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Equid herpesvirus

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Microbial Pathogenesis
    5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. gE (Virmugen)
    2. gI (Virmugen)
    3. TK (Virmugen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis Eastern & Western, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4844.30)
    2. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western & Venezuelan, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4847.22)
    3. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western & Venezuelan, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4847.23)
    4. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western & Venezuelan, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4847.24)
    5. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western & Venezuelan, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4847.32)
    6. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4845.23)
    7. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4845.24)
    8. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4845.32)
    9. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4845.33)
    10. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza-West Nile Virus Eastern & Western, Killed Virus, Killed Flavivirus Chimera Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4855.R2)
    11. Equid herpesvirus gE mutant vaccine
    12. Equid herpesvirus gI mutant vaccine
    13. Equid herpesvirus TK mutant vaccine
    14. Equine Rhinopneumonitis Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1525.20)
    15. Equine Rhinopneumonitis Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1525.21)
    16. Equine Rhinopneumonitis Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1525.22)
    17. Equine Rhinopneumonitis Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1525.24)
    18. Equine Rhinopneumonitis Modified Live Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1521.20)
    19. Equine Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1515.24)
    20. Equine Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1515.26)
    21. Equine Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1515.27)
    22. Equine Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1515.2A)
    23. Equine Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Modified Live & Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1518.20)
    24. NYVAC-EHV-1- vP1014
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
10326
2. Disease:
Equine Rhinopneumonitis
3. Introduction
In equids eight herpesviruses have been identified: five belong to the subfamily alpha herpesvirinae and three to the gamma herpesvirinae. The horse is the natural host to alphaherpesvirus types 1 (EHV-1), 3 (EHV-3 coital exanthemavirus), 4 (EHV-4) and gammaherpesvirus types 2 (EHV-2) and 5 (EHV-5). Until 1981, EHV-1 and EHV-4 were considered as two subtypes of the same virus, namely EHV-1. Both EHV-1 and EHV-4 are endemic in horse populations worldwide. Prior to 1981, a single virus ‘EHV-1’ was known as the cause of febrile rhinopneumonitis, ataxia, abortions and neonatal foal disease in horses (Allen and Bryans, 1986). However, it should be stated that as early as 1972 most ‘EHV-1’ strains were distinguishable as respiratory (subtype 2) and abortigenic (subtype 1) viruses. Acute, naturally occurring respiratory diseases due to EHV-1 and EHV-4 are characterised by fever, anorexia, nasal discharge of varying severity and ocular discharge. Bacterial proliferation in nasal passages may be a contributory factor in the development of rhinopneumonitis. Experimentally, however, EHV-1 causes a much more severe disease than that induced by EHV-4 (Patel and Heldens, 2005).
4. Microbial Pathogenesis
Primary EHV-1 replication occurs in the upper respiratory tract epithelial cells and local lymph nodes resulting in leukocyte-associated viremia. Leukocyte associated viremia in acute infection has been shown as a prerequisite for abortion and paresis by initiating replication of EHV-1 in the endothelial lining of blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS) and pregnant uterus. A widespread infection of endometrial blood vessels results in severe vasculitis and multifocal thrombosis, which could result in an abortion of a virus negative fetus. Latency has been demonstrated in lymphoid and neural tissues for both EHV-1 and EHV-4 (Patel and Heldens, 2005).
5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
Equids
1. gE
  • Gene Name : gE
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Equid herpesvirus 1
  • NCBI Protein GI : 330789
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:177575
    CDD:145558
  • Taxonomy ID : 10326
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : glycoprotein E
  • Protein Length : 550
  • Protein Note : envelope glycoprotein E; Provisional
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|330789|gb|AAA66548.1| glycoprotein E [Equid herpesvirus 1]
    MELLAASRACIFFGLVTVLDAWGVQQVELSEGAWAMIDGRDVLTPTNTTTRVTKAWTFLETPPGCAGDIS
    VKKVCVSHSLCEDNIIIGKHCNLLTGEHGIALAEFNVVNGSLRRTDDVYFVNGTVFPILAETRSVLQIHR
    ATPSIAGVYTLHVSIDGMMKHSVVLLTVKKPPKQPQPRLRVKTPPPVTVPQVPVKTHTDFVVHGYHSRVY
    ADGESFELSVNLESHIVEPSFSAEIQWYYMNTSSSSCDLFRVFETCIFHPTAMACLHPEQHTCSFTSPIR
    ATKILHRVYGNCSDHGNSWPSRCHSTLLGNRLYFIQPAQNRVDLLFKDTPASATGLYVFVLLYNGHPEAW
    TYTLLSTANHFMNVLTDVTRPRLGEHFYTDLGHKIITPHPSVATTEELGAWTRHYLAFLLVIICTCAALL
    VALVVWGCILYIRSNRKPYEVLNPFETVYTSVPSNDPSDEVLVFERLASDSDDSFDSDSDEELEYPPPPK
    PAPQLPPYQFVDGGDAPSGRSGFKVWFRDTPEASPVPLHKPTLQGPDYSRVASKLKSILK
  • Molecule Role : Virmugen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : A glycoprotein E mutant is attenuated in mice and hamsters and induced significant protection from challenge with wild type Equid herpesvirus in mice (Tsujimura et al., 2006).
  • Related Vaccine(s): Equid herpesvirus gE mutant vaccine
2. gI
  • Gene Name : gI
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Equid herpesvirus 1
  • NCBI Protein GI : 330788
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:177577
  • Taxonomy ID : 10326
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : glycoprotein I
  • Protein Length : 424
  • Protein Note : envelope glycoprotein I; Provisional
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|330788|gb|AAA66547.1| glycoprotein I [Equid herpesvirus 1]
    MAKLTGMFSAAILLSMAICSTAIIYRGEHMSMYLNASSEFAVYPTDQSLVLVGHLLFLDGQRLPTTNYSG
    LIELIHYNYSSVCYTVIQTISYESCPRVANNAFRSCLHKTSKHYHDYFRVNASVETNVLLNITKPQPTDS
    GAYILRVKLDHAPTADVFGVSAFVYDLKSKTVPDPMPTTQTVEPTTSYVSTPTYDYTDDVTTETESTSTS
    TQQAMTSTQTPSATWGTQLTTELPTNETVVIGQEALLCHWFQPSTRVPTLYLHLLGRTGNLPEDVLLVED
    SEFLRTTSPAHRPSASPADGDDFKQTNSTSLKARNKIVAMVVIPTACVLMLLLVVVGAIINGAVRKHLLS
    CASRRIYRSGQGGASAAERRRLTCGPTLAASSESLADDTTSSPPTPKPSKKTKLETDPLMEQLNRKLEAI
    KEES
  • Molecule Role : Virmugen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : A glycoprotein I mutant is attenuated in mice and hamsters and induced significant protection from challenge with wild type Equid herpesvirus in mice (Tsujimura et al., 2006).
  • Related Vaccine(s): Equid herpesvirus gI mutant vaccine
3. TK
  • Gene Name : TK
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Equid herpesvirus 1 Ab4
  • NCBI Protein GI : 59214
  • 3D structure: PDB ID : 1P73
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:177537
    GOA:P69185
    InterPro: IPR001889
    UniProtKB/UniProt: P69185
  • Taxonomy ID : 10326
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : thymidine kinase
  • Protein Length : 352
  • Protein Note : thymidine kinase; Provisional
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|59214|emb|CAA48144.1| thymidine kinase [Equid herpesvirus 1]
    MAARVPSGEARRSASGAPVRRQVTIVRIYLDGVYGIGKSTTGRVMASAASGGSPTLYFPEPMAYWRTLFE
    ADVISGIYDTQNRKQQGDLAADDAASITAHYQSRFTTPYLILHDHTFGLFGGDSLQRGTRPDLTVVFDRH
    PVASAVCFPAARYLIGDMSMCALIAMVATLPREPQGGNIVVTTLNVDEHVRRLRTRARIGEQIDMKLIAT
    LRNVYSMLANTSNFLRSGRVWRDGWGELPLSCETYKHRATQMDAFQERESPELSDTLFAMFKTPELLDDR
    GVILEVHAWALDALMLKLRNLSVFCADLSGTPRQCAATVESLIPLMSSTLSDSESASSLERAARTFNAEM
    GV
  • Molecule Role : Virmugen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : A thymidine kinase-deficient mutant (PR1) is attenuated in mice and induced significant protection from challenge with wild type EHV-1 5 weeks after vaccination. In foals, PR1 also showed attenuation; however, the mutant induced only partial protection from challenge with EHV-1 (Slater et al., 1993).
  • Related Vaccine(s): Equid herpesvirus TK mutant vaccine
III. Vaccine Information
1. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis Eastern & Western, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4844.30)
a. Manufacturer:
Intervet Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002253
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
2. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western & Venezuelan, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4847.22)
a. Manufacturer:
Wyeth
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002258
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
3. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western & Venezuelan, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4847.23)
a. Manufacturer:
Wyeth
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002259
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
4. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western & Venezuelan, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4847.24)
a. Manufacturer:
Wyeth
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002260
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
5. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western & Venezuelan, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4847.32)
a. Manufacturer:
Intervet Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002261
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
6. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4845.23)
a. Manufacturer:
Wyeth
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002254
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
7. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4845.24)
a. Manufacturer:
Wyeth
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002255
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
8. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4845.32)
a. Manufacturer:
Intervet Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002256
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
9. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Eastern & Western, Killed Virus Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4845.33)
a. Manufacturer:
Intervet Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002257
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
10. Encephalomyelitis-Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza-West Nile Virus Eastern & Western, Killed Virus, Killed Flavivirus Chimera Vaccine-Tetanus Toxoid (USDA: 4855.R2)
a. Manufacturer:
Intervet Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002262
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
11. Equid herpesvirus gE mutant vaccine
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002955
b. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse
e. Gene Engineering of gE
f. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
g. Mouse Response
12. Equid herpesvirus gI mutant vaccine
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002956
b. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse
e. Gene Engineering of gI
f. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
g. Mouse Response
13. Equid herpesvirus TK mutant vaccine
a. Product Name:
PR1
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002957
c. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
d. Status:
Research
e. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse, horse
f. Gene Engineering of TK
g. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
h. Mouse Response
i. Horse Response
14. Equine Rhinopneumonitis Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1525.20)
a. Manufacturer:
Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001778
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
15. Equine Rhinopneumonitis Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1525.21)
a. Manufacturer:
Wyeth, Intervet Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001779
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
16. Equine Rhinopneumonitis Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1525.22)
a. Manufacturer:
Intervet Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001780
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
17. Equine Rhinopneumonitis Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1525.24)
a. Manufacturer:
Wyeth
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001781
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
18. Equine Rhinopneumonitis Modified Live Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1521.20)
a. Manufacturer:
Pfizer, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001782
c. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
19. Equine Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1515.24)
a. Manufacturer:
Intervet Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002130
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
20. Equine Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1515.26)
a. Manufacturer:
Wyeth
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002131
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
21. Equine Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1515.27)
a. Manufacturer:
Wyeth
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002132
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
22. Equine Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1515.2A)
a. Manufacturer:
Wyeth, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002133
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
23. Equine Rhinopneumonitis-Influenza Modified Live & Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1518.20)
a. Manufacturer:
Pfizer, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002134
c. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine; Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Horse
24. NYVAC-EHV-1- vP1014
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004771
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Preparation
vP1014, a vaccinia-based construct (NYVAC) coding for the immediate early gene (gene 64) of EHV-1 (Paillot et al., 2006).
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Horse Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: EHV-primed yearling ponies expressing this haplotype were vaccinated once (n = 1), three (n = 1), or four times (n = 2), and one pony was kept as an unvaccinated control (Paillot et al., 2006).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: The ponies were challenged with EHV-1 (Paillot et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: The results demonstrated that vaccination with a NYVAC-based construct coding for gene 64 stimulated CMI. This immune response alone did not protect against challenge infection. However, the study does illustrate that vaccinia-based vaccines can stimulate CMI in the horse and may therefore contribute to protection against disease caused by EHV-1 (Paillot et al., 2006).
IV. References
1. Patel and Heldens, 2005: Patel JR, Heldens J. Equine herpesviruses 1 (EHV-1) and 4 (EHV-4)--epidemiology, disease and immunoprophylaxis: a brief review. Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997). 2005; 170(1); 14-23. [PubMed: 15993786].
2. Slater et al., 1993: Slater JD, Gibson JS, Field HJ. Pathogenicity of a thymidine kinase-deficient mutant of equine herpesvirus 1 in mice and specific pathogen-free foals. The Journal of general virology. 1993; 74 ( Pt 5); 819-828. [PubMed: 8388018].
3. Tsujimura et al., 2006: Tsujimura K, Yamanaka T, Kondo T, Fukushi H, Matsumura T. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of equine herpesvirus type 1 mutants defective in either gI or gE gene in murine and hamster models. The Journal of veterinary medical science / the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science. 2006; 68(10); 1029-1038. [PubMed: 17085880].