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Avian Polyomavirus

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
  2. Vaccine Information
    1. Avian Polyomavirus Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1A15.00)
  3. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
10624
2. Disease:
Papovavirus, Budgerigar fledgling disease, Psittacine polyomavirus
3. Introduction
Avian polyomavirus (AVP) primarily affects young birds. It is a primary infectious cause of nestling psittacine mortality, especially in mixed collections and open aviaries. The typical presentation is a well-fleshed juvenile, just prior to fledgling age, with acute onset of lethargy, crop stasis, and death within 24-48 hr. Subcutaneous hemorrhages are often noted when injections are administered. Asymptomatic adults may be carriers. Prevalence of the virus in adult psittacines, including budgerigars, is thought to be high. Gross necropsy findings in deceased chicks often include pale skeletal musculature and subcutaneous ecchymotic hemorrhages. The kidneys and liver are enlarged and may be pale, congested, and mottled, or have pinpoint, white foci. Petechial or ecchymotic hemorrhages may also be present on viscera, particularly the heart. The heart is sometimes enlarged and may show hydropericardium. Intranuclear inclusion bodies are often seen in the liver, kidneys, heart, spleen, bone marrow, uropygial gland, skin, feather follicles, etc. DNA probe testing of blood and of choanal and cloacal swabs from live birds are also commonly performed. Control methods include not housing budgerigars or lovebirds on the premises of psittacine breeding facilities, monitoring standard hygiene procedures closely, preventing access to the nursery by visitors or any returned bird or outside bird, using biosecure shipping containers, not allowing retailers or wholesalers to mix neonates from multiple sources in the same airspace, and using 90-day quarantine procedures for all birds entering the flock. Screening should first be done to ensure that AVP is not already present. This involves collection of cloacal and choanal swabs for PCR testing for viral shedding and blood for virus-neutralizing antibody to identify birds with previous viral exposure. A vaccine is available, and the first dose may be given as early as 4 wk old to properly complete the vaccination series and allow full immunity to develop (Merck Vet Manual: Avian Polyomavirus).
II. Vaccine Information
1. Avian Polyomavirus Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1A15.00)
a. Manufacturer:
Biomune Company
b. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
c. Status:
Licensed
d. Location Licensed:
USA
e. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Parrot
III. References
1. Merck Vet Manual: Avian Polyomavirus: Merck Vet Manual: Avian Polyomavirus [http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/170221.htm]