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Schistosoma mansoni

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. calpain (Protective antigen)
    2. GPX (Protective antigen)
    3. Sm23 (Protective antigen)
    4. SOD (Protective antigen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. S. mansoni DNA vaccine pcDNA/CTSOD encoding SOD
    2. S. mansoni DNA vaccine pcDNA/GPXbb encoding glutathione-S-peroxidase, GPX
    3. S. mansoni DNA vaccine Sm-p80-pcDNA3 encoding the large subunit of S. mansoni calpain
    4. S. mansoni DNA vaccine Sm23-pcDNA encoding Sm23
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
6183
2. Disease:
Schistosomiasis
3. Introduction
Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is a disease caused by parasitic worms. Infection occurs when your skin comes in contact with contaminated freshwater in which certain types of snails that carry schistosomes are living.

Freshwater becomes contaminated by Schistosoma eggs when infected people urinate or defecate in the water. The eggs hatch, and if certain types of freshwater snails are present in the water, the parasites develop and multiply inside the snails. The parasite leaves the snail and enters the water where it can survive for about 48 hours. Schistosoma parasites can penetrate the skin of persons who are wading, swimming, bathing, or washing in contaminated water. Within several weeks, parasite mature into adult worms, residing in the blood vessels of the body where the females produce eggs. Some of the eggs travel to the bladder or intestine and are passed into the urine or stool. Within days after becoming infected, you may develop a rash or itchy skin. Fever, chills, cough, and muscle aches can begin within 1-2 months of infection. Most people have no symptoms at this early phase of infection.

When adult worms are present, the eggs that are produced usually travel to the intestine, liver or bladder, causing inflammation or scarring. Children who are repeatedly infected can develop anemia, malnutrition, and learning difficulties. After years of infection, the parasite can also damage the liver, intestine, lungs, and bladder. Rarely, eggs are found in the brain or spinal cord and can cause seizures, paralysis, or spinal cord inflammation.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis are caused by the body's reaction to the eggs produced by worms, not by the worms themselves (CDC - Schistosomiasis).
1. calpain
  • Gene Name : calpain
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Schistosoma mansoni strain Puerto Rico
  • NCBI Protein GI : 353230291
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:28925
    CDD:201582
    CDD:29269
    CDD:28933
    CDD:205677
  • Taxonomy ID : 6183
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : calpain (C02 family)
  • Protein Length : 1513
  • Protein Note : Calpains, domains IIa, IIb; calcium-dependent cytoplasmic cysteine proteinases, papain-like. Functions in cytoskeletal remodeling processes, cell differentiation, apoptosis and signal transduction; cd00044
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|353230291|emb|CCD76462.1| calpain (C02 family) [Schistosoma mansoni]
    MRRKKQNSDSETECNGVPLNYLDILKPTLTEKRVQFNLNIPCSITPKGYAKLHEKLTSPCIPHSKGKADS
    MADRVYRQIFLYCTNSLNGFTHSSKSETTYASPTAMRKIKISQYEIISAKMVEAKELYQDPEFPANDASI
    GNLPHVSGRVEWKRPKDINPLAAFCTKSYSRFDVDQGALGDCWFASVMATVTKYPSLMSNIIPPNQTFKG
    SGYTGAFVFNFWRFGEWVEVVVDDRIPVVKGTCNPVFIHSTDNSEFWSCLLEKAYAKLCGSYAHLTGGFQ
    SEAMEDFTGGICTTLILNKKERPPNLLKMMEHYTKTCCVMGADVGGDKNKRREELGLIGSHAYSVTGVGK
    VNYMGKDVYLVRCRNPWGERHEWKGPWSDNSPEWKDVKSKDKRALQYKPKEDGEFCSFQLTFILFISTSI
    SRRNVLFGLPLFRFPSPFQVRACLVMQFGDFLNVCPIHFQQSFCTNPQYLFTIGTDNSGKVGKAHIIVGV
    MQEHRRFLYGGEYLAIGFSIFEVSELQNTRLTPEELLCRKPLLTSDYIPRREVTLEADLFPGTFILIPST
    YNSNQEARYICRVFSTVKMKQLELDEENSYEGFPKKELASLELNFKQLCNPVTEKINSRILGTILDQSNF
    GEYMDGFTEFPSNLCSSLISSASTNLTGQIDLEEYLYLLIDLKGWMLTFNKYDDRKGCVSWFKFRDLLKS
    SGYKVSNRVFSVLAHRHIDHKRGHISLESYLHCMANLKFAFDVTSYHPKSDKGILMFNKEDVYSPDENVS
    GRTNRPGKEVVDPRTGRIIKVKRETPDDYLNVLKPIKGPKRMEFNPYLPKTLTPKGYAKFKLMMNVASKQ
    YETLVKRLKTERTLWEDPDFPANDKAIGNLPDFRERIEWKRPHEINPNAKFFAGGASRFDIEQGALGDCW
    LLAVVASISGYPQLFDQVVPKDQELKGPEYVGVVRFRFWRFGHWVEVLIDDRLPVRQGRNTLVFMHSNDP
    TEFWSALLEKAYAKLNGCYAHLSGGSQSEAMEDLTGGICLSLELNQKERPSDLIDQLKIYAQRCCLMGCS
    IDSSVMEQKMDNGLIGSHAYSLTGVYPVNYRGRTQWLMRLRNPWGDSHEWKGAWCDGSPQWREISEQEKK
    NINLSFTADGEFWMSYEDFVTCFSRVEVCHLGLESLEYNQNFHGKRRLDEAIFSGQWQRNVNAGGCINNR
    TTYWTNPQFRITVEDPDPDDDDNKCSVLIGLMQTDIRKKVGADFQPIGFMVYNAPDDLNTLLSRAQLLTR
    SPIAKSQFINTREVTAQFRVPPGSYVVIPSTFDPNIEVNFILRVFSQTSITEQELDEDNTNQGLPDDVIE
    ALKLEDTLLDEDQEIEQKFLAIRDPKTNAINAVKLGELLNNSTLQDIPNFQGFNKELCRSMVASVDNNLT
    GHVELNEFMDLWIQAKGWKHIFIKHDVDQSGYFSAYEFREALNDAGYHVSNRLINAIINRYQDPGTDKIS
    FEDFMLCMVRLKTAFETIEAHPKNIEGTSLFSAEDYLRFSVYI
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Related Vaccine(s): S. mansoni DNA vaccine Sm-p80-pcDNA3 encoding the large subunit of S. mansoni calpain
2. GPX
  • Gene Name : GPX
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Schistosoma mansoni
  • NCBI Protein GI : 212287928
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:48492
  • Taxonomy ID : 6183
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : Glutathione peroxidase
  • Protein Length : 169
  • Protein Note : GPX
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|212287928|sp|Q00277.2|GPX1_SCHMA RecName: Full=Glutathione peroxidase; Short=GPX
    MSSSHKSWNSIYEFTVKDINGVDVSLEKYRGHVCLIVNVACKUGATDKNYRQLQEMHTRLVGKGLRILAF
    PCNQFGGQEPWAEAEIKKFVTEKYGVQFDMFSKIKVNGSDADDLYKFLKSRQHGTLTNNIKWNFSKFLVD
    RQGQPVKRYSPTTAPYDIEGDIMELLEKK
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Related Vaccine(s): S. mansoni DNA vaccine pcDNA/GPXbb encoding glutathione-S-peroxidase, GPX
3. Sm23
  • Gene Name : Sm23
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Schistosoma mansoni
  • NCBI Protein GI : 511890
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:201163
    CDD:48414
  • Taxonomy ID : 6183
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : integral membrane protein 23
  • Protein Length : 218
  • Protein Note : Tetraspanin family; pfam00335
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|511890|gb|AAA73525.1| integral membrane protein 23 [Schistosoma mansoni]
    MATLGTGMRCLKSCVFVLNIICLLCSLVLIGAGAYVEVKFSQYGDNLHKVWQAAPIAIIVVGVIILIVSF
    LGCCGAIKENVCMLYMYAFFLVVLLIAELAAAIVAVVYKDRIDSEIDALMTGALDKPTKEITEFMNLIQS
    SFHCCGAKGPNDYRGNVPASCKEENLTYTEGCVSVFGAFLKRNLVIVACVAFGVCFFQLLSIVIACCLGR
    QIKEYENV
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Related Vaccine(s): S. mansoni DNA vaccine Sm23-pcDNA encoding Sm23
4. SOD
  • Gene Name : SOD
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Schistosoma mansoni strain NMRI
  • NCBI Protein GI : 161119
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:48338
  • Taxonomy ID : 6183
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : superoxide dismutase
  • Protein Length : 153
  • Protein Note : Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD). superoxide dismutases catalyse the conversion of superoxide radicals to molecular oxygen. Three evolutionarily distinct families of SODs are known, of which the copper/zinc-binding family is one. Defects in the...; cd00305
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|161119|gb|AAA29935.1| superoxide dismutase [Schistosoma mansoni]
    MKAVCVMTGTAGVKGVVKFTQETDNGPVHVHAEFSGLKAGKHGFHVHEFGDTTNGCTSAGAHFNPTKQEH
    GAPEDSIRHVGDLGNVVAGADGNAVYNATDKLISLNGSHSIIGRSMVIHENEDDLGRGGHELSKVTGNAG
    GRLACGVVGLAAE
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Related Vaccine(s): S. mansoni DNA vaccine pcDNA/CTSOD encoding SOD
III. Vaccine Information
1. S. mansoni DNA vaccine pcDNA/CTSOD encoding SOD
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004462
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse
e. Gene Engineering of SOD
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: Vector cDNAI/Amp (in vitrogen) expressed Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, SOD (Shalaby et al., 2003).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
pcDNAI/Amp (Shalaby et al., 2003)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Mouse Response
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: CT-SOD showed the highest level of protection out of all vaccines tested (54%). Two immunizations resulted in significant reduction of worm burden compared to control groups (Shalaby et al., 2003).
2. S. mansoni DNA vaccine pcDNA/GPXbb encoding glutathione-S-peroxidase, GPX
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004463
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse
e. Gene Engineering of GPX
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
pcDNAI/Amp (in vitrogen) (Shalaby et al., 2003)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Mouse Response
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: For the regimens involving GPXbb, immunization with DNA vaccination alone resulted in protection of 44%, but the prime-boost (boost of recombinant vaccinia virus/GPXbb) resulted in 85% worm burden reduction (Shalaby et al., 2003).
3. S. mansoni DNA vaccine Sm-p80-pcDNA3 encoding the large subunit of S. mansoni calpain
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004464
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse
e. Gene Engineering of calpain
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
pcDNA3 (Siddiqui et al., 2003)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Mouse Response
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Mice immunized with Sm-p80-pcDNA3 showed statistically significant 39% reduction in worm burden when compared with mice which received only pcDNA3. Similarly, mice immunized with Sm-p80-pcDNA3 and co-injected with pORF-mIL-2 exhibited 57% reduction (P≤0.0001) in the number of parasites when compared with the group of mice receiving only pcDNA3 and pORF-mIL-2. Also, when mice were primed with Sm-p80-pcDNA3 in the presence of pORF-mIL-12, they contained 45% less number of parasites (P≤0.0001) compared to the group of mice which were immunized with pcDNA3 alone (Siddiqui et al., 2003).
4. S. mansoni DNA vaccine Sm23-pcDNA encoding Sm23
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004461
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse
e. Gene Engineering of Sm23
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: Vector pcDNA1.1/Amp expressed Schistosoma mansoni integral membrane protein Sm23 (Da'dara et al., 2001).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
pcDNA1.1/Amp (Da'dara et al., 2001)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Mouse Response
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: The Sm23-pcDNA vaccine provided statistically significant levels of protection against challenge infection (21-44%, P<0.001-0.02) (Da'dara et al., 2001).
IV. References
1. CDC - Schistosomiasis: Parasites - Schistosomiasis [http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/schistosomiasis/gen_info/faqs.html]
2. Da'dara et al., 2001: Da'dara AA, Skelly PJ, Wang MM, Harn DA. Immunization with plasmid DNA encoding the integral membrane protein, Sm23, elicits a protective immune response against schistosome infection in mice. Vaccine. 2001; 20(3-4); 359-369. [PubMed: 11672898].
3. Shalaby et al., 2003: Shalaby KA, Yin L, Thakur A, Christen L, Niles EG, LoVerde PT. Protection against Schistosoma mansoni utilizing DNA vaccination with genes encoding Cu/Zn cytosolic superoxide dismutase, signal peptide-containing superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes. Vaccine. 2003; 22(1); 130-136. [PubMed: 14604580].
4. Siddiqui et al., 2003: Siddiqui AA, Phillips T, Charest H, Podesta RB, Quinlin ML, Pinkston JR, Lloyd JD, Pompa J, Villalovos RM, Paz M. Enhancement of Sm-p80 (large subunit of calpain) induced protective immunity against Schistosoma mansoni through co-delivery of interleukin-2 and interleukin-12 in a DNA vaccine formulation. Vaccine. 2003; 21(21-22); 2882-2889. [PubMed: 12798631].