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African Swine Fever Virus

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Host Ranges and Animal Models
    5. Host Protective Immunity
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. 9GL (Virmugen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. African Swine Fever Virus 9GL mutant vaccine
    2. BacMam-sHAPQ
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
10497
2. Disease:
African Swine Fever
3. Introduction
African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first described by Montgomery in Kenya in 1921. Since then, many African, European and American countries have been affected by the disease. It is a very complex and large enveloped DNA virus with a genome of 170–190 kbp. It is classified as a unique member of the Asfarviridae family, genus Asfivirus. The virus presents high genetic and antigenic variability, with 22 different genotypes described based on the p72 sequences. African swine fever is considered a haemorrhagic disease due to the typical haemorrhagic symptoms of the hyperacute and acute forms of the diseases. However, chronic and asymptomatic forms of the disease may also be presented without these characteristic symptoms. African swine fever clinical signs may vary from a hyperacute form, with 100% mortality from days 4–7 post-infection and typical haemorrhagic symptoms, to a less common asymptomatic and chronic form that can turn animals into carriers (Sanchez-Vizcaino et al., 2012).
4. Host Ranges and Animal Models
Wild pigs, wild boars, domestic pigs, ticks (Sanchez-Vizcaino et al., 2012)
5. Host Protective Immunity
Protective immunity against ASFV is not fully understood. Although ASFV infection induces small proportion of neutralizing antibodies against some virion proteins, this protection is not enough for viral challenge. Cellular immunity also plays an important role in immune protection against ASFV infection, specifically, cell activity of CD8 lymphocytes and natural killer cells (NK). Cross-protection has been also demonstrated by challenging infected animals with homologous isolates (Sanchez-Vizcaino et al., 2012). A safe and effective commercial vaccine does not exist yet.
1. 9GL
  • Gene Name : 9GL
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : African swine fever virus Mal
  • NCBI Protein GI : 6759635
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:194250
  • Taxonomy ID : 10497
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : Mal-9GL protein
  • Protein Length : 119
  • Protein Note : pathogenic Ornithodoris tick isolate Malawi Lil-20/1 (1983), Chalaswa, Malawi
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|6759635|gb|AAF27970.1|AF081174_1 Mal-9GL protein [African swine fever virus]
    MLHWGPKFWRTLHLYAIFFSDTPGWKEKYEAIQWILNFIESLPCTMCRHHAFSYLTKNPLTLNNSEDFQY
    WTFAFHNNVNKRLNKKIISWSEYKNIYEQSILNTIEYGKTDFIGAWSSL
  • Molecule Role : Virmugen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : A 9GL mutant of African Swine Fever Virus is attenuated in swine and induces significant protection from challenge with wild type ASFV (Lewis et al., 2000).
  • Related Vaccine(s): African Swine Fever Virus 9GL mutant vaccine
III. Vaccine Information
1. African Swine Fever Virus 9GL mutant vaccine
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004284
b. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Swine
e. Gene Engineering of 9GL
  • Type: Gene mutation
  • Description: This 9GL mutant is from African Swine Fever Virus Mal (Lewis et al., 2000).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Pig Response
  • Persistence: A 9GL mutant is attenuated in swine (Lewis et al., 2000).
  • Efficacy: A 9GL mutant induces significant protection in swine from challenge with wild type ASFV (Lewis et al., 2000).
2. BacMam-sHAPQ
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004655
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
f. Pig Response
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Efficacy: The protective potential of this recombinant vaccine candidate was tested by a homologous sublethal challenge with ASFV following immunization. Four out of six immunized pigs remained viremia-free after ASFV infection, while the other two pigs showed similar viremic titres to control animals (Argilaguet et al., 2013).
IV. References
1. Argilaguet et al., 2011: Argilaguet JM, Pérez-Martín E, Gallardo C, Salguero FJ, Borrego B, Lacasta A, Accensi F, Díaz I, Nofrarías M, Pujols J, Blanco E, Pérez-Filgueira M, Escribano JM, Rodríguez F. Enhancing DNA immunization by targeting ASFV antigens to SLA-II bearing cells. Vaccine. 2011; 29(33); 5379-5385. [PubMed: 21679736].
2. Argilaguet et al., 2013: Argilaguet JM, Pérez-Martín E, López S, Goethe M, Escribano JM, Giesow K, Keil GM, Rodríguez F. BacMam immunization partially protects pigs against sublethal challenge with African swine fever virus. Antiviral research. 2013; 98(1); 61-65. [PubMed: 23428670].
3. Lewis et al., 2000: Lewis T, Zsak L, Burrage TG, Lu Z, Kutish GF, Neilan JG, Rock DL. An African swine fever virus ERV1-ALR homologue, 9GL, affects virion maturation and viral growth in macrophages and viral virulence in swine. Journal of virology. 2000; 74(3); 1275-1285. [PubMed: 10627538].
4. Sanchez-Vizcaino et al., 2012: Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, Mur L, Martinez-Lopez B. African Swine Fever: An Epidemiological Update. Transboundary and emerging diseases. 2012; ; . [PubMed: 22225967].