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Chicken Anemia Virus

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Microbial Pathogenesis
    5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. VP1 (Protective antigen)
    2. VP2 (Protective antigen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. Chicken Anemia Virus Live Virus Vaccine (USDA: 10A1.00)
    2. Chicken Anemia Virus Live Virus Vaccine (USDA: 10A1.01)
    3. Chicken Anemia Virus Modified Live Virus Vaccine (USDA: 10A1.10)
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
12618
2. Disease:
Chicken infectious anemia, Blue wing disease, Anemia dermatitis syndrome, Hemorrhagic aplastic anemi
3. Introduction
Chicken anemia virus (CAV), a 25 nm, nonenveloped, icosahedral virus with a single-stranded, circular DNA genome, is the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae family. The genome codes for 3 viral proteins (VP). VP1 is the capsid protein, but VP2 may be needed as a scaffold protein to allow proper folding of VP1. VP3, or apoptin, is a nonstructural protein that induces apoptosis in infected cells. CAV infects only chickens, although antibodies have been detected in Japanese quail. The virus is present worldwide based on serology and virus isolation. The disease, chicken infectious anemia, has been described in most countries where chickens are raised commercially.
Horizontal transmission of CAV is by the fecal-oral route and perhaps by the respiratory route. Vertical transmission occurs when seronegative hens become infected and continues until neutralizing antibodies develop. Chicks hatched from these eggs are viremic, and CAV can rapidly spread horizontally from these chicks to susceptible, maternal antibody-negative hatchmates. Roosters shedding CAV in the semen are another source of vertical transmission. Vaccination of seronegative flocks prior to the onset of egg production is recommended to prevent vertical transmission (Merck Vet Manual: Chicken Anemia Virus Infection).
4. Microbial Pathogenesis
The principal sites of CAV replication are hemocytoblasts in the bone marrow, precursor T cells in the cortex of the thymus, and CD8 cells in the spleen. Replication in the first leads to anemia, while replication in the latter two causes immunosuppression. Neutralizing antibodies are detectable 21 days after infection and clinical, hematologic, and pathologic parameters return to normal ~35 days after infection. CAV infection has adverse effects on proliferative responses of spleen lymphocytes and on the production of interleukin-2 and interferons by splenocytes. Infection can cause a marked decrease in generation of antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells directed against other pathogens. In addition to T-cell defects, macrophage functions such as Fc-receptor expression, phagocytosis, and antimicrobial activity may be impaired. Subclinical, horizontally acquired infection with CAV in broiler progeny of seropositive parent flocks may be associated with impaired economic performance (Merck Vet Manual: Chicken Anemia Virus Infection).
5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
Chickens
1. VP1
  • Gene Name : VP1
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Chicken Anemia Virus
  • NCBI Protein GI : ABJ90436
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:282072
  • Taxonomy ID : 12618
  • Protein Name : VP1
  • Protein pI : 11.12
  • Protein Weight : 50262.7
  • Protein Length : 496
  • Protein Note : Gyrovirus capsid protein (VP1); pfam04162
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >ABJ90436.1 VP1 [Chicken anemia virus]
    MARRARRPRGRFYAFRRGRWHHLKRLRRRYKFRHRRRQRYRRRAFRKAFHNPRPGTYSVRLPNPQSTMTI
    RFQGVIFLTEGLILPKNSTAGGYADHMYGARVAKISVNLKEFLLASMNLTYVSKIGGPIAGELIADGSKS
    QAAENWPNCWLPLDNNVPSATPSAWWRWALMMMQPTDSCRFFNHPKQMTLQDMGRMFGGWHLFRHIETRF
    QLLATKNEGSFSPVASLLSQGEYLTRRDDVKYSSDHQNRWRKGEQPMTGGIAYATGKMRPDEQQYPAMPP
    DPPIITSTTAQGTQVRCMNSTQAWWSWDTYMSFATLTALGAQWSFPPGQRSVSRRSFNHHKARGAGDPKG
    QRWHTLVPLGTETITDSYMGAPASELDTNFFTLYVAQGTNKSQQYKFGTATYALKEPVMKSDSWAVVRVQ
    SVWQLGNRQRPYPWDVNWANSTMYWGGQP
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : (Sawant et al., 2015)
2. VP2
  • Gene Name : VP2
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Chicken Anemia Virus
  • NCBI Protein GI : AIU44252
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:251643
  • Taxonomy ID : 12618
  • Protein Name : VP2
  • Protein pI : 7.89
  • Protein Weight : 23530.11
  • Protein Length : 260
  • Protein Note : TT viral ORF2; pfam02957
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >AIU44252.1 VP2 [Chicken anemia virus]
    MHGNGGQPAAGGSESALSREGQPGPSGAAQGQVISNERSPRRYSTRTINGVQATNKFTAVGNPSLQRDPD
    WYRWNYNHSIAVWLRECSRSHAKICNCGQFRKHWFQECAGLEDRSTQASLEEAILRPLRVQGKRAKRKLD
    YHYSQPTPNRKKVYKTVRWQDELADREADFTPSEEDGGTTSSDFDEDINFDIGGDSGIVDELLGRPFTTP
    APVRIV
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : (Sawant et al., 2015)
III. Vaccine Information
1. Chicken Anemia Virus Live Virus Vaccine (USDA: 10A1.00)
a. Manufacturer:
Biomune Company
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001660
c. Type:
Live vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Chicken
2. Chicken Anemia Virus Live Virus Vaccine (USDA: 10A1.01)
a. Manufacturer:
Biomune Company
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001661
c. Type:
Live vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Chicken
3. Chicken Anemia Virus Modified Live Virus Vaccine (USDA: 10A1.10)
a. Manufacturer:
Intervet Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001662
c. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Chicken
IV. References
1. Merck Vet Manual: Chicken Anemia Virus Infection: Merck Vet Manual: Chicken Anemia Virus Infection [http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/200200.htm]
2. Sawant et al., 2015: Sawant PM, Dhama K, Rawool DB, Wani MY, Tiwari R, Singh SD, Singh RK. Development of a DNA vaccine for chicken infectious anemia and its immunogenicity studies using high mobility group box 1 protein as a novel immunoadjuvant indicated induction of promising protective immune responses. Vaccine. 2015; 33(2); 333-340. [PubMed: 25448094].