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Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Microbial Pathogenesis
    5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. P97 (Protective antigen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. Porcine Circovirus Type 2, Killed Baculovirus Vector Vaccine- Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 49K5.R1)
    2. Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome-Circovirus Reproductive & Respiratory Form, Type 2, Modifed Live Virus,Killed Baculovirus Vector Vaccine-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 49K9.R0)
    3. rAd-P97c
    4. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4994.20)
    5. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4994.21)
    6. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4994.23)
    7. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4994.24)
    8. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4995.22)
    9. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4995.23)
    10. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4995.25)
    11. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4995.26)
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
2099
2. Disease:
Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia
3. Introduction
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a species of bacteria known to cause the disease Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia, a highly contagious and chronic disease affecting pigs (Whittlestone, 1979). As with other mollicutes, M. hyopneumoniae is small in size (400 - 1200 nm), has a small genome (893 - 920 kilo-base pairs (kb)) and lacks a cell wall (Tajima et al., 1982). It is considered to be difficult to grow in laboratories due to its complex nutritional requirements. This bacterium is a concern in the livestock industry as it causes a significant reduction in the growing weight of pigs. Losses in the U.S.A. have been previously estimated at 200 million to 1 billion dollars per annum (Clark et al., 1991). Porcine enzootic pneumonia is endemic worldwide and M. hyopneumoniae is present in almost every pig herd (Minion, 2002). Treatment of this disease is limited to antibiotics, which are currently ineffective as they do not completely remove the infection. Vaccines have been found to reduce the severity of the disease but do not prevent the disease from occurring in infected pigs (Haesebrouck, et al., 2004). M. hyopneumoniae has been found to attach to the cilia of epithelial cells in the lungs of swine. They cause cilia to stop beating (ciliostasis), loss of cilia and eventually epithelial cell death; which is the source of the lesions found in the lungs of pigs with porcine enzootic pneumonia. Sadly, the immune response caused by the presence of M. hyopneumoniae in pigs is slow and ineffective (Minion, 2002); it is also believed to cause much of the damage that is seen in pigs with the disease. This mycoplasma is not known to produce any specifically harmful toxin like many other disease-causing bacteria, but some mildly toxic by-products have been observed (Geary et al., 1985). Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has been a topic of interest in the scientific community due to the economic impact of porcine enzootic pneumonia. Three separate strains (232, J & 7448) of this mycoplasma have had their genomes sequenced, making it the most sequenced mycoplasma (Minion et al., 2004; Vasconcelos et al., 2005). Research has been mainly focused on identifying adhesins with a final goal of developing an effective vaccine that prevents M. hyopneumoniae from attaching to lung cilia (Wiki: M. hyopneumoniae).
4. Microbial Pathogenesis
M. hyopneumoniae has been found to attach to the cilia of epithelial cells in the lungs of swine. They cause cilia to stop beating (ciliostasis), loss of cilia and eventually epithelial cell death; which is the source of the lesions found in the lungs of pigs with porcine enzootic pneumonia (Wiki: M. hyopneumoniae).
5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
Pigs
1. P97
  • Gene Name : P97
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 232
  • NCBI Gene ID : 3105444
  • NCBI Protein GI : 54020389
  • Locus Tag : mhp183
  • Genbank Accession : AE017332
  • Protein Accession : YP_115696
  • Taxonomy ID : 295358
  • Gene Starting Position : 224079
  • Gene Ending Position : 227405
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : -
  • Protein Name : protein p97; cilium adhesin
  • Protein pI : 9.5
  • Protein Weight : 120335.63
  • Protein Length : 1108
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >NC_006360.1:224079-227405 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 232, complete genome
    TTTATTTAGATTCTGGTTCCTGATTATTATTACTTTGTTTTACTGTTATTTTAACTTTTAGACTTGATTT
    TTTAGGATCACCGGATTTTGAATCATCCCTTAGGATAAAGTATAGCAATTTAGCATCTCCAGCGATATTA
    TCCTCGATTAGTTCAACCTCTGTTTTTCAATTTTTACCTTGTTTTTTAATGATTTCGTCAATTTTTTTAC
    CTAAGTCAGGAAGGTAATTAGTTAATTCGGTAGTTGGGCTTTGTTGACTAGGTGCTCCCTCTGCTTTTTT
    CCCTTGGTTAGGAGTTCCTTCGGCTTTTTTACCTTGGTTAGGCGCGCCTTCTGCTTTTTTACCTTGGTTA
    GGAGTTCCTTCGCTTTTTTTACCTTGATTTGAAGATCCTTCGGTCATCATTGGGTGGCTAAGTTTCTGAT
    ATTGGTCACTAGTTACCTTGACTTCCTGGAATTGATATTGAAGATTTAAAACAGTTTTATCTAGTTCCTT
    TATTATTTCTTGTTCTTCATACTCGCTTTGATGAACTAGTTCTAAAAATACATTAATTTCCGGTGTTTTT
    AGGCTTAATTTATTTTCGTCAGTATATTCTAATTTATAACTAAAAGCCATTGGGAAATAGTCTTCTTTTG
    GTTTATTTGTAAGTGAAAAGCCAGTATTAGTAGCAACTGGTTTTGCTGCTTCTGGTTTAGCCGCTACTGG
    TTTTGCTGCTTCTGGTTTAGCCGCTACTGGTTTTGCTGCTTCTGGTTTAGCCGCTACTGGTTTTGCTGCT
    TCTGGTTTAGCCGCTACTGGTTTTGCTGCTTCAGGTTTAGCTGCTTCAGGTTTAGCTGCTACTGGTTTTG
    TTGTTTCTGGTTTAGCCGCTACTGGTTTTGCTGCTTCTGGTTTTGCTGCTGGGGGCTGAGGCAATATACC
    TTTTATTTTATTATCCAATTCCTTAACTTTTTTATCTACTTCTTCTCTTTTACCTTCTTTTGTAGTTTCC
    CCTTTTTTGATAGCTTCAAATGAATACTGAAGATTATCGTCTAATTTTGCTCAAGGAGCAAAATTATTAA
    ATTGGGCTGCTTTAAGGAAAAATGCTTTTAAAAAATCACCGAAGGTTTTAAAATCAGTCCCTTCAAGTAA
    ATTTTTATCTAAAATAGTAGTTTTAAAAGCCGAGTTCTCAATTAAAGAATACTTTTTAAGCGCTTCAAAA
    ATTTGCGCCTCATTTTTGCCTTCTAATTCAGTTTTTACACTTTGGGGCAATAATAAAACTCCGTAAAATC
    CATCAGATTTTATTACATCGTTACGGGCTAAAATATTAAAGGAAAGTTGGTGAATTTCTTTTATCTGATT
    GTAAGGATCCTTTTTCTTCAATTCCAAAAATTTTAATTTATCTGCTTCTGCAAAAATATCTTTTGTATAT
    TGGAAAACCCCTTTTGGGAATTGTGCTCTGTTAGTTTCTAGTCCCCATTTTTTTGCTAGATCATAAAGAG
    TCTCTAAAATTGTTAATTTGTCCTTGGTGAGTAAATCCTGGAAATAACTTGCAACTTGATGTCCATTTTT
    AAAAAAGTTATTACTTTTAAGACTTGAAATTACTTGTTCTTTTGTTGTTTGTGGTTGATTTAAAACTGAA
    TTAGAACCAATTTTAACTTGTTCTAAATGTCTTGTAAATCTTTGGATATCAGCTTTTTCAGGATGCTGAA
    TTTTTCCTGTTCAGGAATTAAGCACGGATTTAAAGGCCCCGAATTCATAGGCATAATTTCCATCAAGTGC
    TTGATAGATTTCTTGGTTTTTATTCCCTTTAAAAAGAGCTTCAACTTCAACTTTGGCAAGTTGAGTATTA
    TATGGATTTAAGATATTACCATAGTCTAATTTTGCTTGTTCTTCTTTACCTTTTTCAAAAAATGGTAAAT
    ATTCGGTTTTAAAAATTTGCTGATTGATATTAGGGAGATCAATTTTTGAGCCTTTTTTAAATCCAGTTAA
    TTTAAGAATCCCTTCTTTTACGAGAATATTATCTTTTGTATCTGGATATAAATCATCGGCAAAAAATTTA
    TCTTTAATTTCAAGGCGGTAGGGAATTAAAACTATTGATTTATCTTTTTTATCAAGACTTGCGCTTGCTG
    CATCTAGGCTATATTCTAAATTTGGCGAGTTAAGACGGTCGTTGAATTTTCCATTGTATTTACCAAAGTC
    ATAAATATTTTCTTTTTTATTTAAAAGATTACTAATTTCTGCCTTGGTATGACTGGATCTCTTGTCTCCA
    GGGAAAAATCCAGATTTAATATCTGCTAGAAATTCATAGGCAGAAAGATTTTGACCCTTTGCATTTAAAT
    CTTCTTTTTGCATATTTTTCAGTGTTAAATTATTAACAAAATCCTCAAAATTTAGAAAATAAGAAGAATT
    ATCTTTTTTCATTAATCTTAAAATGTTAATAACTGGCTGAACTTCATCTGGGCTAGCTAAAATTTCACGG
    GCACTTTGACTAAGATCTGCTTTTAAAAACAGCGAAGGAATTTGGTTCTGGATACTTACATATTGATTAG
    TTGAACTATCTTTTGCAAAGCTAAATTCAAAAATATTACCCAAATTATTAGGTAATTTATTCTCAGGAGC
    ATTATTTAGTCTGTTTATTAAATTTTTAAGTACTGGAAAATAATTAGCAAGCTTTATATCTAAATCCTCA
    GGATTTCGCGCTGTATTTAAATCGTATTGGAAGTCAATAGCTCTTAGAGTTGAGGGATCTTTTTGGCTGC
    TTGTTTTTTCATCAGCAAAATTTGTAATTTTTGTTGATAAATTTTCAATTTGTTGATTTAATTTTTCGGT
    AATTTTTTTAAGCGAAAAATTAAATTCGGCAACTAAAAGATTTGACTGTTTGGCAAAAGCAACTGTTTGC
    TCATAAATATCAGATTTGGCAATATCACCATTATGAAGTTTTTGTAATGCCTGAAATTTTACCTTAAAAT
    TTTGATTGACATCATCAGGGATAATTTCAAGAATCTCAAAAGTTATCTTCGCCTTGGTATATTCAGGATC
    TTGAAAATTAATTTTTTCTAACTGATCACCGTTTTTAGTAAAAAAGGAAAAGGAATCAATAACTTTTTCT
    TTATTTCTAATATTGTTATTAGAATCAACTAGTCACCTTTTGACTATTTTATAATCAGAATCAGTCTCAA
    AAGCATAAGGACTAAAAGCTAATGTTGAAACTTTTGCGGCAAAATCATTTGCAATCTTTCGTGGACTTTC
    TGATCTGTATTTTGCCAAGCTGCTAAGTCCGACAGTTAGACCAAAAACTCCAAGACCAACAATTCCGGCA
    GTCAAACCAATTTTAAATGTTTTTGATTTTTTACTCA
    
    
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >YP_115696.1 protein p97; cilium adhesin [Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 232]
    MSKKSKTFKIGLTAGIVGLGVFGLTVGLSSLAKYRSESPRKIANDFAAKVSTLAFSPYAFETDSDYKIVK
    RWLVDSNNNIRNKEKVIDSFSFFTKNGDQLEKINFQDPEYTKAKITFEILEIIPDDVNQNFKVKFQALQK
    LHNGDIAKSDIYEQTVAFAKQSNLLVAEFNFSLKKITEKLNQQIENLSTKITNFADEKTSSQKDPSTLRA
    IDFQYDLNTARNPEDLDIKLANYFPVLKNLINRLNNAPENKLPNNLGNIFEFSFAKDSSTNQYVSIQNQI
    PSLFLKADLSQSAREILASPDEVQPVINILRLMKKDNSSYFLNFEDFVNNLTLKNMQKEDLNAKGQNLSA
    YEFLADIKSGFFPGDKRSSHTKAEISNLLNKKENIYDFGKYNGKFNDRLNSPNLEYSLDAASASLDKKDK
    SIVLIPYRLEIKDKFFADDLYPDTKDNILVKEGILKLTGFKKGSKIDLPNINQQIFKTEYLPFFEKGKEE
    QAKLDYGNILNPYNTQLAKVEVEALFKGNKNQEIYQALDGNYAYEFGAFKSVLNSWTGKIQHPEKADIQR
    FTRHLEQVKIGSNSVLNQPQTTKEQVISSLKSNNFFKNGHQVASYFQDLLTKDKLTILETLYDLAKKWGL
    ETNRAQFPKGVFQYTKDIFAEADKLKFLELKKKDPYNQIKEIHQLSFNILARNDVIKSDGFYGVLLLPQS
    VKTELEGKNEAQIFEALKKYSLIENSAFKTTILDKNLLEGTDFKTFGDFLKAFFLKAAQFNNFAPWAKLD
    DNLQYSFEAIKKGETTKEGKREEVDKKVKELDNKIKGILPQPPAAKPEAAKPVAAKPETTKPVAAKPEAA
    KPEAAKPVAAKPEAAKPVAAKPEAAKPVAAKPEAAKPVAAKPEAAKPVATNTGFSLTNKPKEDYFPMAFS
    YKLEYTDENKLSLKTPEINVFLELVHQSEYEEQEIIKELDKTVLNLQYQFQEVKVTSDQYQKLSHPMMTE
    GSSNQGKKSEGTPNQGKKAEGAPNQGKKAEGTPNQGKKAEGAPSQQSPTTELTNYLPDLGKKIDEIIKKQ
    GKNWKTEVELIEDNIAGDAKLLYFILRDDSKSGDPKKSSLKVKITVKQSNNNQEPESK
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : a P97 recombinant replication-defective adenovirus (rAdP97c) subunit vaccine efficiency was evaluated in pigs. The rAdP97c vaccine was found to induce both strong P97 specific humoral and cellular immune responses. The rAdP97c vaccinated pigs developed a lower amount of macroscopic lung lesions (18.5 + or - 9.6%) compared to the unvaccinated and challenged animals (45.8 + or - 11.5%). rAdP97c vaccine reduced significantly the severity of inflammatory response and the amount of M. hyopneumoniae in the respiratory tract. The challenge was performed at day 28 after the first vaccination with 106 CCU of the 232 M. hyopneumoniae strain by intratracheal route (Okamba et al., 2010).
  • Related Vaccine(s): rAd-P97c
III. Vaccine Information
1. Porcine Circovirus Type 2, Killed Baculovirus Vector Vaccine- Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 49K5.R1)
a. Manufacturer:
Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002316
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
2. Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome-Circovirus Reproductive & Respiratory Form, Type 2, Modifed Live Virus,Killed Baculovirus Vector Vaccine-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 49K9.R0)
a. Manufacturer:
Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002317
c. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine; Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
3. rAd-P97c
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004697
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Gene Engineering of P97
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description: a P97 recombinant replication-defective adenovirus (rAdP97c) subunit vaccine (Okamba et al., 2010).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Preparation
P97 recombinant replication-defective adenovirus (rAdP97c) subunit vaccine (Okamba et al., 2010).
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Pig Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: The pigs in the rAdP97c vaccinated group, animals were vaccinated with 2 × 1010 TCID50 of rAdP97c twice, (at days 0 and 14) by intranasal (i.n.) route (Okamba et al., 2010).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: The challenge was performed at day 28 after the first vaccination with 106 CCU of the 232 M. hyopneumoniae strain by intratracheal route (Okamba et al., 2010).
  • Efficacy: The rAdP97c vaccinated pigs developed a lower amount of macroscopic lung lesions (18.5 + or - 9.6%) compared to the unvaccinated and challenged animals (45.8 + or - 11.5%). rAdP97c vaccine reduced significantly the severity of inflammatory response and the amount of M. hyopneumoniae in the respiratory tract. Furthermore, the average daily weight gain was slightly improved in the rAdP97c vaccinated pigs (0.672 + or - 0.068 kg/day) compared to the unvaccinated and challenged animals (0.568 + or - 0.104 kg/day (Okamba et al., 2010).
4. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4994.20)
a. Manufacturer:
Intervet Inc., Pfizer, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002299
c. Status:
Licensed
d. Location Licensed:
USA
e. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
5. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4994.21)
a. Manufacturer:
Pfizer, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002300
c. Status:
Licensed
d. Location Licensed:
USA
e. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
6. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4994.23)
a. Manufacturer:
Pfizer, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002301
c. Status:
Licensed
d. Location Licensed:
USA
e. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
7. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4994.24)
a. Manufacturer:
Pfizer, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002302
c. Status:
Licensed
d. Location Licensed:
USA
e. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
8. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4995.22)
a. Manufacturer:
Intervet Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002303
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
9. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4995.23)
a. Manufacturer:
Pfizer, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002304
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
10. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4995.25)
a. Manufacturer:
Pfizer, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002305
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
11. Swine Influenza H1N1 & H3N2, Killed Virus Vaccine-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 4995.26)
a. Manufacturer:
Pfizer, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002306
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
IV. References
1. Chen et al., 2006: Chen AY, Fry SR, Forbes-Faulkner J, Daggard GE, Mukkur TK. Comparative immunogenicity of M. hyopneumoniae NrdF encoded in different expression systems delivered orally via attenuated S. typhimurium aroA in mice. Veterinary microbiology. 2006; 114(3-4); 252-259. [PubMed: 16426773].
2. Chen et al., 2006: Chen AY, Fry SR, Forbes-Faulkner J, Daggard G, Mukkur TK. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the P97R1 adhesin of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae as a mucosal vaccine in mice. Journal of medical microbiology. 2006; 55(Pt 7); 923-929. [PubMed: 16772421].
3. Feng et al., 2014: Feng ZX, Bai Y, Yao JT, Pharr GT, Wan XF, Xiao SB, Chi LZ, Gan Y, Wang HY, Wei YN, Liu MJ, Xiong QY, Bai FF, Li B, Wu XS, Shao GQ. Use of serological and mucosal immune responses to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens P97R1, P46 and P36 in the diagnosis of infection. Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997). 2014; 202(1); 128-133. [PubMed: 25066030].
4. King et al., 1997: King KW, Faulds DH, Rosey EL, Yancey RJ Jr. Characterization of the gene encoding Mhp1 from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and examination of Mhp1's vaccine potential. Vaccine. 1997; 15(1); 25-35. [PubMed: 9041663].
5. Leal et al., 2016: Leal FM, Virginio VG, Martello CL, Paes JA, Borges TJ, Jaeger N, Bonorino C, Ferreira HB. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare differential domains from orthologous surface proteins induce distinct cellular immune responses in mice. Veterinary microbiology. 2016; 190; 50-57. [PubMed: 27283856].
6. Okamba et al., 2010: Okamba FR, Arella M, Music N, Jia JJ, Gottschalk M, Gagnon CA. Potential use of a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus vector carrying the C-terminal portion of the P97 adhesin protein as a vaccine against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in swine. Vaccine. 2010; 28(30); 4802-4809. [PubMed: 20472025].
7. Simionatto et al., 2012: Simionatto S, Marchioro SB, Galli V, Brum CB, Klein CS, Rebelatto R, Silva EF, Borsuk S, Conceição FR, Dellagostin OA. Immunological characterization of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae recombinant proteins. Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. 2012; 35(2); 209-216. [PubMed: 22304900].
8. Wiki: M. hyopneumoniae: Wiki: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycoplasma_hyopneumoniae]