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Coccidioides spp.

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Microbial Pathogenesis
    5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
    6. Host Protective Immunity
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. AMN1 (Protective antigen)
    2. ELI-Ag1 (Protective antigen)
    3. GEL1 (Protective antigen)
    4. PEP1 (Protective antigen)
    5. PLB (Protective antigen)
    6. pmp1 (Protective antigen)
    7. pra (Protective antigen)
    8. tcrP (Protective antigen)
    9. URE (Protective antigen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. C. immitis Subunit URE Protein Vaccine
    2. C. posadasii DNA Vaccine encoding PRA Protein
    3. C. posadasii Subunit GEL1 Protein Vaccine
    4. C. posadasii Subunit PMP1 Protein Vaccine
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
5500
2. Disease:
Coccidioidomycosis (California disease, Desert rheumatism, San Joaquin valley fever, and Valley fev
3. Introduction
Coccidioidomycosis is a human respiratory disease caused by inhalation of airborne spores produced by Coccidioides spp (Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii). The pathogen is an anamorphic (asexual) ascomycetous fungus which resides in alkaline desert and semidesert soil in regions of the southwestern United States. The major areas where this disease is endemic include some of the most rapidly growing communities of Arizona and southern California. People who are frequently exposed to dust from the soil in these regions have a high chance of infection with Coccidioides. Recurrent epidemics of coccidioidomycosis appear to be correlated with climatic conditions. Periods of rain in the spring enhance growth of the soilborne saprobic phase of Coccidioides, which results in “blooms” of spores that are air dispersed during the late fall and winter seasons. Risk factors known to contribute to symptomatic coccidioidal infection include pregnancy (third trimester), immunosuppression, age (>65 years), and racial or geographic origin. Antifungal drug therapy for coccidioidomycosis (e.g., amphotericin B, fluconazole, or intraconazole) is typically continued for many months to years. Persons who contract coccidioidal meningitis require lifelong therapy. Coccidioides infection can be life threatening and, at the very least, is responsible for high medical costs incurred by patients as a result of hospitalization, clinic visits, lost wages, and long-term drug therapy (Tarcha et al., 2006).
4. Microbial Pathogenesis
The tiny spores (2 × 4 μm) convert into multinucleate round cells (spherules) within the lungs of the host and undergo isotropic growth to produce large parasitic cells (60 to > 100 μm in diameter). The latter undergo an elaborate process of wall growth and cytoplasmic compartmentalization to form and release a multitude of endospores (4–10 μm in diameter). Each endospore grows and differentiates into a second-generation spherule, which is again able to yield an average of 200 to 300 endospores. Mature spherules most likely escape phagocytosis simply because they are too large to be ingested by neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells (Hung et al., 2007).
5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
Coccidiomycosis is mainly a disease of immunocompromised in humans, but mice and monkeys have been used as animal models of disease (Ivey et al., 2003).
6. Host Protective Immunity
Both clinical and experimental evidence have demonstrated that T-cell immunity is pivotal for defense against this respiratory disease. The ability of the host to elicit a strong delayed-type hypersensitivity response to the pathogen is essential (Tarcha et al., 2006).
1. AMN1
  • Gene Name : AMN1
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Coccidioides posadasii
  • VO ID : VO_0011328
  • NCBI Protein GI : 76786276
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:279825
  • Taxonomy ID : 199306
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : alpha-mannosidase 1
  • Protein pI : 4.6
  • Protein Weight : 54284.48
  • Protein Length : 585
  • Protein Note : Glycosyl hydrolase family 47; pfam01532
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >ABA54911.1 alpha-mannosidase 1 [Coccidioides posadasii]
    MKGSPVLAVCAAALTLIPSVVALPMIDKDLPSSISQSSDKTSQERAEAVKDAFRFAWEGYLEHAFPNDEL
    HPVSNTPGNSRNGWGASAVDALSTAIIMDMPDVVEKILDHISNIDYSQTDTMCSLFETTIRYLGGMISAY
    DLLKGPGSHLVSDPAKVDVLLAQSLKLADVLKFAFDTKTGIPANELNITDKSTDGSTTNGLATTGTLVLE
    WTRLSDITGDPEYGRLAQKGESYLLNPQPSSSEPFPGLVGRTIDIETGLFRDDYVSWGGGSDSFYEYLIK
    MYVYDKGRFGKYKDRWVTAAESTIEHLKSSPSTRKDLTFVATYSGGRLGLNSGHLTCFDGGNFLLGGQIL
    NRDDFTKFGLELVEGCYATYAATATKIGPEGFGWDATKVPEAQAEFYKEAGFYITTSYYNLRPEVIESIY
    YAYRMTKDPKYQEWAWDAFVAINATTRTSTGFTAIGDVNTPDGGRKYDNQESFLFAEVMKYSYLIHSPEA
    DWQVAGPGGTNAYVFNTEAHPVKVFSRGC
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : C57BL/6 mice immunized with rAMN1 showed a significant reduction of the fungal burden in their lungs at 90 days postchallenge compared to the control mice at 15 days (Tarcha et al., 2006).
2. ELI-Ag1
  • Gene Name : ELI-Ag1
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Coccidioides immitis
  • VO ID : VO_0011329
  • NCBI Protein GI : 37779128
  • Taxonomy ID : 5501
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : expression library immunization antigen 1
  • Protein pI : 5.13
  • Protein Weight : 21683.39
  • Protein Length : 306
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >AAO62547.1 expression library immunization antigen 1 [Coccidioides immitis]
    MHLSGIVFAFSALISLSTAHFRLVDPPPRGFSEDMLTRFPCGGQSMSKSRTSVSLTDLEMPIALEMGHDQ
    TAVQVLLALGSHPGSNFNITLVPTFRQVGLGDFCLPSVSLDEQRLGVKPVDGMNATLQVVTNGDPNGGLY
    NCADITFSSTTEYTVPSSCKNGTGVAATPFSGEAATRNANESTPNGQPQRGNSGSGPTSNIAGHLETATW
    GVLGAIVVGGVALL
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : ELI-Antigen 1 (ELI-Ag1) was tested for its protective capacity in BALB/c mice against intraperitoneal challenge with 2500 arthroconidia of this dimorphic fungus and was found to be highly protective (Ivey et al., 2003).
3. GEL1
  • Gene Name : GEL1
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Coccidioides posadasii
  • VO ID : VO_0011330
  • NCBI Protein GI : 14582416
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:304882
  • Taxonomy ID : 199306
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : glucanosyltransferase
  • Protein pI : 8.01
  • Protein Weight : 15771.51
  • Protein Length : 231
  • Protein Note : Glycosyl hydrolase family 1; cl23725
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >AAK69492.1 glucanosyltransferase, partial [Coccidioides posadasii]
    SGGLVYEYPQEPSNYGLVQLGKGKPKELDDFKALAKAFKGTKNPSGDGGYNSTGGANPCPKKNAPNWDVD
    SESLPAIPEPAKKFMKDGPGEGPGLSGKGSQNAGTQSSGTATPGSGSVDPTSSAGAAAGLRPEFGIAPMM
    CAMLVVLSSMFGASFIFMV
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : The GEL1 mRNA of C. posadasii was detected at the highest level during the endosporulation stage of the parasitic cycle, and the mature protein was immunolocalized to the surface of endospores. BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice were immunized subcutaneously with the bacterium-expressed recombinant protein (rGel1p) to evaluate its protective efficacy against a lethal challenge of C. posadasii by either the intraperitoneal or intranasal route. In both cases, rGel1p-immune mice infected with the pathogen showed a significant reduction in fungal burden and increased survival compared to nonimmune mice (Delgado et al., 2003).
  • Related Vaccine(s): C. posadasii Subunit GEL1 Protein Vaccine
4. PEP1
  • Gene Name : PEP1
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Coccidioides posadasii
  • VO ID : VO_0011325
  • NCBI Protein GI : 73915320
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:299705
    CDD:278455
    CDD:133137
  • Taxonomy ID : 199306
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : aspartyl protease 1
  • Protein pI : 4.43
  • Protein Weight : 42071.91
  • Protein Length : 463
  • Protein Note : Cellular and retroviral pepsin-like aspartate proteases; cl11403
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >AAZ92541.1 aspartyl protease 1 [Coccidioides posadasii]
    MRNSILLAATVLLGCTSAKVHKLKLKKLPLTEQLEYGDIETHVRALGQKYFGSLPSSQQQTVLSDEYSTT
    DGHNVLVDNFLNAQYFSEISIGNPPQNFKVVLDTGSSNLWVPSSECGSIACYLHNKYDSSASSTYKKNGT
    EFAIRYGSGSLSGFVSQDTLRIGDLTIEGQDFAEATNEPGLAFAFGRFDGILGLGYDTISVNKIVPPFYN
    MINEGLIDEPVFGFYLGDTNKEGDDSYATFGGVDSSLFSGEMIKIPLRRKAYWEVDFDAIAFGNERAELE
    DTGIILDTGTSLIALPSTLAELLNREIGAKKSWNGQYTVDCNKRPSLPDLTFTLSGHNFTIGPYDYILEV
    QGSCISSFMGMDFPEPVGPLAILGDAFLRRFYTMYDLGNNLVGLAKAGN
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : Groups of C57BL/6 mice (20 per group) vaccinated with rPep1 (1 µg or 5 µg per dose) plus adjuvant and challenged with an intranasal inoculum began to die at about 14 to 16 days but then showed significantly greater survival than the control mice (Tarcha et al., 2006).
5. PLB
  • Gene Name : PLB
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Coccidioides posadasii
  • VO ID : VO_0011327
  • NCBI Protein GI : 74486661
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:214474
    CDD:132842
  • Taxonomy ID : 199306
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : phospholipase B
  • Protein pI : 6.85
  • Protein Weight : 65081.68
  • Protein Length : 710
  • Protein Note : Cytoplasmic phospholipase A2, catalytic subunit; smart00022
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >ABA12208.1 phospholipase B [Coccidioides posadasii]
    MRPIGAAVNALLTAALLAGTAGASAIPLDSNVHIRALPNAPNGYTPANVPCPANRPTVRSAASVSPEEAR
    WLEKRRKKAMSALAGFFGHVSIPDFDAVAYIGKYAENLAQLPNIGIAVSGGGYRALMNGAGAIKAFDSRT
    AGSTSKGHLGGLLQSATYLSGLSGGGWLVGSLYLNNETSVDALTSGMEGKAWDFHRSIFQGPKFTGSTFL
    DVLRYYAQLQSAVAGKQDAGYKVSITDYWGRALSYQFINAKEGGPSYTWSSISLSSDFQNAEYPMPIILA
    DGRNPGEKLILGNATVFEFNPWEFGTFDPTIFGFVPLEYLGSKFQGGVLPSSESCVRGFDNAGYIMGTSS
    SLFNEFALRLDEVDIPKFIKDELRKILKALGDENNDIADYSPNPFYQYATGTSPFAGVLSLPLVDGGEDG
    QNIPLHPLIQPARKVDVIFAIDSSANTKNNWPNGSSLVAAYKRSLDPSGIANGTSFPAVPDVNTFVNLGL
    NTRPTFFGCDSSNTTKPTPLVVYIPNYPYTTWSNISTFTLATPNETRDAIIKNGYDVATMGGTTGEKEWP
    TCVGCAILSRSFERTGIAMPAACQECLKKHCWDGTVNSATPADYAPSVGPPSAGAKSAASARIRASPSKH
    SVVVFSVVVLGIAASW
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : C57BL/6 mice immunized with rPlb showed a significant reduction of the fungal burden in their lungs at 90 days postchallenge compared to the control mice at 15 days (Tarcha et al., 2006).
6. pmp1
  • Gene Name : pmp1
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Coccidioides posadasii
  • VO ID : VO_0011332
  • NCBI Protein GI : 78364922
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:239311
  • Taxonomy ID : 199306
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : peroxisomal matrix protein
  • Protein pI : 5.21
  • Protein Weight : 16731.65
  • Protein Length : 234
  • Protein Note : Peroxiredoxin (PRX) family, PRX5-like subfamily; members are similar to the human protein, PRX5, a homodimeric TRX peroxidase, widely expressed in tissues and found cellularly in mitochondria, peroxisomes and the cytosol. The cellular location of PRX5...; cd03013
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >ABB42829.1 peroxisomal matrix protein [Coccidioides posadasii]
    MASLKAGDSFLSDVVFSYIPWTPDNKDIKACGMPQNYEASKLWADKKVVLFSLPGAFTPTCSASHLPGYI
    QKLPQLKEKGVDVVAVLAFNDAWVMSAWGKANGVTGDDILFLSDPEAKFSKSIGWNAGERTGRYAMIIDH
    GQVTYAEIEPGREVTVSGADAVISKL
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : Recombinant Pmp1 was reactive with serum from individuals with both acute and protracted disease, and evoked protection in two murine models of infection with C. posadasii (Orsborn et al., 2006).
  • Related Vaccine(s): C. posadasii Subunit PMP1 Protein Vaccine
7. pra
  • Gene Name : pra
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Coccidioides immitis
  • VO ID : VO_0011333
  • NCBI Protein GI : 42742528
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:128986
    CDD:282710
  • Taxonomy ID : 5501
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : proline-rich antigen
  • Protein pI : 3.93
  • Protein Weight : 18554.97
  • Protein Length : 254
  • Protein Note : eight cysteine-containing domain present in fungal extracellular membrane proteins; smart00747
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >AAS45282.1 proline-rich antigen [Coccidioides immitis]
    MQFSHALIALVAAGLASAQLPDIPPCALNCFVEALGNDGCTRLTDFKCHCSKPELPGQITPCVEEACPLD
    ARISVSNIVVDQCSKAGVPIEIPPVDTTAAPEPSETAEPTAEPTEEPTAEPTAEPTAEPTHEPTEEPTAV
    PTGTGGGVPTGTGSFTVTGRPTASTPAEFPGAGSNVRASVGGIAAALLGLAAYL
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : C57BL6 mice were immunized with syngeneic, bone marrow-derived DCs (JAWS II cells) transfected with a cDNA encoding the protective Coccidioides-Ag2/proline-rich Ag (pra). The immunized mice were lethally challenged with C. posadasii through either an i.p. or intranasal route. Upon necropsy after 10 days of infection, fungal burden in lung and spleen of immunized mice was significantly reduced as compared with the control animals. The lung tissue homogenates of immunized animals showed higher levels of IFN-gamma. Histologically, lung tissues of immunized mice were in better condition than the control mice (Awasthi et al., 2005).
  • Related Vaccine(s): C. posadasii DNA Vaccine encoding PRA Protein
8. tcrP
  • Gene Name : tcrP
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Coccidioides immitis
  • VO ID : VO_0011342
  • NCBI Protein GI : 13508695
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:176673
    GOA:Q1E803
    InterPro: IPR004360
    InterPro: IPR005956
    UniProtKB/UniProt: Q1E803
  • Taxonomy ID : 5501
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : human T-cell reactive protein
  • Protein pI : 4.79
  • Protein Weight : 14798.85
  • Protein Length : 207
  • Protein Note : C-terminal domain of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HppD) and hydroxymandelate Synthase (HmaS); cd07250
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >CAC35134.1 human T-cell reactive protein, partial [Coccidioides immitis]
    DICTEFSALKSIVMASPNDIVKMPINEPAKGKKQSQIEEYVDFYNGAGVQHIALRTNNIIDAITNLKARG
    TEFIKVPETYYEDMKIRLKRQGLVLDEDFETLKSLDILIDFDENGYLLQLFTKHLMDRPT
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : The immunogenicity of a 48-kDa T-cell-reactive protein (TCRP) was investigated. Immunization of BALB/c and C3H/HeN mice with the rTCRP affords a modest but significant level of protection against an intraperitoneal challenge with C. immitis. It is suggested that the rTCRP may be able to contribute to a multicomponent vaccine designed to stimulate CMI response against the parasitic cycle of C. immitis.
9. URE
  • Gene Name : URE
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Coccidioides immitis
  • VO ID : VO_0011331
  • NCBI Protein GI : 73808050
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:294200
  • Taxonomy ID : 5501
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : urease
  • Protein pI : 4.18
  • Protein Weight : 15939.32
  • Protein Length : 219
  • Protein Note : Superfamily of metallo-dependent hydrolases (also called amidohydrolase superfamily) is a large group of proteins that show conservation in their 3-dimensional fold (TIM barrel) and in details of their active site. The vast majority of the members have a...; cl00281
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >BAE20261.1 urease, partial [Coccidioides immitis]
    CGIGKAGNPDVMDGVTPNMIVGSSTDVIACEGKIVTAGGIDTHVHFICPQQVEEALASGVTTLLGGGTGP
    TEGTNATTCTPAPNQFKTMMQACDHLPINVGLTGKGNDSGLPSLRDQCRAGAAGLKVHEDWGATPAVIDT
    CLQVCDEFDIQCLIHTDTLNESGF
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : Recombinant urease (rURE) of C. immitis was expressed in Escherichia coli and tested asa vaccine candidate in BALB/c mice. BALB/c mice immunized subcutaneously with rURE and subsequently challenged by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route with a lethal inoculum of C. immitis arthroconidia demonstrated a significant reduction in the level of C. immitis infection compared to control animals (Li et al., 2001).
  • Related Vaccine(s): C. immitis Subunit URE Protein Vaccine
III. Vaccine Information
1. C. immitis Subunit URE Protein Vaccine
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011463
b. Type:
Subunit vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Gene Engineering of URE
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
e. Adjuvant: CpG DNA vaccine adjuvant
f. Immunization Route
Subcutaneous injection
g. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice each were immunized s.c. with recombinant protein (15 μg of rURE) or bovine serum albumin for control group (Li et al., 2001).
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were challenged by the i.p. route at 14 days after the last protein immunization or 30 days after the last DNA immunization. The inoculum contained 100 viable arthroconidia in 100 μl of PBS (Li et al., 2001).
  • Efficacy: The rURE-immune mice showed significantly lower counts of C. immitis in both lungs and spleens compared to control mice immunized with BSA plus CpG ODN (Li et al., 2001).
2. C. posadasii DNA Vaccine encoding PRA Protein
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011461
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Gene Engineering of pra
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
e. Vector:
pVR1012 (Awasthi et al., 2005)
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: C57BL6
  • Vaccination Protocol: C57BL6 mice were anesthetized by i.m. injection of ketamine-xylazine (75 µg/g and 10 µg/g body weight, respectively). Transfected DCs (1–1.5 x 106 per 30 µl) were intranasally administered in both nares alternately. Comparative controls were Ag2/PRA plasmid DNA alone, nontransfected cells, and cells transfected with the vector plasmid alone. The immunization was performed twice at an interval of 1 wk (on days 0 and 7). The second immunization was given to boost the immune response (Awasthi et al., 2005).
  • Challenge Protocol: The immunized mice were infected with C. posadasii either i.p. or intranasally. Intranasal challenge was given on day 19 with 30 arthroconidia per 30 µl of saline, whereas the i.p. challenge was given on day 14 with 2500 arthroconidia per 500 µl of saline. The infected mice become symptomatic around day 9–10 and start dying on day 11. Therefore, the mice were sacrificed on 10th day of infection, and their lungs and spleens were collected (Awasthi et al., 2005).
  • Efficacy: Upon necropsy after 10 days of infection, fungal burden in lung and spleen of immunized mice was significantly reduced as compared with the control animals. The lung tissue homogenates of immunized animals showed higher levels of IFN-gamma. Histologically, lung tissues of immunized mice were in better condition than the control mice (Awasthi et al., 2005).
3. C. posadasii Subunit GEL1 Protein Vaccine
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011490
b. Type:
Subunit vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Gene Engineering of GEL1
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
e. Adjuvant: CpG DNA vaccine adjuvant
  • VO ID: VO_0001237
  • Description: CpG ODN (Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc., Coralville, Iowa) (Delgado et al., 2003).
f. Immunization Route
Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
g. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c, C57BL/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized subcutaneously (s.c.) with rGel1p plus adjuvant. The mice were then boosted by s.c. immunization 14 days later with the same amount of immunogen plus adjuvant (Delgado et al., 2003).
  • Challenge Protocol: The animals were subsequently challenged with 100 viable arthroconidia by the i.p. route 2 weeks after the last immunization and then sacrificed 12 days later to determine the residual CFU in the lungs and spleen (Delgado et al., 2003).
  • Efficacy: rGel1p-immune mice infected with the pathogen showed a significant reduction in fungal burden and increased survival compared to nonimmune mice (Delgado et al., 2003).
4. C. posadasii Subunit PMP1 Protein Vaccine
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011460
b. Type:
Subunit vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Gene Engineering of pmp1
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
e. Adjuvant: MPL vaccine adjuvant
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: C57BL/6
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were immunized subcutaneously with 1, 5, or 50 μg rPmp1 with monophosphoryl lipid A-stable emulsion (MPL-SE) adjuvant on day 0 and day 14. Control mice received adjuvant only (Orsborn et al., 2006).
  • Challenge Protocol: Four weeks after boosting (day 42), the mice were infected intraperitoneally with 310 arthroconidia and sacrificed 2 weeks later (Orsborn et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: Vaccination with PMP1 elicited significant protection in mice and a reduction in colonization of organs by Coccidioides (Orsborn et al., 2006).
IV. References
1. Awasthi et al., 2005: Awasthi S, Awasthi V, Magee DM, Coalson JJ. Efficacy of antigen 2/proline-rich antigen cDNA-transfected dendritic cells in immunization of mice against Coccidioides posadasii. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2005; 175(6); 3900-3906. [PubMed: 16148136].
2. Delgado et al., 2003: Delgado N, Xue J, Yu JJ, Hung CY, Cole GT. A recombinant beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferase homolog of Coccidioides posadasii protects mice against coccidioidomycosis. Infection and immunity. 2003; 71(6); 3010-3019. [PubMed: 12761077].
3. Hung et al., 2007: Hung CY, Xue J, Cole GT. Virulence mechanisms of coccidioides. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2007; 1111; 225-235. [PubMed: 17513466].
4. Ivey et al., 2003: Ivey FD, Magee DM, Woitaske MD, Johnston SA, Cox RA. Identification of a protective antigen of Coccidioides immitis by expression library immunization. Vaccine. 2003; 21(27-30); 4359-4367. [PubMed: 14505918].
5. Kirkland et al., 1998: Kirkland TN, Thomas PW, Finley F, Cole GT. Immunogenicity of a 48-kilodalton recombinant T-cell-reactive protein of Coccidioides immitis. Infection and immunity. 1998; 66(2); 424-431. [PubMed: 9453590].
6. Li et al., 2001: Li K, Yu JJ, Hung CY, Lehmann PF, Cole GT. Recombinant urease and urease DNA of Coccidioides immitis elicit an immunoprotective response against coccidioidomycosis in mice. Infection and immunity. 2001; 69(5); 2878-2887. [PubMed: 11292702].
7. Orsborn et al., 2006: Orsborn KI, Shubitz LF, Peng T, Kellner EM, Orbach MJ, Haynes PA, Galgiani JN. Protein expression profiling of Coccidioides posadasii by two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis and evaluation of a newly recognized peroxisomal matrix protein as a recombinant vaccine candidate. Infection and immunity. 2006; 74(3); 1865-1872. [PubMed: 16495561].
8. Tarcha et al., 2006a: Tarcha EJ, Basrur V, Hung CY, Gardner MJ, Cole GT. A recombinant aspartyl protease of Coccidioides posadasii induces protection against pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in mice. Infection and immunity. 2006; 74(1); 516-527. [PubMed: 16369008].
9. Tarcha et al., 2006b: Tarcha EJ, Basrur V, Hung CY, Gardner MJ, Cole GT. Multivalent recombinant protein vaccine against coccidioidomycosis. Infection and immunity. 2006; 74(10); 5802-5813. [PubMed: 16988258].