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Vaccine Comparison

Broilact Chick Salmonella vaccine Salmonella enterica fliC/guaB mutant vaccine Salmonella Gallinarum cbiA/cobS mutant vaccine Salmonella Gallinarum nuoG mutant vaccine Salmonella Gallinarum relA/spoT mutant vaccine Salmonella IroN Protein Vaccine Salmonella vacT Zoosaloral H.
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Tradename: Broilact
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004140
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Antigen: Broilact is a preparation of the complex mixture of bacteria that inhabit the gut of the healthy adult fowl. The Broilact bacteria are able to live normally in the gut and minimise its colonisation by undesirable and harmful bacteria (Game Bird Health - Broilact).
  • Preparation: Broilact consists of obligately and facultatively anaerobic chicken intestinal bacteria. (Schneitz and Renney, 2003)
  • Description: As a competitive exclusion product, Broilact substantially reduces colonization of the intestine of a host animal by Salmonella infantis (Schneitz and Renney, 2003).
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Mouse, chicken
  • fliC gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This fliC/guaB mutant is from Salmonella enterica (Adriaensen et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • guaB from S. enteritidis str. P125109 gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This fliC/guaB mutant is from Salmonella enterica (Adriaensen et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Chickens
  • cbiA gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This cbiA/cobS mutant is from Salmonella Gallinarum (Penha et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • cobS gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This cbiA/cobS mutant is from Salmonella Gallinarum (Penha et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0002901
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Chickens
  • nuoG gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This nuoG mutant is from Salmonella Gallinarum (Zhang-Barber et al., 1998).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Chickens
  • relA gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This relA/spoT mutant is from Salmonella Gallinarum (Park et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • spoT gene engineering:
    • Type: Gene mutation
    • Description: This relA/spoT mutant is from Salmonella Gallinarum (Park et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004184
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • IroN gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: incomplete Freunds adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Tradename: vacT
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004142
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Antigen: Salmonella vacT is made of S. Typhimurium (Methner et al., 1997).
  • Tradename: Zoosaloral H.
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004141
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Antigen: The antigen is a strain of S. Typhimurium called Zoosaloral H.
  • Preparation: This live vaccine strain is derived by chemical mutagenesis from a virulent avian S. Typhimurium DT009 isolate. Chemical mutagenesis caused attenuation via adenine and histidine auxotrophy, but did not change the phage type of the vaccine strain (Frech et al., 1998).
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Mouse Response

  • Persistence: A fliC/guaB mutant is attenuated in mice (Adriaensen et al., 2007).
  • Efficacy: A fliC/guaB mutant induces significant protection in mice from challenge with wild type S. enterica (Adriaensen et al., 2007).
  • Host IgG response
    • Description: Fifty-four days following initial oral immunization of BALB/c mice with approximately 108 CFU per mouse of, respectively, the S. enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaB and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaB ΔfliC mutants, blood samples were collected from the tail arteries of five mice. Comparison between sera of mice immunized with S. enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaB and mice immunized with S. enterica serovar Enteritidis ΔguaB ΔfliC showed that, in both cases, comparable anti-LPS serum IgG responses were elicited (Adriaensen et al., 2007).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Chicken Response

  • Host Strain: Isa Brown
  • Vaccination Protocol: Two trials of 20 chicks were inoculated through gavage at 20 times the normal dose of Broilact, 0.25 ml (Salvat et al., 1992).
  • Challenge Protocol: The challenge was given to the chicks through gavage using 0.1 ml of an 18-h diluted cuture. The first trial of chicks recieved 7.0 x 104 cfu per chick, while the second trial of chicks was inoculated with 5.7 x 103 cfu per chick (Salvat et al., 1992).
  • Efficacy: The protection factor (PF) was above 6 in the first trial and about 2.6 in the second trial at day 3. Protection at day 7 was extremely high (PF over 36 for trial 1 and P over 45 for trial 2) (Salvat et al., 1992).

Chicken Response

Chicken Response

  • Persistence: A cbiA/cobS mutant is attenuated in chickens (Penha et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: A cbiA/cobS mutant induces significant protection in chickens from challenge with wild type S. Gallinarum (Penha et al., 2010).

Chicken Response

Chicken Response

  • Persistence: A relA/spoT mutant is attenuated in chickens (Park et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: A relA/spoT mutant induces significant protection in chickens from challenge with wild type Salmonella Gallinarum (Park et al., 2010).
  • Host IgA Fc receptor response
    • Description: Serum IgG and IgA peaked at 3-4 wpi and was a significant antibody response against Salmonella vs. unimmunized chickens (Park et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IgG Fc fragment response
    • Description: Serum IgG and IgA peaked at 3-4 wpi and was a significant antibody response against Salmonella vs. unimmunized chickens (Park et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Host IgM Fc receptor response
    • Description: The serum IgM levels against Salmonella in all chickens immunized with the mutant strains increased up to 3 weeks post infection (wpi), and subsequently decreased. The titers were significant vs. unimmunized chickens (Park et al., 2010).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.

Chicken Response

  • Host Strain: white leghorn
  • Vaccination Protocol: Ten 30-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens were immunized intramuscularly with 0.5 ml of purified IroN (0.05 mg/ml), homogenized with Freund's incomplete adjuvant, and 10 control chickens were immunized intramuscularly with PBS homogenized with Freund's incomplete adjuvant. The immunized chickens were given an intramuscular booster injection 3 wk after the first immunization (Kaneshige et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: Three weeks after the second injection, the immunized chickens and controls were challenged intravenously with 108 CFU of Salmonella Enteritidis (Kaneshige et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: The mortality rate of immunized chickens was 10%, while that of control chickens was 80% (Kaneshige et al., 2009).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: A group of one-day-old SPF chicks were innoculated orally with 0.1 ml of a vacT culture such that each bird received between 6 x 108 and 1 x 109 cfu each (Methner et al., 1997).
  • Challenge Protocol: The birds were challenged 24 h later orally with 0.1 ml of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella derivative diluted in PBS such that each bird recieved 104 cfu (Methner et al., 1997).
  • Efficacy: A significant amount of S. Typhimurium 421 was found in the livers and the caeca of the birds days after the challenge (Methner et al., 1997).

Chicken Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: One-day-old SPF chickens were inoculated orally with 0.1 ml of a Zoosaloral culture such that the birds received between 6 x 108 and 1 x 109 cfu each (Methner et al., 1997).
  • Persistence: Not noted.
  • Challenge Protocol: The birds were challenged 24 h later orally with 0.1 ml of a culture of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella derivative diluted in PBS such that each bird received 104 cfu(Methner et al., 1997).
  • Efficacy: A significant amount of S. Typhimurium 421 was fund in the livers of the chickens after pretreatment and challenge (Methner et al., 1997).

Copper Pheasant Response

  • Host Strain: Copper Pheasant
  • Vaccination Protocol: Groups of 10 chicks were given 1.0 mg in a dose volume of 0.3 ml of Broilact through gavage (Schneitz and Renney, 2003).
  • Challenge Protocol: The challenge was created with a 24-hr brain-heart infusion broth culture of a nalidixic-acid-resistant derivative of Salmonella infantis. All birds were challenged 24 hours after initial dosage. Birds in trial 1 received 4.4 x 103 cfu each, while the birds in trials 2 and 3 received 4.3 x 103 cfu each (Schneitz and Renney, 2003).
  • Efficacy: Significant protection was induced by Broilact in all three trials (Schneitz and Renney, 2003).
References References References References References References References References
Game Bird Health - Broilact: Game Bird Health - Broilact [http://www.gamebirdhealth.co.uk/broilact.htm]
Salvat et al., 1992: Salvat G, Lalande F, Humbert F, Lahellec C. Use of a competitive exclusion product (Broilact) to prevent Salmonella colonization of newly hatched chicks. International journal of food microbiology. 1992; 15(3-4); 307-311. [PubMed: 1419536 ].
Schneitz and Renney, 2003: Schneitz C, Renney DJ. Effect of a commerical competitive exclusion product on the colonization of Salmonella infantis in day-old pheasant chicks. Avian diseases. 2003; 47(4); 1448-1451. [PubMed: 14708995 ].
Adriaensen et al., 2007: Adriaensen C, De Greve H, Tian JQ, De Craeye S, Gubbels E, Eeckhaut V, Van Immerseel F, Ducatelle R, Kumar M, Hernalsteens JP. A live Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis vaccine allows serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals. Infection and immunity. 2007; 75(5); 2461-2468. [PubMed: 17261603].
Penha et al., 2010: Penha Filho RA, de Paiva JB, da Silva MD, de Almeida AM, Berchieri A Jr. Control of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum in birds by using live vaccine candidate containing attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strain. Vaccine. 2010; 28(16); 2853-2859. [PubMed: 20153354].
Zhang-Barber et al., 1998: Zhang-Barber L, Turner AK, Dougan G, Barrow PA. Protection of chickens against experimental fowl typhoid using a nuoG mutant of Salmonella serotype Gallinarum. Vaccine. 1998; 16(9-10); 899-903. [PubMed: 9682335].
Park et al., 2010: Park SI, Jeong JH, Choy HE, Rhee JH, Na HS, Lee TH, Her M, Cho KO, Hong Y. Immune response induced by ppGpp-defective Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum in chickens. Journal of microbiology (Seoul, Korea). 2010; 48(5); 674-681. [PubMed: 21046347].
Kaneshige et al., 2009: Kaneshige T, Yaguchi K, Ohgitani T. Siderophore receptor IroN is an important protective antigen against Salmonella infection in chickens. Avian diseases. 2009; 53(4); 563-567. [PubMed: 20095157].
Methner et al., 1997: Methner U, Barrow PA, Martin G, Meyer H. Comparative study of the protective effect against Salmonella colonisation in newly hatched SPF chickens using live, attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains, wild-type Salmonella strains or a competitive exclusion product. International journal of food microbiology. 1997; 35(3); 223-230. [PubMed: 9105931].
Frech et al., 1998: Frech G, Weide-Botjes M, Nussbeck E, Rabsch W, Schwarz S. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT009 isolates: differentiation of the live vaccine strain Zoosaloral from field isolates. FEMS microbiology letters. 1998; 167(2); 263-269. [PubMed: 9809427].
Methner et al., 1997: Methner U, Barrow PA, Martin G, Meyer H. Comparative study of the protective effect against Salmonella colonisation in newly hatched SPF chickens using live, attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains, wild-type Salmonella strains or a competitive exclusion product. International journal of food microbiology. 1997; 35(3); 223-230. [PubMed: 9105931].