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Canine adenovirus type 1

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Host Ranges and Animal Models
  2. Vaccine Information
    1. Canine Distemper-Hepatitis-Parainfluenza Modified Live Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1381.21)
    2. Canine Distemper-Hepatitis-Parainfluenza-Parvovirus Modified Live Virus Vaccine-Leptospira Canicola-Icterohaemorrhagiae Bacterin (USDA: 47P9.22)
    3. Fox Encephalitis Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1635.20)
  3. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
10512
2. Disease:
Fox Encephalitis, Infectious Canine Hepatitis
3. Introduction
Infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) is a worldwide, contagious disease of dogs with signs that vary from a slight fever and congestion of the mucous membranes to severe depression, marked leukopenia, and prolonged bleeding time. It also is seen in foxes, wolves, coyotes, and bears; other carnivores may become infected without developing clinical illness. In recent years, the disease has become uncommon in areas where routine immunization is used. ICH is caused by a nonenveloped DNA virus, canine adenovirus 1 (CAV-1), which is antigenically related only to CAV-2 (one of the causes of infectious canine tracheobronchitis). CAV-1 is resistant to lipid solvents and survives outside the host for weeks or months, but a 1-3% solution of sodium hypochlorite (household bleach) is an effective disinfectant. Ingestion of urine, feces, or saliva of infected dogs is the main route of infection. Recovered dogs shed virus in their urine for ≥6 mo. Initial infection occurs in the tonsillar crypts and Peyer’s patches, followed by viremia and infection of endothelial cells in many tissues. Liver, kidneys, spleen, and lungs are the main target organs. Chronic kidney lesions and corneal clouding (“blue eye”) result from immune-complex reactions after recovery from acute or subclinical disease (Merck Vet Manual: Infectious Canine Hepatitis).
4. Host Ranges and Animal Models
Dogs, foxes, wolves coyotes and bears (Merck Vet Manual: Infectious Canine Hepatitis).
II. Vaccine Information
1. Canine Distemper-Hepatitis-Parainfluenza Modified Live Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1381.21)
a. Manufacturer:
Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002097
c. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Gray wolf
2. Canine Distemper-Hepatitis-Parainfluenza-Parvovirus Modified Live Virus Vaccine-Leptospira Canicola-Icterohaemorrhagiae Bacterin (USDA: 47P9.22)
a. Manufacturer:
Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002247
c. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Gray wolf
3. Fox Encephalitis Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 1635.20)
a. Manufacturer:
United Vaccines, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001535
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Carnivores
III. References
1. Merck Vet Manual: Infectious Canine Hepatitis: Merck Veterinary Manual- Infectious Canine Hepatitis: Introduction [http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/57200.htm]