VIOLIN Logo
VO Banner
Search: for Help
About
Introduction
Statistics
VIOLIN News
Your VIOLIN
Register or Login
Submission
Tutorial
Vaccine & Components
Vaxquery
Vaxgen
VBLAST
Protegen
VirmugenDB
DNAVaxDB
CanVaxKB
Vaxjo
Vaxvec
Vevax
Huvax
Vaccine Mechanisms
Vaximmutordb
Vaxism
Vaxar
Vaccine Literature
VO-SciMiner
Litesearch
Vaxmesh
Vaxlert
Vaccine Design
Vaxign
Community Efforts
Vaccine Ontology
ICoVax 2012
ICoVax 2013
Advisory Committee
Vaccine Society
Vaxperts
VaxPub
VaxCom
VaxLaw
VaxMedia
VaxMeet
VaxFund
VaxCareer
Data Exchange
V-Utilities
VIOLINML
Help & Documents
Publications
Documents
FAQs
Links
Acknowledgements
Disclaimer
Contact Us
UMMS Logo

Bovine Leukemia virus

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Introduction
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. env (Protective antigen)
    2. Env/Rex/Tax (Protective antigen)
    3. gag (Protective antigen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. Bovine leukemia virus DNA vaccine encoding Env
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
11901
2. Introduction
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a bovine virus closely related to HTLV-I, a human tumour virus. BLV is a retrovirus which integrates a DNA intermediate as a provirus into the DNA of B-lymphocytes of blood and milk. It contains an oncogene coding for a protein called Tax. Nevertheless in its natural host the cattle leukemia is rare. Because the oncogenic properties of the virus were discovered early, a search for evidence of pathogenicity humans started soon after discovery. Mostly farm workers drinking raw milk were tested for disease, especially for leukemia. But neither leukemia nor other signs of infection could be detected. So many in many states it was not tried to get rid of this infection. Testing strategies have recently changed since the virus was first detected in Cows.

Many potential routes of BLV transmission exist. Transmission through procedures that transmit blood between animals such as gouge dehorning, vaccination and ear tagging with instruments or needles that are not changed or disinfected between animals is a significant means of BLV spread. Rectal palpation with common sleeves poses a risk that is increased by inexperience and increased frequency of palpation. Transmission via colostrum, milk, and in utero exposure is generally considered to account for a relatively small proportion of infections. Embryo transfer and artificial insemination also account for a small number of new infections as long as common equipment and/or palpation sleeves are not used. While transmission has been documented via blood feeding insects, the significance of this risk is unclear. The bottom line appears to be that transmission relies primarily on the transfer of infected lymphocytes from one animal to the next and that BLV positive animals with lymphocytosis are more likely to provide a source for infection.

In general BLV causes only a benign mononucleosis-like disease in cattle. Only some animals later develop a B-cell leukemia called enzootic bovine leukosis. Under natural conditions the disease is transmitted mainly by milk to the calf. Infected lymphocytes transmit the disease too. So for artificial infection infected cells are used or the more stable and even heat resistant DNA. Virus particles are difficult to detect and not used for transmission of infection. It is possible that a natural virus reservoir exists in the water buffalo (Wiki: Bovine leukemia virus).
1. env
  • Gene Name : env
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Bovine Leukemia virus
  • NCBI Protein GI : BAV53924
  • Taxonomy ID : 11901
  • Protein Name : gp51
  • Protein pI : 6.33
  • Protein Weight : 17528.5
  • Protein Length : 212
  • Protein Note : genotype: 2
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >BAV53924.1 gp51, partial [Bovine leukemia virus]
    IYWPPPQGRRRFGARAMVTYDCEPRCPYVGADRFDCPHWDNASQADQGSFYVDHQILFLHLKQCHGIFTL
    TWKIWGYDPLITFSLHKIPDPPQPDFPQLNSDWVPSVRSWALLLNQTARAFPDCAICWEPSPPWAPEILV
    YNKTISSSGPGLALPDAQ
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : (Kabeya et al., 1996)
2. Env/Rex/Tax
  • Gene Name : Env/Rex/Tax
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Bovine leukemia virus
  • VO ID : VO_0011051
  • NCBI Gene ID : 2760849
  • NCBI Protein GI : 9626230
  • Locus Tag : BLVgp05
  • Genbank Accession : AF033818
  • Protein Accession : NP_056898
  • Taxonomy ID : 11901
  • Gene Starting Position : 4614
  • Gene Ending Position : 7460
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : +
  • Protein Name : p18
  • Protein pI : 10.96
  • Protein Weight : 16183.28
  • Protein Length : 156
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >NC_001414.1:4614-7460 Bovine leukemia virus, complete genome
    AATGCCCAAAGAACGACGGTCCCGAAGACGCCCACAACCGATCATCAGATGGGTAAGTCTCACTCTTACT
    CTCCTCGCTCTCTGTCAGCCCATCCAGACTTGGAGATGCTCCCTGTCCCTAGGAAATCAACAATGGATGA
    CAACATATAACCAAGAGGCAAAATTTTCCATCTCCATTGACCAAATATTAGAGGCTCACAATCAATCACC
    TTTCTGTCCCAGGTCTCCCAGATACACCTTGGACTTCGTAAATGGTTATCCTAAGATCTATTGGCCCCCC
    CCACAAGGGCGGCGCCGGTTTGGAGCCAGGGCCATGGTCACATATGATTGCGAGCCCCGATGCCCTTATG
    TGGGGGCAGATCACTTCGACTGCCCCCACTGGGACAATGCCTCCCAGGCCGATCAAGGGTCCTTTTATGT
    CAATCATCAGATTTTATTCCTGCATCTCAAACAATGTCATGGAATTTTCACTCTAACCTGGGAAATATGG
    GGATATGATCCCCTGATCACCTTTTCTTTACATAAAATTCCTGATCCCCCTCAACCCGACTTCCCTCAGC
    TGAACAGTGACTGGGTTCCCTCTGTCAGATCATGGGCCCTGCTTTTAAATCAAACGGCACGGGCCTTCCC
    AGACTGTGCTATATGTTGGGAACCTTCCCCTCCCTGGGCTCCCGAAATATTAGTATATAACAAAACCATC
    TCCGGCTCTGGACCCGGTCTCGCCCTCCCGGACGCCCAAATCTTCTGGGTCAACACGTCCTTGTTTAACA
    CCACCCAAGGATGGCACCACCCTTCCCAGAGGTTGTTGTTCAATGTTTCTCAAGGCAACGCCTTATTATT
    ACCCCCTATCTCCCTGGTTAATCTCTCTACGGTTTCCTCCGCCCCTCCTACCCGGGTCAGACGCAGTCCC
    GTCGCAGCCCTGACCTTAGGCCTAGCCCTGTCAGTGGGGCTCACTGGAATTAATGTAGCCGTGTCTGCCC
    TTAGCCATCAGAGACTCACCTCCCTGATCCACGTTCTGGAGCAAGATCAGCAACGCTTGATCACAGCAAT
    TAACCAGACCCATTATAATTTGCTTAATGTGGCCTCTGTGGTCGCCCAGAACCGACGGGGGCTTGATTGG
    TTGTACATCCGGCTGGGTTTTCAAAGCCTATGTCCCACAATCAATGAACCTTGCTGTTTCCTACGCATTC
    AAAATGACTCCATTATCCGCCTCGGTGATCTCCAGCCTCTCTCGCAAAGAGTCTCTACAGACTGGCAGTG
    GCCCTGGAATTGGGATCTGGGGCTCACCGCCTGGGTGCGAGAAACCATTCATTCTGTTCTAAGCCTATTC
    CTATTAGCCCTTTTTTTGCTCTTCTTGGCCCCCTGCCTGATAAAATGCTTGACCTCTCGCCTTTTAAAAC
    TCCTCCGGCAGGCTCCCCACTTCCCTGAAATCTCCTTCCCCCCTAAACCCGATTCTGATTATCAGGCCTT
    GCTACCGTCAGCACCAGAGATCTACTCTCACCTCTCCCCCACCAAACCCGATTACATCAACCTTCGACCC
    TGCCCTTGACACCCCCGTGTTTCACGCACCCTCAGGCTGTGGTGGGGCACTGGCTTAGTGGAATAGTCAG
    TGTACCATCACAAGCCTCTTCTTGCTGCCAGCACCGAGTTCGAACACAGCCCTACCCTGAGCCTCTCTGA
    GTACATGACTGAGTGTAGCGCAGAGAGGTTGTCGCTTCTGCGTGTCACTCAGTCATTTTTTATAGCCGAT
    TGGGGTTCGCGCCCTCCCATTGCCTGTGACACGGTTAAGACCTCTCTCACTTCTGCTTCACCATCCCCCT
    GCCAGCGTTGGTCTAGTGGAAAGAACTAACGCTGACGGGGGCGATTTCTTGCAGCTGTGCTAAGCGAGAG
    GCTCTGGTGCTGGGGATAAGATGCGGCCCCTAGCACCACAGTCTCTGCGCCTTTTGGGTTCGAATCTTCC
    CCATGCAGCTTCCGCTTTTTACGCCCTGTTGCACACCCTTTCTAGAGATACCTGAAAATCTCAGCTCGCA
    CCCCAAGGAAGGTTGTGGCTCAGAGGTTAAAATAGCTCGGACCGCAACCTCCCTTTCTTTTTATTCCACC
    CTCGCAAGGCCCCGGGTTCTGGGCCCCCTAACGGAGGTTCAGAATTTCCTCTACTAGGGGATGCTCAGGT
    CCAAGTGTGCACAATATCTCTTCCAAAAGGTCCTGATGAACATCTTCCCATGTAACAAGCCCCAGCAGAG
    ACATTCCAGCCACATCCAGCAGCATTTGGGCCGCCTTCTCTAACAGTGCCCATAAAGTCCCTTCCGTTTC
    CACAACGGCTGCCTCTGCATCTTCTATTTCCACCTCGGCACCGACTCCCCCGCCGAGCCCTTCAAGCTCT
    TCGGGATCCATTACCTGATAACGACAAAATTATTTCTTGTCTTTTAAGCAAGTGTTGTTGGTTGGGGGCC
    CCACTCTCTACATGCCTGCCCGGCCCTGGTTTTGTCCAATGATGTCACCATCGATGCCTGGTGCCCCCTC
    TGCGGGCCCCATGAACGACTCCAATTCGAAAGGATCGACACCACGCTCACCTGCGAGACCCACCGTATCA
    CCTGGACCGCCGATGGACGACCTTTTGGCCTCAATGGAACATTGTTCCCTCGACTGCATGTCTCCGAGAC
    CCGCCCCCAAGGGCCCCGACGACTCTGGATCAACTGCCCCCTTCCGGCCGTTCGCGCTCAGCCCGGCCCG
    GTTTCACTTTCCCCCTTCGAGCAGTCCCCCTTCCAGCCCTACCAATGCCAATTGCCCTCGGCCTCTAGCG
    ACGGTTGCCCCATCATCGGGCACGGCCTTCTTCCCTGGAACAACTTA
    
    
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >NP_056898.1 p18 [Bovine leukemia virus]
    MPKERRSRRRPQPIIRWQVLLVGGPTLYMPARPWFCPMMSPSMPGAPSAGPMNDSNSKGSTPRSPARPTV
    SPGPPMDDLLASMEHCSLDCMSPRPAPKGPDDSGSTAPFRPFALSPARFHFPPSSSPPSSPTNANCPRPL
    ATVAPSSGTAFFPGTT
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) envelope gene encoding extracellular glycoprotein gp51 (encoded by env gene) and transmembrane glycoprotein gp30 was cloned into a vehicle expression vector under the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) intermediate early promoter. The intramuscular injection of this plasmid vector generated a cellular immune response. Seven out of ten cows vaccinated with the DNA construct resisted a drastic challenge (Brillowska et al., 1999).
  • Related Vaccine(s): Bovine leukemia virus DNA vaccine encoding Env
3. gag
  • Gene Name : gag
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Bovine Leukemia virus
  • NCBI Protein GI : AGV74358
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:279002
  • Taxonomy ID : 11901
  • Protein Name : P24
  • Protein pI : 7.44
  • Protein Weight : 23243.54
  • Protein Length : 263
  • Protein Note : gag gene protein p24 (core nucleocapsid protein); pfam00607
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >AGV74358.1 P24 [Bovine leukemia virus]
    MGLPIISEGNRNRHRAWALRELQDIKKEIENKAPGSQVWIQTLRLAILQADPTPADLEQLCQYIASPVDQ
    TAHMTSLTAAIAAAEAANTLQGFNPQNGTLTQQSAQPNAGDLRSQYQNLWLQAWKNLPTRPSVQPWSTIV
    QGPAESYVEFVNRLQISLADNLPDGVPKEPIIDSLSYANANKECQQILQGRGLVAAPVGQKLQACAHWAP
    KIKQPAIL
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : (Larsen et al., 2013)
III. Vaccine Information
1. Bovine leukemia virus DNA vaccine encoding Env
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011378
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Antigen
Bovine leukemia virus envelope gene encoding extracellular glycoprotein gp51and transmembrane glycoprotein gp30
e. Gene Engineering of Env/Rex/Tax
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) envelope gene encoding extracellular glycoprotein gp51 (encoded by env gene) and transmembrane glycoprotein gp30 was cloned into a vehicle expression vector under the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) intermediate early promoter (Brillowska et al., 1999).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
pcDNA3 (Brillowska et al., 1999)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Cattle Response
  • Efficacy: The intramuscular injection of this plasmid vector generated a cellular immune response. Seven out of ten cows vaccinated with the DNA construct resisted a drastic challenge (Brillowska et al., 1999).
IV. References
1. Brillowska et al., 1999: Brillowska A, Dabrowski S, Rułka J, Kubiś P, Buzała E, Kur J. Protection of cattle against bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection could be attained by DNA vaccination. Acta biochimica Polonica. 1999; 46(4); 971-976. [PubMed: 10824867].
2. Kabeya et al., 1996: Kabeya H, Ohashi K, Ohishi K, Sugimoto C, Amanuma H, Onuma M. An effective peptide vaccine to eliminate bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infected cells in carrier sheep. Vaccine. 1996; 14(12); 1118-1122. [PubMed: 8911007].
3. Larsen et al., 2013: Larsen A, Gonzalez ET, Serena MS, Echeverra MG, Mortola E. Expression of p24 gag protein of bovine leukemia virus in insect cells and its use in immunodetection of the disease. Molecular biotechnology. 2013; 54(2); 475-483. [PubMed: 22829115].
4. Usui et al., 2003: Usui T, Konnai S, Tajima S, Watarai S, Aida Y, Ohashi K, Onuma M. Protective effects of vaccination with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) Tax DNA against BLV infection in sheep. The Journal of veterinary medical science / the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science. 2003; 65(11); 1201-1205. [PubMed: 14665749].
5. Wiki: Bovine leukemia virus: Bovine leukemia virus [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bovine_leukemia_virus]