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Nipah virus

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Host Ranges and Animal Models
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. F fusion protein (Protective antigen)
    2. G glycoprotein (Protective antigen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. ALVAC-NiV-F
    2. ALVAC-NiV-G
    3. NIpah Virus G and F Proteins Subunit Vaccine
    4. rMV-Ed-G
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
121791
2. Disease:
Nipah virus disease
3. Introduction
Nipah virus was identified in 1999 when it caused an outbreak of neurological and respiratory disease on pig farms in peninsular Malaysia, resulting in 105 human deaths and the culling of one million pigs. In Singapore, 11 cases including one death occurred in abattoir workers exposed to pigs imported from the affected Malaysian farms. The Nipah virus has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a Category C agent.

The outbreak was originally mistaken for Japanese encephalitis (JE), however, physicians in the area noted that persons who had been vaccinated against JE were not protected, and the number of cases among adults was unusual.

Symptoms of infection from the Malaysian outbreak were primarily encephalitic in humans and respiratory in pigs. Later outbreaks have caused respiratory illness in humans, increasing the likelihood of human-to-human transmission and indicating the existence of more dangerous strains of the virus.

Based on seroprevalence data and virus isolations, the primary reservoir for Nipah virus was identified as Pteropid fruit bats including Pteropus vampyrus (Large Flying Fox) and Pteropus hypomelanus] (Small Flying-fox), both of which occur in Malaysia.

The transmission of Nipah virus from flying foxes to pigs is thought to be due to an increasing overlap between bat habitats and piggeries in peninsular Malaysia. At the index farm, fruit orchards were in close proximity to the piggery, allowing the spillage of urine, faeces and partially eaten fruit onto the pigs. Retrospective studies demonstrate that viral spillover into pigs may have been occurring in Malaysia since 1996 without detection. During 1998, viral spread was aided by the transfer of infected pigs to other farms where new outbreaks occurred (Wiki: Nipah virus).
4. Host Ranges and Animal Models
Humans and pigs can be infected with the virus as well as hamsters which serve as an animal model of disease (Guillaume et al., 2004). Pteropid fruit bats are the primary reservoir of Nipah virus (Wiki: Nipah virus).
1. F fusion protein
  • Gene Name : F fusion protein
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Nipah virus
  • VO ID : VO_0011314
  • NCBI Nucleotide GI : 8164021
  • NCBI Protein GI : 8164022
  • Protein Accession : AAF73956.1
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:109574
  • Taxonomy ID : 121791
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : fusion protein
  • Protein Length : 546
  • Protein Note : Fusion glycoprotein F0; pfam00523
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|8164021|gb|AF238466.1| Nipah virus fusion protein mRNA, complete cds
    AGGAGCCAAGCTCTTGCCTCGTTCAGAAGGTTAAACAAGCATTCTTACCATTGGATCAACAAAAGGATTG
    GTTTTATCGTCTAAGAAATTTATTGAAAGGCAAAGAAATTCCTGGTTTTATGTTGAATGAGGTGTATCAA
    ACTAAGGAGACCTTCTAACAGCCAGGTCATAGGAATATAAATAAAAATAAGAATAAAATTGATTCCATCG
    GAAGATTCATTTCAAGAAGTGATCAAATCAAAGCGGTTGGCAGACCTACCAATCATATACCACAAGACTC
    GACAATGGTAGTTATACTTGACAAGAGATGTTATTGTAATCTTTTAATATTGATTTTGATGATCTCGGAG
    TGTAGTGTTGGGATTCTACATTATGAGAAATTGAGTAAAATTGGACTTGTCAAAGGAGTAACAAGAAAAT
    ACAAGATTAAAAGCAATCCTCTCACAAAAGACATTGTTATAAAAATGATTCCGAATGTGTCGAACATGTC
    TCAGTGCACAGGGAGTGTCATGGAAAATTATAAAACACGATTAAACGGTATCTTAACACCTATAAAGGGA
    GCGTTAGAGATCTACAAAAACAACACTCATGACCTTGTCGGTGATGTGAGATTAGCCGGAGTTATAATGG
    CAGGAGTTGCTATTGGGATTGCAACCGCAGCTCAAATCACTGCAGGTGTAGCACTATATGAGGCAATGAA
    GAATGCTGACAACATCAACAAACTCAAAAGCAGCATTGAATCAACTAATGAAGCTGTCGTTAAACTTCAA
    GAGACTGCAGAAAAGACAGTCTATGTGCTGACTGCTCTACAGGATTACATTAATACTAATTTAGTACCGA
    CAATTGACAAGATAAGCTGCAAACAGACAGAACTCTCACTAGATCTGGCATTATCAAAGTACCTCTCTGA
    TTTGCTTTTTGTATTTGGCCCCAACCTTCAAGACCCAGTTTCTAATTCAATGACTATACAGGCTATATCT
    CAGGCATTCGGTGGAAATTATGAAACACTGCTAAGAACATTGGGTTACGCTACAGAAGACTTTGATGATC
    TTCTAGAAAGTGACAGCATAACAGGTCAAATCATCTATGTTGATCTAAGTAGCTACTATATAATTGTCAG
    GGTTTATTTTCCTATTCTGACTGAAATTCAACAGGCCTATATCCAAGAGTTGTTACCAGTGAGCTTCAAC
    AATGATAATTCAGAATGGATCAGTATTGTCCCAAATTTCATATTGGTAAGGAATACATTAATATCAAATA
    TAGAGATTGGATTTTGCCTAATTACAAAGAGGAGCGTGATCTGCAACCAAGATTATGCCACACCTATGAC
    CAACAACATGAGAGAATGTTTAACGGGATCGACTGAGAAGTGTCCTCGAGAGCTGGTTGTTTCATCACAT
    GTTCCCAGATTTGCACTATCTAACGGGGTTCTGTTTGCCAATTGCATAAGTGTTACATGTCAGTGTCAAA
    CAACAGGCAGGGCAATCTCACAATCAGGAGAACAAACTCTGCTGATGATTGACAACACCACCTGTCCTAC
    AGCCGTACTCGGTAATGTGATTATCAGCTTAGGGAAATATCTGGGGTCAGTAAATTATAATTCTGAAGGC
    ATTGCTATCGGTCCTCCAGTCTTTACAGATAAAGTTGATATATCAAGTCAGATATCCAGCATGAATCAGT
    CCTTACAACAGTCTAAGGACTATATCAAAGAGGCTCAACGACTCCTTGATACTGTTAATCCATCATTAAT
    AAGCATGTTGTCTATGATCATACTGTATGTATTATCGATCGCATCGTTGTGTATAGGGTTGATTACATTT
    ATCAGTTTTATCATTGTTGAGAAAAAGAGAAACACCTACAGCAGATTAGAGGATAGGAGAGTCAGACCTA
    CAAGCAGTGGGGATCTCTACTACATTGGGACATAGTGTATTCAGATTGATGAAATTATGTTAGAGAAATC
    AGAAAACTTCTGACTTTCAGAAATGGATTGTATACAATTAGTTAGATCATCCTGAATAATCGAGGTGAGA
    ACATTGCAACTATAAAATCAGATCATGTAAATAGTTGTAAAAAATTAAAAGCTTCTTTTAATTCTTTTGA
    ACAATAATTTAATTAATATATAACATATTCTCTCACACGAGCGCTAACCTATACACTCTCTACTAATATT
    TTATACTCATAATTAATGATATAATGACAAATAAGGATTCAAATTGGATTATGATATAGTTTCATACTAC
    AATAGCATTTCGACCAAGAAAATATCCTTACAATTATACAATGTACTTAACCGTGAATATGTAATTGATA
    ATTTCCCTTTAGAAATTTAATAAAAAA
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|8164022|gb|AAF73956.1|AF238466_1 fusion protein [Nipah virus]
    MVVILDKRCYCNLLILILMISECSVGILHYEKLSKIGLVKGVTRKYKIKSNPLTKDIVIKMIPNVSNMSQ
    CTGSVMENYKTRLNGILTPIKGALEIYKNNTHDLVGDVRLAGVIMAGVAIGIATAAQITAGVALYEAMKN
    ADNINKLKSSIESTNEAVVKLQETAEKTVYVLTALQDYINTNLVPTIDKISCKQTELSLDLALSKYLSDL
    LFVFGPNLQDPVSNSMTIQAISQAFGGNYETLLRTLGYATEDFDDLLESDSITGQIIYVDLSSYYIIVRV
    YFPILTEIQQAYIQELLPVSFNNDNSEWISIVPNFILVRNTLISNIEIGFCLITKRSVICNQDYATPMTN
    NMRECLTGSTEKCPRELVVSSHVPRFALSNGVLFANCISVTCQCQTTGRAISQSGEQTLLMIDNTTCPTA
    VLGNVIISLGKYLGSVNYNSEGIAIGPPVFTDKVDISSQISSMNQSLQQSKDYIKEAQRLLDTVNPSLIS
    MLSMIILYVLSIASLCIGLITFISFIIVEKKRNTYSRLEDRRVRPTSSGDLYYIGT
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : Hamsters were immunized subcutaneously with either 107 PFU of VV-NiV.G or VV-NiV.F expressing the G and F glycoproteins, respectively, or with the two combined. When the VV-NiV.F-vaccinated animals were challenged with Nipah virus 3 months after the last immunization (1,000 PFU/animal intraperitoneally), there was complete protection against mortality (Guillaume et al., 2004).
  • Related Vaccine(s): ALVAC-NiV-F , ALVAC-NiV-G , NIpah Virus G and F Proteins Subunit Vaccine
2. G glycoprotein
  • Gene Name : G glycoprotein
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Nipah virus
  • VO ID : VO_0011313
  • NCBI Gene ID : 920955
  • NCBI Protein GI : 13559814
  • Locus Tag : Nvgp5
  • Genbank Accession : AF376747
  • Protein Accession : NP_112027
  • 3D structure: PDB ID : 2VWD
  • Taxonomy ID : 121791
  • Gene Starting Position : 8709
  • Gene Ending Position : 11254
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : +
  • Protein Name : attachment glycoprotein
  • Protein pI : 8.36
  • Protein Weight : 62969.63
  • Protein Length : 602
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|13559808:8709-11254 Nipah virus, complete genome
    TAGGACCCAGGTCCATAACTCATTGGATACTTAACTGTATCTTTCTAAGCTATCACATATCAAAGGAGAG
    ATTGAATGCTTTTTTGGAGATCTAGATCATTACTATATGTGTCTCCTATAATCACATCATAGGAGTGAAC
    CATAATACACATCTTTGGGTAGGGGAAGGAAAGTATTGTTGACGTACTGATTGATCTGCTTGAGTCAAAT
    AATCAGTCATAACAATTCAAGAAAATGCCGGCAGAAAACAAGAAAGTTAGATTCGAAAATACTACTTCAG
    ACAAAGGGAAAATTCCTAGTAAAGTTATTAAGAGCTACTACGGAACCATGGACATTAAGAAAATAAATGA
    AGGATTATTGGACAGCAAAATATTAAGTGCTTTCAACACAGTAATAGCATTGCTTGGATCTATCGTGATC
    ATAGTGATGAATATAATGATCATCCAAAATTACACAAGATCAACAGACAATCAGGCCGTGATCAAAGATG
    CGTTGCAGGGTATCCAACAGCAGATCAAAGGGCTTGCTGACAAAATCGGCACAGAGATAGGGCCCAAAGT
    ATCACTGATTGACACATCCAGTACCATTACTATCCCAGCTAACATTGGGCTGTTAGGTTCAAAGATCAGC
    CAGTCGACTGCAAGTATAAATGAGAATGTGAATGAAAAATGCAAATTCACACTGCCTCCCTTGAAAATCC
    ACGAATGTAACATTTCTTGTCCTAACCCACTCCCTTTTAGAGAGTATAGGCCACAGACAGAAGGGGTGAG
    CAATCTAGTAGGATTACCTAATAATATTTGCCTGCAAAAGACATCTAATCAGATATTGAAGCCAAAGCTG
    ATTTCATACACTTTACCCGTAGTCGGTCAAAGTGGTACCTGTATCACAGACCCATTGCTGGCTATGGACG
    AGGGCTATTTTGCATATAGCCACCTGGAAAGAATCGGATCATGTTCAAGAGGGGTCTCCAAACAAAGAAT
    AATAGGAGTTGGAGAGGTACTAGACAGAGGTGATGAAGTTCCTTCTTTATTTATGACCAATGTCTGGACC
    CCACCAAATCCAAACACCGTTTACCACTGTAGTGCTGTATACAACAATGAATTCTATTATGTACTTTGTG
    CAGTGTCAACTGTTGGAGACCCTATTCTGAATAGCACCTACTGGTCCGGATCTCTAATGATGACCCGTCT
    AGCTGTGAAACCCAAGAGTAATGGTGGGGGTTACAATCAACATCAACTTGCCCTACGAAGTATCGAGAAA
    GGGAGGTATGATAAAGTTATGCCGTATGGACCTTCAGGCATCAAACAGGGTGACACCCTGTATTTTCCTG
    CTGTAGGATTTTTGGTCAGGACAGAGTTTAAATACAATGATTCAAATTGTCCCATCACGAAGTGTCAATA
    CAGTAAACCTGAAAATTGCAGGCTATCTATGGGGATTAGACCAAACAGCCATTATATCCTTCGATCTGGA
    CTATTAAAATACAATCTATCAGATGGGGAGAACCCCAAAGTTGTATTCATTGAAATATCTGATCAAAGAT
    TATCTATTGGATCTCCTAGCAAAATCTATGATTCTTTGGGTCAACCTGTTTTCTACCAAGCGTCATTTTC
    ATGGGATACTATGATTAAATTTGGAGATGTTCTAACAGTCAACCCTCTGGTTGTCAATTGGCGTAATAAC
    ACGGTAATATCAAGACCCGGGCAATCACAATGCCCTAGATTCAATACATGTCCAGAGATCTGCTGGGAAG
    GAGTTTATAATGATGCATTCCTAATTGACAGAATCAATTGGATAAGCGCGGGTGTATTCCTTGACAGCAA
    TCAGACCGCAGAAAATCCTGTTTTTACTGTATTCAAAGATAATGAAATACTTTATAGGGCACAACTGGCT
    TCTGAGGACACCAATGCACAAAAAACAATAACTAATTGTTTTCTCTTGAAGAATAAGATTTGGTGCATAT
    CATTGGTTGAGATATATGACACAGGAGACAATGTCATAAGACCCAAACTATTCGCGGTTAAGATACCAGA
    GCAATGTACATAAAAATCAACCTCATAATTTAATGGATTGATCTAATATAATGATAATAATCGTACAAAG
    ACATGTGATGTAAACAAAATTGTTGTAATTAAATAAGTCCTCAGCTGAATACTTTTTTAAGATTAGCAAT
    AGCATGTTTTTCCAGTTATTGGATAGTTGATAATATAATTCTGAAACTGGGTTAATAAATAATCTTGATC
    GGTGATCTTTGAGAACAATGATATCATATAGTTCATCAAGTGATAATCAATTCTTTATATGTACACTTTA
    GAGTATATTTTGAGACTTAGTATTTTCGGCCCGAATGTTAAATTTAATAGTTCATACATAACCTAAACTC
    AAGTTCTAAGCATAATGATAACAATTAATGCGAACTTGTCTTGATGTAAGGAAGATTTGATATTAACTGA
    GACTCCACTTGATATAGTAGAGCTGAATCTTGTAAATAAATTATAATGAATAGTTTATTCAAAGATTATC
    ATTCATATTAGTGTAAATTAAGAAAA
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|13559814|ref|NP_112027.1| attachment glycoprotein [Nipah virus]
    MPAENKKVRFENTTSDKGKIPSKVIKSYYGTMDIKKINEGLLDSKILSAFNTVIALLGSIVIIVMNIMII
    QNYTRSTDNQAVIKDALQGIQQQIKGLADKIGTEIGPKVSLIDTSSTITIPANIGLLGSKISQSTASINE
    NVNEKCKFTLPPLKIHECNISCPNPLPFREYRPQTEGVSNLVGLPNNICLQKTSNQILKPKLISYTLPVV
    GQSGTCITDPLLAMDEGYFAYSHLERIGSCSRGVSKQRIIGVGEVLDRGDEVPSLFMTNVWTPPNPNTVY
    HCSAVYNNEFYYVLCAVSTVGDPILNSTYWSGSLMMTRLAVKPKSNGGGYNQHQLALRSIEKGRYDKVMP
    YGPSGIKQGDTLYFPAVGFLVRTEFKYNDSNCPITKCQYSKPENCRLSMGIRPNSHYILRSGLLKYNLSD
    GENPKVVFIEISDQRLSIGSPSKIYDSLGQPVFYQASFSWDTMIKFGDVLTVNPLVVNWRNNTVISRPGQ
    SQCPRFNTCPEICWEGVYNDAFLIDRINWISAGVFLDSNQTAENPVFTVFKDNEILYRAQLASEDTNAQK
    TITNCFLLKNKIWCISLVEIYDTGDNVIRPKLFAVKIPEQCT
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : Hamsters were immunized subcutaneously with either 107 PFU of VV-NiV.G or VV-NiV.F expressing the G and F glycoproteins, respectively, or with the two combined. When the VV-NiV.G-vaccinated animals were challenged with Nipah virus 3 months after the last immunization (1,000 PFU/animal intraperitoneally), there was complete protection against mortality (Guillaume et al., 2004).
  • Related Vaccine(s): ALVAC-NiV-F , ALVAC-NiV-G , NIpah Virus G and F Proteins Subunit Vaccine , rMV-Ed-G
III. Vaccine Information
1. ALVAC-NiV-F
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004734
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Gene Engineering of F fusion protein
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description: Canarypox virus-based vaccine vectors carrying the gene for NiV glycoprotein (ALVAC-G) or the fusion protein (ALVAC-F) (Weingartl et al., 2006).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Gene Engineering of G glycoprotein
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description: Canarypox virus-based vaccine vectors carrying the gene for NiV glycoprotein (ALVAC-G) or the fusion protein (ALVAC-F) (Weingartl et al., 2006).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Preparation
Canarypox virus-based vaccine vectors carrying the fusion protein (ALVAC-F) (Weingartl et al., 2006).
h. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
i. Pig Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Four pigs per group were intramuscularly challenged, with either with 108 PFU each or in combination of (ALVAC-NiV-G and ALVAC-NiV-F) (Weingartl et al., 2006).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: The pigs were challenged with 2.5 x 105 PFU of NiV two weeks later (Weingartl et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: The combined ALVAC-F/G vaccine induced the highest levels of neutralization antibodies (2,560); despite the low neutralizing antibody levels in the F vaccinees (160), all vaccinated animals appeared to be protected against challenge (Weingartl et al., 2006).
2. ALVAC-NiV-G
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004733
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Gene Engineering of F fusion protein
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description: Canarypox virus-based vaccine vectors carrying the gene for NiV glycoprotein (ALVAC-G) or the fusion protein (ALVAC-F) (Weingartl et al., 2006).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Gene Engineering of G glycoprotein
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description: Canarypox virus-based vaccine vectors carrying the gene for NiV glycoprotein (ALVAC-G) or the fusion protein (ALVAC-F) (Weingartl et al., 2006).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Preparation
Canarypox virus-based vaccine vectors carrying the gene for NiV glycoprotein (ALVAC-G) (Weingartl et al., 2006).
h. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
i. Pig Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Four pigs per group were intramuscularly challenged, with either with 108 PFU each or in combination of (ALVAC-NiV-G and ALVAC-NiV-F) (Weingartl et al., 2006).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: The pigs were challenged with 2.5 x 105 PFU of NiV two weeks later (Weingartl et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: The combined ALVAC-F/G vaccine induced the highest levels of neutralization antibodies (2,560); despite the low neutralizing antibody levels in the F vaccinees (160), all vaccinated animals appeared to be protected against challenge (Weingartl et al., 2006).
3. NIpah Virus G and F Proteins Subunit Vaccine
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011407
b. Type:
Subunit vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Gene Engineering of F fusion protein
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
e. Gene Engineering of G glycoprotein
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Immunization Route
Subcutaneous injection
g. Hamster Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: For protection studies, inbred golden hamsters (Janvier, Le Fenest St. Isles, France) were vaccinated twice (1 month apart) with 107 PFU of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing either the G or F Nipah virus glycoprotein or with 5 × 106 of each of the recombinants when they were used for coimmunization (Guillaume et al., 2004).
  • Challenge Protocol: The animals were challenged 3 months after the last immunization with Nipah virus administered interperitoneally (Guillaume et al., 2004).
  • Efficacy: Hamsters immunized with F and G proteins were completely protected from lethal Nipah virus challenge (Guillaume et al., 2004).
4. rMV-Ed-G
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004714
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Gene Engineering of G glycoprotein
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description: A recombinant measles virus (rMV) vaccine expressing NiV envelope glycoproteins (rMV-HL-G and rMV-Ed-G) (Yoneda et al., 2013).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Preparation
Recombinant measles virus (rMV) vaccine expressing NiV envelope glycoproteins (rMV-HL-G and rMV-Ed-G) (Yoneda et al., 2013).
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Hamster Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: 8-week-old golden hamsters were intraperitoneally immunized with 2×104 TCID50 of rMV-HL-G or rMV-Ed-G (Yoneda et al., 2013).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: All hamsters were challenged intraperitoneally with 103 TCID50/animal of NiV (Yoneda et al., 2013).
  • Efficacy: All hamsters vaccinated with rMV-HL-G or rMV-Ed-G showed complete protection. During the observation period (14 days after the challenge), all hamsters immunized with the recombinant MVs showed no clinical symptoms of the disease and survived (Yoneda et al., 2013).
IV. References
1. Guillaume et al., 2004: Guillaume V, Contamin H, Loth P, Georges-Courbot MC, Lefeuvre A, Marianneau P, Chua KB, Lam SK, Buckland R, Deubel V, Wild TF. Nipah virus: vaccination and passive protection studies in a hamster model. Journal of virology. 2004; 78(2); 834-840. [PubMed: 14694115].
2. Guillaume et al., 2006: Guillaume V, Contamin H, Loth P, Grosjean I, Courbot MC, Deubel V, Buckland R, Wild TF. Antibody prophylaxis and therapy against Nipah virus infection in hamsters. Journal of virology. 2006; 80(4); 1972-1978. [PubMed: 16439553].
3. Weingartl et al., 2006: Weingartl HM, Berhane Y, Caswell JL, Loosmore S, Audonnet JC, Roth JA, Czub M. Recombinant nipah virus vaccines protect pigs against challenge. Journal of virology. 2006; 80(16); 7929-7938. [PubMed: 16873250].
4. Wiki: Nipah virus: Henipavirus [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henipavirus]
5. Yoneda et al., 2013: Yoneda M, Georges-Courbot MC, Ikeda F, Ishii M, Nagata N, Jacquot F, Raoul H, Sato H, Kai C. Recombinant measles virus vaccine expressing the Nipah virus glycoprotein protects against lethal Nipah virus challenge. PloS one. 2013; 8(3); e58414. [PubMed: 23516477].