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MERS-CoV

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. N from MERS-CoV (Protective antigen)
    2. S from MERS-CoV (Protective antigen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. Ad41.MERS-S protein
    2. Ad5.MERS-S vaccine
    3. Ad5.MERS-S1 vaccine
    4. ChAdOx1-MERS-S vaccine
    5. GLS-5300 Vaccine
    6. Inactivated whole MERS-CoV (IV) vaccine with CpG and Alum
    7. MERS England S1 subunit protein vaccine
    8. MERS England1 S DNA + MERS England1 S protein subunit vaccine
    9. MERS England1 S DNA vaccine
    10. MERS-CoV pcDNA3.1-S1 DNA vaccine
    11. MERS-CoV S vaccine adjuvanted with CpG and Alum
    12. MERS-CoV VLP vaccine
    13. MERS-CoV-S rNTD vaccine
    14. MERS-CoV-S rRBD vaccine
    15. MVA-MERS-S vaccine
    16. MVvac2-CoV-N
    17. MVvac2-CoV-S
    18. MVvac2-CoV-solS
    19. RVΔP-MERS/S1
    20. VRP-MERS-N vaccine
    21. VRP-SARS-N vaccine
    22. VSVΔG-MERS vaccine
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
1335626
2. Disease:
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)
1. N from MERS-CoV
  • Gene Name : N from MERS-CoV
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus
  • NCBI Gene ID : 14254601
  • NCBI Protein GI : 667489396
  • Locus Tag : G128_gp09
  • Protein Accession : YP_009047211
  • Taxonomy ID : 1335626
  • Gene Starting Position : 28565
  • Gene Ending Position : 29806
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : +
  • Protein Name : nucleoprotein
  • Protein pI : 10.69
  • Protein Weight : 43473.19
  • Protein Length : 413
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >NC_019843.3:28565-29806 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, complete genome
    TATGGCATCCCCTGCTGCACCTCGTGCTGTTTCCTTTGCCGATAACAATGATATAACAAATACAAACCTA
    TCTCGAGGTAGAGGACGTAATCCAAAACCACGAGCTGCACCAAATAACACTGTCTCTTGGTACACTGGGC
    TTACCCAACACGGGAAAGTCCCTCTTACCTTTCCACCTGGGCAGGGTGTACCTCTTAATGCCAATTCTAC
    CCCTGCGCAAAATGCTGGGTATTGGCGGAGACAGGACAGAAAAATTAATACCGGGAATGGAATTAAGCAA
    CTGGCTCCCAGGTGGTACTTCTACTACACTGGAACTGGACCCGAAGCAGCACTCCCATTCCGGGCTGTTA
    AGGATGGCATCGTTTGGGTCCATGAAGATGGCGCCACTGATGCTCCTTCAACTTTTGGGACGCGGAACCC
    TAACAATGATTCAGCTATTGTTACACAATTCGCGCCCGGTACTAAGCTTCCTAAAAACTTCCACATTGAG
    GGGACTGGAGGCAATAGTCAATCATCTTCAAGAGCCTCTAGCTTAAGCAGAAACTCTTCCAGATCTAGTT
    CACAAGGTTCAAGATCAGGAAACTCTACCCGCGGCACTTCTCCAGGTCCATCTGGAATCGGAGCAGTAGG
    AGGTGATCTACTTTACCTTGATCTTCTGAACAGACTACAAGCCCTTGAGTCTGGCAAAGTAAAGCAATCG
    CAGCCAAAAGTAATCACTAAGAAAGATGCTGCTGCTGCTAAAAATAAGATGCGCCACAAGCGCACTTCCA
    CCAAAAGTTTCAACATGGTGCAAGCTTTTGGTCTTCGCGGACCAGGAGACCTCCAGGGAAACTTTGGTGA
    TCTTCAATTGAATAAACTCGGCACTGAGGACCCACGTTGGCCCCAAATTGCTGAGCTTGCTCCTACAGCC
    AGTGCTTTTATGGGTATGTCGCAATTTAAACTTACCCATCAGAACAATGATGATCATGGCAACCCTGTGT
    ACTTCCTTCGGTACAGTGGAGCCATTAAACTTGACCCAAAGAATCCCAACTACAATAAGTGGTTGGAGCT
    TCTTGAGCAAAATATTGATGCCTACAAAACCTTCCCTAAGAAGGAAAAGAAACAAAAGGCACCAAAAGAA
    GAATCAACAGACCAAATGTCTGAACCTCCAAAGGAGCAGCGTGTGCAAGGTAGCATCACTCAGCGCACTC
    GCACCCGTCCAAGTGTTCAGCCTGGTCCAATGATTGATGTTAACACTGATTA
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >YP_009047211.1 nucleoprotein [Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus]
    MASPAAPRAVSFADNNDITNTNLSRGRGRNPKPRAAPNNTVSWYTGLTQHGKVPLTFPPGQGVPLNANST
    PAQNAGYWRRQDRKINTGNGIKQLAPRWYFYYTGTGPEAALPFRAVKDGIVWVHEDGATDAPSTFGTRNP
    NNDSAIVTQFAPGTKLPKNFHIEGTGGNSQSSSRASSLSRNSSRSSSQGSRSGNSTRGTSPGPSGIGAVG
    GDLLYLDLLNRLQALESGKVKQSQPKVITKKDAAAAKNKMRHKRTSTKSFNMVQAFGLRGPGDLQGNFGD
    LQLNKLGTEDPRWPQIAELAPTASAFMGMSQFKLTHQNNDDHGNPVYFLRYSGAIKLDPKNPNYNKWLEL
    LEQNIDAYKTFPKKEKKQKAPKEESTDQMSEPPKEQRVQGSITQRTRTRPSVQPGPMIDVNTD
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
2. S from MERS-CoV
  • Gene Name : S from MERS-CoV
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus
  • NCBI Gene ID : 14254594
  • NCBI Protein GI : 667489389
  • Locus Tag : G128_gp02
  • Protein Accession : YP_009047204
  • Taxonomy ID : 1335626
  • Gene Starting Position : 21455
  • Gene Ending Position : 25516
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : +
  • Protein Name : spike glycoprotein
  • Protein pI : 5.92
  • Protein Weight : 139840.56
  • Protein Length : 1353
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >NC_019843.3:21455-25516 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, complete genome
    AATGATACACTCAGTGTTTCTACTGATGTTCTTGTTAACACCTACAGAAAGTTACGTTGATGTAGGGCCA
    GATTCTGTTAAGTCTGCTTGTATTGAGGTTGATATACAACAGACTTTCTTTGATAAAACTTGGCCTAGGC
    CAATTGATGTTTCTAAGGCTGACGGTATTATATACCCTCAAGGCCGTACATATTCTAACATAACTATCAC
    TTATCAAGGTCTTTTTCCCTATCAGGGAGACCATGGTGATATGTATGTTTACTCTGCAGGACATGCTACA
    GGCACAACTCCACAAAAGTTGTTTGTAGCTAACTATTCTCAGGACGTCAAACAGTTTGCTAATGGGTTTG
    TCGTCCGTATAGGAGCAGCTGCCAATTCCACTGGCACTGTTATTATTAGCCCATCTACCAGCGCTACTAT
    ACGAAAAATTTACCCTGCTTTTATGCTGGGTTCTTCAGTTGGTAATTTCTCAGATGGTAAAATGGGCCGC
    TTCTTCAATCATACTCTAGTTCTTTTGCCCGATGGATGTGGCACTTTACTTAGAGCTTTTTATTGTATTC
    TAGAGCCTCGCTCTGGAAATCATTGTCCTGCTGGCAATTCCTATACTTCTTTTGCCACTTATCACACTCC
    TGCAACAGATTGTTCTGATGGCAATTACAATCGTAATGCCAGTCTGAACTCTTTTAAGGAGTATTTTAAT
    TTACGTAACTGCACCTTTATGTACACTTATAACATTACCGAAGATGAGATTTTAGAGTGGTTTGGCATTA
    CACAAACTGCTCAAGGTGTTCACCTCTTCTCATCTCGGTATGTTGATTTGTACGGCGGCAATATGTTTCA
    ATTTGCCACCTTGCCTGTTTATGATACTATTAAGTATTATTCTATCATTCCTCACAGTATTCGTTCTATC
    CAAAGTGATAGAAAAGCTTGGGCTGCCTTCTACGTATATAAACTTCAACCGTTAACTTTCCTGTTGGATT
    TTTCTGTTGATGGTTATATACGCAGAGCTATAGACTGTGGTTTTAATGATTTGTCACAACTCCACTGCTC
    ATATGAATCCTTCGATGTTGAATCTGGAGTTTATTCAGTTTCGTCTTTCGAAGCAAAACCTTCTGGCTCA
    GTTGTGGAACAGGCTGAAGGTGTTGAATGTGATTTTTCACCTCTTCTGTCTGGCACACCTCCTCAGGTTT
    ATAATTTCAAGCGTTTGGTTTTTACCAATTGCAATTATAATCTTACCAAATTGCTTTCACTTTTTTCTGT
    GAATGATTTTACTTGTAGTCAAATATCTCCAGCAGCAATTGCTAGCAACTGTTATTCTTCACTGATTTTG
    GATTACTTTTCATACCCACTTAGTATGAAATCCGATCTCAGTGTTAGTTCTGCTGGTCCAATATCCCAGT
    TTAATTATAAACAGTCCTTTTCTAATCCCACATGTTTGATTTTAGCGACTGTTCCTCATAACCTTACTAC
    TATTACTAAGCCTCTTAAGTACAGCTATATTAACAAGTGCTCTCGTCTTCTTTCTGATGATCGTACTGAA
    GTACCTCAGTTAGTGAACGCTAATCAATACTCACCCTGTGTATCCATTGTCCCATCCACTGTGTGGGAAG
    ACGGTGATTATTATAGGAAACAACTATCTCCACTTGAAGGTGGTGGCTGGCTTGTTGCTAGTGGCTCAAC
    TGTTGCCATGACTGAGCAATTACAGATGGGCTTTGGTATTACAGTTCAATATGGTACAGACACCAATAGT
    GTTTGCCCCAAGCTTGAATTTGCTAATGACACAAAAATTGCCTCTCAATTAGGCAATTGCGTGGAATATT
    CCCTCTATGGTGTTTCGGGCCGTGGTGTTTTTCAGAATTGCACAGCTGTAGGTGTTCGACAGCAGCGCTT
    TGTTTATGATGCGTACCAGAATTTAGTTGGCTATTATTCTGATGATGGCAACTACTACTGTTTGCGTGCT
    TGTGTTAGTGTTCCTGTTTCTGTCATCTATGATAAAGAAACTAAAACCCACGCTACTCTATTTGGTAGTG
    TTGCATGTGAACACATTTCTTCTACCATGTCTCAATACTCCCGTTCTACGCGATCAATGCTTAAACGGCG
    AGATTCTACATATGGCCCCCTTCAGACACCTGTTGGTTGTGTCCTAGGACTTGTTAATTCCTCTTTGTTC
    GTAGAGGACTGCAAGTTGCCTCTTGGTCAATCTCTCTGTGCTCTTCCTGACACACCTAGTACTCTCACAC
    CTCGCAGTGTGCGCTCTGTTCCAGGTGAAATGCGCTTGGCATCCATTGCTTTTAATCATCCTATTCAGGT
    TGATCAACTTAATAGTAGTTATTTTAAATTAAGTATACCCACTAATTTTTCCTTTGGTGTGACTCAGGAG
    TACATTCAGACAACCATTCAGAAAGTTACTGTTGATTGTAAACAGTACGTTTGCAATGGTTTCCAGAAGT
    GTGAGCAATTACTGCGCGAGTATGGCCAGTTTTGTTCCAAAATAAACCAGGCTCTCCATGGTGCCAATTT
    ACGCCAGGATGATTCTGTACGTAATTTGTTTGCGAGCGTGAAAAGCTCTCAATCATCTCCTATCATACCA
    GGTTTTGGAGGTGACTTTAATTTGACACTTCTAGAACCTGTTTCTATATCTACTGGCAGTCGTAGTGCAC
    GTAGTGCTATTGAGGATTTGCTATTTGACAAAGTCACTATAGCTGATCCTGGTTATATGCAAGGTTACGA
    TGATTGCATGCAGCAAGGTCCAGCATCAGCTCGTGATCTTATTTGTGCTCAATATGTGGCTGGTTACAAA
    GTATTACCTCCTCTTATGGATGTTAATATGGAAGCCGCGTATACTTCATCTTTGCTTGGCAGCATAGCAG
    GTGTTGGCTGGACTGCTGGCTTATCCTCCTTTGCTGCTATTCCATTTGCACAGAGTATCTTTTATAGGTT
    AAACGGTGTTGGCATTACTCAACAGGTTCTTTCAGAGAACCAAAAGCTTATTGCCAATAAGTTTAATCAG
    GCTCTGGGAGCTATGCAAACAGGCTTCACTACAACTAATGAAGCTTTTCAGAAGGTTCAGGATGCTGTGA
    ACAACAATGCACAGGCTCTATCCAAATTAGCTAGCGAGCTATCTAATACTTTTGGTGCTATTTCCGCCTC
    TATTGGAGACATCATACAACGTCTTGATGTTCTCGAACAGGACGCCCAAATAGACAGACTTATTAATGGC
    CGTTTGACAACACTAAATGCTTTTGTTGCACAGCAGCTTGTTCGTTCCGAATCAGCTGCTCTTTCCGCTC
    AATTGGCTAAAGATAAAGTCAATGAGTGTGTCAAGGCACAATCCAAGCGTTCTGGATTTTGCGGTCAAGG
    CACACATATAGTGTCCTTTGTTGTAAATGCCCCTAATGGCCTTTACTTCATGCATGTTGGTTATTACCCT
    AGCAACCACATTGAGGTTGTTTCTGCTTATGGTCTTTGCGATGCAGCTAACCCTACTAATTGTATAGCCC
    CTGTTAATGGCTACTTTATTAAAACTAATAACACTAGGATTGTTGATGAGTGGTCATATACTGGCTCGTC
    CTTCTATGCACCTGAGCCCATTACCTCCCTTAATACTAAGTATGTTGCACCACAGGTGACATACCAAAAC
    ATTTCTACTAACCTCCCTCCTCCTCTTCTCGGCAATTCCACCGGGATTGACTTCCAAGATGAGTTGGATG
    AGTTTTTCAAAAATGTTAGCACCAGTATACCTAATTTTGGTTCCCTAACACAGATTAATACTACATTACT
    CGATCTTACCTACGAGATGTTGTCTCTTCAACAAGTTGTTAAAGCCCTTAATGAGTCTTACATAGACCTT
    AAAGAGCTTGGCAATTATACTTATTACAACAAATGGCCGTGGTACATTTGGCTTGGTTTCATTGCTGGGC
    TTGTTGCCTTAGCTCTATGCGTCTTCTTCATACTGTGCTGCACTGGTTGTGGCACAAACTGTATGGGAAA
    ACTTAAGTGTAATCGTTGTTGTGATAGATACGAGGAATACGACCTCGAGCCGCATAAGGTTCATGTTCAC
    TA
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >YP_009047204.1 spike glycoprotein [Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus]
    MIHSVFLLMFLLTPTESYVDVGPDSVKSACIEVDIQQTFFDKTWPRPIDVSKADGIIYPQGRTYSNITIT
    YQGLFPYQGDHGDMYVYSAGHATGTTPQKLFVANYSQDVKQFANGFVVRIGAAANSTGTVIISPSTSATI
    RKIYPAFMLGSSVGNFSDGKMGRFFNHTLVLLPDGCGTLLRAFYCILEPRSGNHCPAGNSYTSFATYHTP
    ATDCSDGNYNRNASLNSFKEYFNLRNCTFMYTYNITEDEILEWFGITQTAQGVHLFSSRYVDLYGGNMFQ
    FATLPVYDTIKYYSIIPHSIRSIQSDRKAWAAFYVYKLQPLTFLLDFSVDGYIRRAIDCGFNDLSQLHCS
    YESFDVESGVYSVSSFEAKPSGSVVEQAEGVECDFSPLLSGTPPQVYNFKRLVFTNCNYNLTKLLSLFSV
    NDFTCSQISPAAIASNCYSSLILDYFSYPLSMKSDLSVSSAGPISQFNYKQSFSNPTCLILATVPHNLTT
    ITKPLKYSYINKCSRLLSDDRTEVPQLVNANQYSPCVSIVPSTVWEDGDYYRKQLSPLEGGGWLVASGST
    VAMTEQLQMGFGITVQYGTDTNSVCPKLEFANDTKIASQLGNCVEYSLYGVSGRGVFQNCTAVGVRQQRF
    VYDAYQNLVGYYSDDGNYYCLRACVSVPVSVIYDKETKTHATLFGSVACEHISSTMSQYSRSTRSMLKRR
    DSTYGPLQTPVGCVLGLVNSSLFVEDCKLPLGQSLCALPDTPSTLTPRSVRSVPGEMRLASIAFNHPIQV
    DQLNSSYFKLSIPTNFSFGVTQEYIQTTIQKVTVDCKQYVCNGFQKCEQLLREYGQFCSKINQALHGANL
    RQDDSVRNLFASVKSSQSSPIIPGFGGDFNLTLLEPVSISTGSRSARSAIEDLLFDKVTIADPGYMQGYD
    DCMQQGPASARDLICAQYVAGYKVLPPLMDVNMEAAYTSSLLGSIAGVGWTAGLSSFAAIPFAQSIFYRL
    NGVGITQQVLSENQKLIANKFNQALGAMQTGFTTTNEAFQKVQDAVNNNAQALSKLASELSNTFGAISAS
    IGDIIQRLDVLEQDAQIDRLINGRLTTLNAFVAQQLVRSESAALSAQLAKDKVNECVKAQSKRSGFCGQG
    THIVSFVVNAPNGLYFMHVGYYPSNHIEVVSAYGLCDAANPTNCIAPVNGYFIKTNNTRIVDEWSYTGSS
    FYAPEPITSLNTKYVAPQVTYQNISTNLPPPLLGNSTGIDFQDELDEFFKNVSTSIPNFGSLTQINTTLL
    DLTYEMLSLQQVVKALNESYIDLKELGNYTYYNKWPWYIWLGFIAGLVALALCVFFILCCTGCGTNCMGK
    LKCNRCCDRYEEYDLEPHKVHVH
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : MERS-CoV S spike protein is a protective antigen (Deng et al., 2018).
  • Related Vaccine(s): MERS England1 S DNA vaccine , MERS-CoV pcDNA3.1-S1 DNA vaccine , MERS-CoV S vaccine adjuvanted with CpG and Alum , MERS-CoV-S rNTD vaccine , MERS-CoV-S rRBD vaccine
III. Vaccine Information
1. Ad41.MERS-S protein
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Licensed
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
S protein(Guo et al., 2015)
f. Vector:
adenovirus type 41 (Guo et al., 2015)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
Adenovirus type 41 used as vector for MERS-CoV S protein (Guo et al., 2015)
2. Ad5.MERS-S vaccine
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Mouse
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
S from MERS-CoV(Kim et al., 2014).
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Description
Recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the full-length MERS-CoV S protein (Ad5.MERS-S) (Kim et al., 2014)
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/C(Kim et al., 2014)
  • Vaccination Protocol: inoculated intramuscularly with 1e11 viral particles of Vaccine 5719 and boosted intranasally 3 weeks after with 1e11 viral particles of Vaccine 5719
  • Immune Response: increased titers of neutralizing antibodies, slightly higher specific response than Vaccine 5720 vaccine (Kim et al., 2014)
3. Ad5.MERS-S1 vaccine
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Mouse
d. Antigen
S1 subunit of S from MERS-CoV (Kim et al., 2014).
e. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
f. Description
Recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the the S1 extracellular domain of S protein (Ad5.MERS-S1). (Kim et al., 2014)
g. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/C
  • Vaccination Protocol: inoculated intramuscularly with 1e11 viral particles of Vaccine 5720 and boosted intranasally 3 weeks after with 1e11 viral particles of Vaccine 5720 (Kim et al., 2014)
  • Immune Response: increased titers of neutralizing antibodies (Kim et al., 2014)
4. ChAdOx1-MERS-S vaccine
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Clinical trial
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
camel, mouse
e. Antigen
S protein
f. Vector:
chimpanzee adenovirus Oxford 1 (Munster et al., 2017)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
Chimpanzee adenovirus Oxford 1 vector expressing S protein from MERS-CoV (Munster et al., 2017)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: 1e8 Infectious Units (IU) ChAdOx1 MERS via the intranasal or intramuscular rout(Munster et al., 2017)
  • Immune Response: increased viral neutralizing titer and reduced viral load (Munster et al., 2017)
  • Challenge Protocol: hDPP4 mice were challenged intranasally with 1e4 TCID50 MERS-CoV (strain HCoV-EMC2012) (Munster et al., 2017)
  • Efficacy: complete protection (Munster et al., 2017)
j. Human Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Single intramuscular injection of ChAdOx1 5e9, 2.5e10, 5e10 MERS at (Folegatti et al., 2020)
  • Immune Response: Significant increase from baseline in T-cell (p<0·003) and IgG (p<0·0001) responses to the MERS-CoV spike antigen was observed at all doses. Four (44% [95% CI 19-73]) of nine participants had neutralizing antibodies against live MERS-CoV and 19 (79% [58-93]) of 24 participants had antibodies capable of neutralisation in a pseudotyped virus neutralisation assay (Folegatti et al., 2020).
  • Side Effects: 92 (74% [95% CI 66-81]) of 124 solicited adverse events were mild, 31 (25% [18-33]) were moderate, and all were self-limiting. One serious adverse event determined to be unrelated to vaccine.5e10 dosage had significantly higher proportion of moderate and severe adverse events to lower doses.(Folegatti et al., 2020)
  • Description: Phase I Clinical Results were sufficient to proceed to field phase 1b and phase 2 trails (Folegatti et al., 2020)
5. GLS-5300 Vaccine
a. Type:
DNA vaccine
b. Status:
Clinical trial
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
d. Antigen
MERS-CoV S protein(Modjarrad et al., 2019)
e. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
f. Human Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Patients were immunized with 1mL of 0.67 mg (low dose), 2 mg (middle dose), or 6 mg (high dose) GLS-5300 on day 1, week 4, and week 12 with co-localized intramuscular electroporation afterwards. (Modjarrad et al., 2019)
  • Immune Response: S1-specific and S-specific antibodies were detectable in most patients between first and third doses. Neutralizing antibodies were not maintained through the end of the study (by most participants). IFN-γ detected in all groups. (Modjarrad et al., 2019)
6. Inactivated whole MERS-CoV (IV) vaccine with CpG and Alum
a. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
whole virus (Deng et al., 2018)
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Description
inactivated whole MERS-CoV (IV) with a combined adjuvant (alum+CpG) as a vaccine formulation caused protection (Deng et al., 2018).
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: intramuscularly injected with 1 μg IV protein adjuvant with 100 μL of alum and 10 μg of CpG at weeks 0, 4, and 8 (Deng et al., 2018)
  • Immune Response: anti-S protein and anti-NP IgG response and neutralizing activity. (Deng et al., 2018)
  • Challenge Protocol: 9 days of the last immunization, the remaining mice were lightly anesthetized with isoflurane and transduced intranasally with 2.5e8 plaque-forming units (pfu) of Ad5-hDPP443. After 5 days, transduced mice were infected intranasally with MERS-CoV (1e5 pfu) in 50 μL of DMEM (Deng et al., 2018)
  • Efficacy: protected (Deng et al., 2018)
7. MERS England S1 subunit protein vaccine
a. Type:
Subunit vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse, rhesus monkey
e. Antigen
S1 subunit of S from MERS-CoV. (Wang et al., 2015)
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Description
A DNA vaccine constructed from a plasmid vaccines that encoded S1 subunit only. (Wang et al., 2015)
h. Mouse Response
i. Macaque Response
  • Host Strain: Macaca mulatta (Wang et al., 2015)
  • Vaccination Protocol: Six NHPs in the protein-only group were injected with 100 μg of MERS-CoV S1 protein and AlPO4 adjuvant at weeks 0 and 8. (Wang et al., 2015)
  • Immune Response: Induced high level of neutralizing antibodies (IgG1). Sera from immunized NHPs blocked mAbs targeted to the RBD and non-RBD S1 subunit, but not the S2 subunit. (Wang et al., 2015)
  • Challenge Protocol: Animals were administered 100 μg of MERS-CoV S1 protein and AlPO4 adjuvant at weeks 0 and 8, then challenged with Jordan N3 strain of MERS-CoV 19 weeks after imunization at 3.1 x 106, 3.6 x 106, and 3.4 x 106 p.f.u. (Wang et al., 2015)
  • Efficacy: protected (Wang et al., 2015)
8. MERS England1 S DNA + MERS England1 S protein subunit vaccine
a. Type:
Mixed, DNA vaccine and Subunit vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse, rhesus monkey
e. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
f. Description
A mixed vaccine using England S1 subunit protein vaccine and England1 S DNA vaccine. VRC8400 plasmid used to construct antigen (Wang et al., 2015)
g. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/cJ
  • Vaccination Protocol: S1 MERS-CoV full-length Spike protein at weeks and 3 and then injected with S1 protein plus Ribi adjuvant (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) at week 6 (Wang et al., 2015)
  • Immune Response: high titers of neutralizing antibody (Wang et al., 2015)
  • Challenge Protocol: Animals were challenged with JordanN3 strain of MERS-CoV (Wang et al., 2015)
h. Macaque Response
  • Host Strain: Macaca mulatta (Wang et al., 2015)
  • Vaccination Protocol: Six NHPs in the S DNA-S1 protein group were injected with 1 mg of plasmid DNA encoding MERS-CoV full-length Spike at weeks 0 and 4 and boosted with 100 μg of MERS-CoV S1 protein and AlPO4 adjuvant (Brenntag Biosector, Frederikssund, Denmark) at week 8 (Wang et al., 2015)
  • Challenge Protocol: challenged with Jordan N3 strain of MERS-CoV 19 weeks after immunization at 3.1e6, 3.6e6, and 3.4 e6 p.f.u. (Wang et al., 2015)
  • Efficacy: protected (Wang et al., 2015)
9. MERS England1 S DNA vaccine
a. Type:
DNA vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse, rhesus monkey
e. Antigen
S from MERS-CoV (Wang et al., 2015)
f. Gene Engineering of S from MERS-CoV
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
A DNA vaccine constructed from a plasmid vaccines that encoded full-length, membrane-anchored Spike protein. VRC8400 plasmid used to construct antigen (Wang et al., 2015)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/cJ
  • Vaccination Protocol: immunized with plasmid DNA at weeks 0, 3, and 6 (Wang et al., 2015)
  • Immune Response: high titers of neutralizing antibody (Wang et al., 2015)
10. MERS-CoV pcDNA3.1-S1 DNA vaccine
a. Type:
DNA vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
S from MERS-CoV (Chi et al., 2017)
f. Gene Engineering of S from MERS-CoV
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: Plasmid created containing first 735 amino acids of S from MERS-CoV (Chi et al., 2017)
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
DNA vaccine encoding the first 725 amino acids of S from MERS-CoV induces antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice (Chi et al., 2017)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c (Chi et al., 2017)
  • Vaccination Protocol: injected intramuscularly in the quadriceps muscle with 100 μg recombinant plasmid in 100 μL PBS on week 0, 3, 6 (Chi et al., 2017)
  • Immune Response: Anti-antigen IgG response and strong neutralizing activity, production of IFN-γ, production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, increase in IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. (Chi et al., 2017)
11. MERS-CoV S vaccine adjuvanted with CpG and Alum
a. Type:
Subunit vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Gene Engineering of S from MERS-CoV
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description: The S spike protein was conjugated with CpG or Alum as a subunit MERS vaccine (Deng et al., 2018).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Description
The spike protein of middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus adjuvanted with CpG and Alum provided protection against infection of MERS-CoV (Deng et al., 2018).
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were given intramuscular immunizations at 4-week intervals of S protein + adjuvant at a dosage of 1 μg of S protein. (Deng et al., 2018)
  • Immune Response: Induced S-specific neutralizing antibodies after 2 weeks, though titres were lower than in vaccine 5721. S-specific IgG tires were 105 at 6 weeks (after second dose), similar to titres of vaccine 5721. S-specific IgG titres did not increase after the third dosage. The IgG2a/IgG1 and IgG2b/IgG1 ratios were ~1. (Deng et al., 2018)
12. MERS-CoV VLP vaccine
a. Type:
Subunit vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Macaque
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Rhesus Macaque
e. Antigen
MERS-CoV S, E, and M proteins (Wang et al., 2017)
f. Vector:
Recombinant baculovirus (Wang et al., 2017)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Macaque Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Animals were vaccinated intramuscularly (i.m.) in the gastrocnemius muscle with 250 μg of MERS-CoV VLPs and mixed with 250 μg Alum adjuvant. (Wang et al., 2017)
  • Immune Response: Induced neutralizing antibodies (titres up to 1:40), RBD-Specific IgG (endpoint titres up to 1:1,280), T-helper 1 cell (Th1)-mediated immunity, production of IFN-γ. (Wang et al., 2017)
13. MERS-CoV-S rNTD vaccine
a. Type:
Subunit vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
Recombinant N-terminal domain (amino acids 18 - 353) of S1 subunit of S protein. (Chen et al., 2017)
f. Gene Engineering of S from MERS-CoV
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description: baculovirus-insect cell sf9-derived recombinant MERS-CoV was used to express rNTD (Chen et al., 2017)
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
neutralizing monoclonal antibodiesagainst MERS-CoV which bind to the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the MERS-CoV S1 subunit (Chen et al., 2017)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c (Chen et al., 2017)
  • Vaccination Protocol: 35 μg MERS-CoV rS combined with 150 μL Freund’s complete adjuvant (Sigma, St Louis, CA, USA) via subcutaneous immunization and boosted twice at 2-week intervals beginning three weeks after the initial immunization (Chen et al., 2017)
  • Immune Response: anti-S protein IgG response and neutralizing activity (Chen et al., 2017)
14. MERS-CoV-S rRBD vaccine
a. Type:
Subunit vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
Recombinant ribosomal binding site of S1 subunit of S from MERS-COV.(Chen et al., 2017)
f. Gene Engineering of S from MERS-CoV
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description: baculovirus-insect cell sf9-derived recombinant MERS-CoV was used to express rRBD (Chen et al., 2017)
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
monoclonal antibody of MERS-CoV, which mapped to a wide range of regions on the spike (S) protein of the virus. In addition to mAbs with neutralizing epitopes located on the receptor-binding domain
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c (Chen et al., 2017)
  • Vaccination Protocol: 35 μg MERS-CoV rS combined with 150 μL Freund’s complete adjuvant (Sigma, St Louis, CA, USA) via subcutaneous immunization and boosted twice at 2-week intervals beginning three weeks after the initial immunization (Chen et al., 2017)
  • Immune Response: anti-S protein IgG response and neutralizing activity (Chen et al., 2017)
15. MVA-MERS-S vaccine
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Clinical trial
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
camel, mouse
e. Antigen
S protein (Song et al., 2013)
f. Vector:
modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA)(Song et al., 2013)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) vaccine vector carrying full MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein(Koch et al., 2020)
i. Human Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: 1e7 plaque-forming unit or 1e8 PFU MVA-MERS-S intramuscularly injected at 0 and 28 days (Koch et al., 2020)
  • Immune Response: Following booster immunization, nine (75%) of 12 participants in the low-dose group and 11 (100%) participants in the high-dose group showed seroconversion using a MERS-CoV S1 ELISA at any timepoint during the study which correlated with MERS-CoV-specific neutralising antibodies (Spearman's correlation r=0·86 [95% CI 0·6960-0·9427], p=0·0001). MERS-CoV spike-specific T-cell responses were detected in ten (83%) of 12 immunised participants in the low-dose group and ten (91%) of 11 immunized participants in the high-dose group. (Koch et al., 2020)
  • Side Effects: Participants had no severe or serious adverse events. 67 vaccine-related adverse events were reported in ten (71%) of 14 participants in the low-dose group, and 111 were reported in ten (83%) of 12 participants in the high-dose group. Pain (seven at 1e7 vaccinationgroup vs ten 1e8 PFU vaccination group), swelling (two vs eight), induration (one vs nine), fatigue or maliase (ten vs seven) were most common events (Koch et al., 2020)
  • Description: Phase 1 trial results of MVA-MERS-S showed a benign safety profile
16. MVvac2-CoV-N
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Licensed
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
N protein(Bodmer et al., 2018)
f. Vector:
live-attenuated measles virus (MV)(Bodmer et al., 2018)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
Live-attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine encoding the MERS-CoV nucleocapsid protein (MERS-N) (Bodmer et al., 2018)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: IFNAR−/−-CD46Ge
  • Vaccination Protocol: Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 1 × 105 TCID50 of recombinant virus on days 0 and either on day 21 or 28. (Bodmer et al., 2018)
  • Immune Response: Vaccinated animals exhibited high MV virus neutralizing titers (VNT), production of IFN-γ producing cells. (Bodmer et al., 2018)
17. MVvac2-CoV-S
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
Mouse
e. Antigen
S protein (Malczyk et al., 2015)
f. Vector:
recombinant measles virus (MV) (Malczyk et al., 2015)
g. Immunization Route
Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
h. Description
MVs expressing the spike glycoprotein of MERS-CoV in its full-length cloned into vaccine strain MVvac2 genome and rescued (Malczyk et al., 2015)
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: IFNAR−/−-CD46Ge
  • Vaccination Protocol: inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 1 × 105 TCID50 of recombinant MV(Malczyk et al., 2015)
  • Immune Response: increased viral neutralizing titers, increased CD8+ T cells with low CFSE (Malczyk et al., 2015)
  • Challenge Protocol: immunized mice were transduced intranasally (i.n.) on day 63 with 20 μl of an adenovirus vector encoding human DPP4 and mCherry with a final titer of 2.5e8 PFU per inoculum (AdV-hDPP4; ViraQuest Inc.) and challenged i.n. with 20 μl of MERS-CoV at a final titer of 7e4 TCID50 on day 68.(Malczyk et al., 2015)
  • Efficacy: decreased viral loads, even accounting for fraction of mice where transduction of MERS-CoV failed (~30%) (Malczyk et al., 2015)
18. MVvac2-CoV-solS
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Licensed
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Antigen
truncated soluble S protein (Malczyk et al., 2015)
e. Vector:
recombinant measles virus (MV) (Malczyk et al., 2015)
f. Immunization Route
Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
g. Description
MVs expressing a soluble, truncated version of spike glycoprotein of MERS-CoV in its full-length cloned into vaccine strain MVvac2 genome and rescued (Malczyk et al., 2015)
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: IFNAR−/−-CD46Ge
  • Vaccination Protocol: inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 1 × 105 TCID50 of recombinant MV(Malczyk et al., 2015)
  • Immune Response: Immune Response Description: increased viral neutralizing titers, increased CD8+ T cells with low CFSE (Malczyk et al., 2015)
  • Challenge Protocol: Challenge Protocol: immunized mice were transduced intranasally (i.n.) on day 63 with 20 μl of an adenovirus vector encoding human DPP4 and mCherry with a final titer of 2.5 × 108 PFU per inoculum (AdV-hDPP4; ViraQuest Inc.) and challenged i.n. with 20 μl of MERS-CoV at a final titer of 7 × 104 TCID50 on day 68.(Malczyk et al., 2015)
  • Efficacy: decreased viral loads, even accounting for fraction of mice where transduction of MERS-CoV failed (~30%) (Malczyk et al., 2015
19. RVΔP-MERS/S1
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Licensed
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
d. Antigen
S1 subunit of S protein (Kato et al., 2019)
e. Vector:
replication-incompetent P-gene-deficient rabies virus (RVΔP) (Kato et al., 2019)
f. Immunization Route
Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
g. Description
Recombinant RVΔP that expresses S1 fused with transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains together with 14 amino acids from the ectodomains of the RV-glycoprotein (RV-G)(Kato et al., 2019)
h. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c (Kato et al., 2019)
  • Vaccination Protocol: All mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 100 μL of each virus solution containing 107 FFU/mL or PBS, with the day on which mice were inoculated with viruses defined as day 0. (Kato et al., 2019)
  • Immune Response: increased neutralizing antibody titer for MERS-CoV and rabies virus (Kato et al., 2019)
  • Description: Safety profile indicated no deaths when inoculated intracerebrally for three weeks with 107 FFU/mL of RVΔP-MERS/S1.
20. VRP-MERS-N vaccine
a. Type:
Viral Like Particle Vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
N protein (Zhao et al., 2016)
f. Vector:
Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons (Zhao et al., 2016)
g. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
h. Description
Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons bearing epitopes of N protein from MERS(Zhao et al., 2016).Identical to VRP-MERS-N vaccine (Vaccine 5754).
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: BALB/c mice vaccinated at 2 μg/ml or 20 μg/ml and boosted with VRP-SARS-N, VRP-SARS-S, or VRP-GFP in the left footpad in 20 μL PBS or intranasally (i.n.) in 50 μL PBS after light anesthesia with isoflurane (Zhao et al., 2016)
  • Immune Response: Reduced viral titre load, Production of N-specific CD4+ T cells, Production of IFN-γ, Production of CD8+ T cells. (Zhao et al., 2016)
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were challenged 4-6 weeks after boosting (Zhao et al., 2016)
  • Efficacy: protected (Zhao et al., 2016)
21. VRP-SARS-N vaccine
a. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
b. Status:
Licensed
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
CD4+ T cell epitope in the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV (N353) (Zhou et al., 2006)
f. Vector:
Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons (VRP) (Zhao et al., 2016)
g. Immunization Route
intranasal immunization
h. Description
Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons (VRP) encoding a SARS-CoV CD4+ T cell epitope vaccinated intranasally. Does not have same efficacy if vaccinated subcutaneously (Zhao et al., 2016) Identical to VRP-SARS-N vaccine (Vaccine 5759).
i. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: Balb/c
  • Immune Response: Decreased viral titre, increase in N-specific CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ in lungs, production of IL-10, increased mobilization of CD8+ cells to infected lung. (Zhao et al., 2016)
  • Efficacy: Protection at 100 pfu, protected at 500 and 1000 PFU doses (Zhao et al., 2016)
22. VSVΔG-MERS vaccine
a. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
b. Status:
Research
c. Host Species for Licensed Use:
None
d. Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model:
mouse
e. Antigen
S from MERS-CoV (Liu et al., 2018)
f. Vector:
vesicular stomatitis virus (Liu et al., 2018)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
Chimeric virus based on the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in which the G gene was replaced by MERS-CoV S gene (VSVΔG-MERS) (Liu et al., 2018)
i. Macaque Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: intramuscularly immunized with 2e7 FFU VSVΔG-MERS (preparation described below) in 2 ml medium via hind limb muscle injection or intranasally immunized with 2e7 FFU VSVΔG-MERS as via nostril instillation under anesthesia (Liu et al., 2018)
  • Immune Response: recombinant virus induced high level of S protein specific IgG in both groups (Liu et al., 2018)
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