All vaccinated birds were clinically protected from HPAI challenge. One (vFP2211), 2 (vFP89+inact.), or 3 (vFP89) out of the 10 directly challenged vaccinated chickens shed virus via the buccal route 2-5 days postinfection (Bublot et al., 2010).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Efficacy: Vaccination of chickens with a single intramuscular dose of 2×10⁸ infectious replicon particles without adjuvant conferred complete protection from lethal H5N1 infection (Halbherr et al., 2013).
References References References References References References References References References References References References References References References References References References
Le et al., 2007: Le Gall-Reculé G, Cherbonnel M, Pelotte N, Blanchard P, Morin Y, Jestin V. Importance of a prime-boost DNA/protein vaccination to protect chickens against low-pathogenic H7 avian influenza infection. Avian diseases. 2007; 51(1 Suppl); 490-494. [PubMed: 17494616].
Le et al., 2007: Le Gall-Reculé G, Cherbonnel M, Pelotte N, Blanchard P, Morin Y, Jestin V. Importance of a prime-boost DNA/protein vaccination to protect chickens against low-pathogenic H7 avian influenza infection. Avian diseases. 2007; 51(1 Suppl); 490-494. [PubMed: 17494616].
Bublot et al., 2010: Bublot M, Manvell RJ, Shell W, Brown IH. High level of protection induced by two fowlpox vector vaccines against a highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 challenge in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Avian diseases. 2010; 54(1 Suppl); 257-261. [PubMed: 20521642].
Robinson et al., 1993: Robinson HL, Hunt LA, Webster RG. Protection against a lethal influenza virus challenge by immunization with a haemagglutinin-expressing plasmid DNA. Vaccine. 1993; 11(9); 957-960. [PubMed: 8212843].
Jiang et al., 2007: Jiang Y, Yu K, Zhang H, Zhang P, Li C, Tian G, Li Y, Wang X, Ge J, Bu Z, Chen H. Enhanced protective efficacy of H5 subtype avian influenza DNA vaccine with codon optimized HA gene in a pCAGGS plasmid vector. Antiviral research. 2007; 75(3); 234-241. [PubMed: 17451817].
Jiang et al., 2007: Jiang Y, Yu K, Zhang H, Zhang P, Li C, Tian G, Li Y, Wang X, Ge J, Bu Z, Chen H. Enhanced protective efficacy of H5 subtype avian influenza DNA vaccine with codon optimized HA gene in a pCAGGS plasmid vector. Antiviral research. 2007; 75(3); 234-241. [PubMed: 17451817].
Kodihalli et al., 2000: Kodihalli S, Kobasa DL, Webster RG. Strategies for inducing protection against avian influenza A virus subtypes with DNA vaccines. Vaccine. 2000; 18(23); 2592-2599. [PubMed: 10775793].
Kodihalli et al., 2000: Kodihalli S, Kobasa DL, Webster RG. Strategies for inducing protection against avian influenza A virus subtypes with DNA vaccines. Vaccine. 2000; 18(23); 2592-2599. [PubMed: 10775793].
Jiang et al., 2007: Jiang Y, Yu K, Zhang H, Zhang P, Li C, Tian G, Li Y, Wang X, Ge J, Bu Z, Chen H. Enhanced protective efficacy of H5 subtype avian influenza DNA vaccine with codon optimized HA gene in a pCAGGS plasmid vector. Antiviral research. 2007; 75(3); 234-241. [PubMed: 17451817].
Liu et al., 2013: Liu J, Chen P, Jiang Y, Deng G, Shi J, Wu L, Lin Y, Bu Z, Chen H. Recombinant duck enteritis virus works as a single-dose vaccine in broilers providing rapid protection against H5N1 influenza infection. Antiviral research. 2013; 97(3); 329-333. [PubMed: 23267833].
Yun et al., 2009: Yun SL, Zhang W, Liu WJ, Zhang XR, Chen SJ, Wu YT, Peng DX, Liu XF. [Construction of recombinant fowlpox virus coexpressing HA gene from H5N1 avian influenza virus and chicken interleukin-2 gene and assessment of its protective efficacy]. Bing du xue bao = Chinese journal of virology / [bian ji, Bing du xue bao bian ji wei yuan hui]. 2009; 25(6); 430-436. [PubMed: 20077933].
Soejoedono et al., 2012: Soejoedono RD, Murtini S, Palya V, Felföldi B, Mató T, Gardin Y. Efficacy of a recombinant HVT-H5 vaccine against challenge with two genetically divergent Indonesian HPAI H5N1 strains. Avian diseases. 2012; 56(4 Suppl); 923-927. [PubMed: 23402113].
Rauw et al., 2012: Rauw F, Palya V, Gardin Y, Tatar-Kis T, Dorsey KM, Lambrecht B, van den Berg T. Efficacy of rHVT-AI vector vaccine in broilers with passive immunity against challenge with two antigenically divergent Egyptian clade 2.2.1 HPAI H5N1 strains. Avian diseases. 2012; 56(4 Suppl); 913-922. [PubMed: 23402112].
Ferreira et al., 2014: Ferreira HL, Rauw F, Pirlot JF, Reynard F, van den Berg T, Bublot M, Lambrecht B. Comparison of single 1-day-old chick vaccination using a Newcastle disease virus vector with a prime/boost vaccination scheme against a highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 challenge. Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A. 2014; 43(1); 68-77. [PubMed: 24320551].
Schröer et al., 2011: Schröer D, Veits J, Keil G, Römer-Oberdörfer A, Weber S, Mettenleiter TC. Efficacy of Newcastle disease virus recombinant expressing avian influenza virus H6 hemagglutinin against Newcastle disease and low pathogenic avian influenza in chickens and turkeys. Avian diseases. 2011; 55(2); 201-211. [PubMed: 21793434].
Hunt et al., 1988: Hunt LA, Brown DW, Robinson HL, Naeve CW, Webster RG. Retrovirus-expressed hemagglutinin protects against lethal influenza virus infections. Journal of virology. 1988; 62(8); 3014-3019. [PubMed: 2839718].
Bublot et al., 2010: Bublot M, Manvell RJ, Shell W, Brown IH. High level of protection induced by two fowlpox vector vaccines against a highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 challenge in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Avian diseases. 2010; 54(1 Suppl); 257-261. [PubMed: 20521642].
Halbherr et al., 2013: Halbherr SJ, Brostoff T, Tippenhauer M, Locher S, Berger Rentsch M, Zimmer G. Vaccination with recombinant RNA replicon particles protects chickens from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. PloS one. 2013; 8(6); e66059. [PubMed: 23762463].