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Mumps virus

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Microbial Pathogenesis
    5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
    6. Host Protective Immunity
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. HN (Protective antigen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. M-M-R II
    2. Mumps HN Protein Subunit Vaccine
    3. Mumpsvax
    4. Priorix
    5. Priorix-Tetra
    6. ProQuad
    7. rvOka-HN (mumps virus)
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
11161
2. Disease:
Mumps
3. Introduction
Mumps virus is a member of the paramyxovirus family, closely related to parainfluenza viruses. It only has one serotype. Mumps is a disease of childhood, the highest incidence occurs in children between 5 - 9 years of age. The common symptoms include parotid inflammation (or parotitis), fever, headache, and orchitis. Mumps is vaccine-preventable, and one dose of mumps vaccine is about 80% effective against the disease (Hviid et al., 2008).
4. Microbial Pathogenesis
Mumps is acquired through inoculation and replication of the virus in the nasal or upper-respiratory-tract mucosa. Infection can remain localised to the respiratory tract.12 Transient plasma viraemia is probably frequent, occurs late in the incubation period, and leads to viral spread into organs. Infected mononuclear cells can also contribute to systemic viral spread.The parotids are the most commonly affected organs, but parotitis is not a primary or necessary step for mumps infection. The central nervous system (CNS), urinary tract, and genital organs can also be affected. Infection of the kidneys leads to viruria, which is present in most patients and lasts for 10–14 days. Plasma viremia seems to be restricted by the humoral immune response,16 and salivary secretion of the virus correlates inversely with the local production of virus-specific secretory IgA (Hviid et al., 2008).
5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
Mumps is a virus that only infects humans (Hviid et al., 2008).
6. Host Protective Immunity
Mumps as an illness is generally benign and self-resolving. Titres of neutralising antibody are related to clinical protection, but there is no surrogate immunological marker for protection (Hviid et al., 2008).
1. HN
  • Gene Name : HN
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Mumps virus
  • VO ID : VO_0011171
  • NCBI Gene ID : 1489765
  • NCBI Protein GI : 9695422
  • Locus Tag : MuVgp6
  • Genbank Accession : AB040874
  • Protein Accession : NP_054713
  • Taxonomy ID : 11161
  • Gene Starting Position : 6613
  • Gene Ending Position : 8361
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : hemagglutinin-neuraminidase
  • Protein pI : 7.68
  • Protein Weight : 59974.82
  • Protein Length : 582
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|9695415:6613-8361 Mumps virus, complete genome
    GATGGAGCCCTCCAAACTCTTCACAATGTCAGACAATGCCACCTTTGCACCTGGGCCTGTTATCAATGCG
    GCTGACAAGAAGACATTCCGAACCTGCTTCCGAATATTGGTACTGTCTGTACAAGCTGTTACCCTTATAT
    TAGTTATTGTCACTTTAGGTGAGCTTGTGAGGATGATCAATGATCAAGGCTTGAGCAATCAGTTGTCTTC
    AATTGCAGACAAGATAAGAGAGTCAGCTACTATGATTGCATCTGCTGTGGGAGTAATGAATCAAGTTATT
    CACGGAGTAACGGTATCCTTACCCCTACAAATTGAGGGAAACCAAAATCAATTGTTATCCACGCTTGCCA
    CAATCTGTACAGGCAAAAAACAAGTCTCAAACTGCTCTACAAACATCCCCTTAGTTAATGACCTTAGGTT
    TATAAATGGGATCAATAAATTCATCATTGAAGATTATGCAACTCATGATTTCTCTATCGGCCATCCACTC
    AACATGCCTAGCTTTATCCCAACTGCAACTTCACCCAATGGTTGCACAAGAATTCCATCCTTTTCTCTAG
    GTAAGACACACTGGTGCTACACACATAATGTAATTAATGCCAACTGCAAGGATCATACTTCGTCCAACCA
    ATATATTTCCATGGGGATACTTGTTCAGACCGCGTCAGGGTATCCTATGTTCAAAACCTTAAAGATCCAA
    TATCTCAGTGATGGCCTGAATCGGAAAAGCTGCTCAATTGCAACAGTCCCTGATGGATGCGCAATGTACT
    GTTATGTCTCAACTCAACTTGAAACCGACGACTATGCGGGGTCCAGCCCACCTACCCAGAAACTTACCCT
    GTTATTCTATAATGATACCGTCACAGAAAGGACAATATCTCCAACTGGTCTCGAAGGGAACTGGGCCACT
    TTGGTTCCAGGAGTGGGGAGTGGAATATATTTCGAGAATAAATTGATCTTTCCTGCATATGGGGGTGTCT
    TGCCCAATAGTTCACTCGGAGTTAAATCAGCAAGAGAATTTTTCCGGCCTGTTAATCCATATAATCCATG
    TTCAGGACCACAACAAGATTTAGATCAGCGTGCTTTGAGATCATACTTCCCAAGTTACTTCTCTAATCGA
    AGAGTACAGAGTGCATTTCTTGTCTGTGCCTGGAATCAGATCCTAGTTACAAATTGCGAGCTAGTTGTCC
    CCTCAAACAATCAGACACTGATGGGTGCAGAAGGAAGAGTTTTATTGATCAATAATCGACTATTATATTA
    TCAGAGAAGTACCAGCTGGTGGCCGTATGAACTCCTCTATGAGATATCATTCACATTTACAAACTCTGGT
    CAATCATCTGTGAATATGTCCTGGATACCTATATATTCATTCACTCGTCCTGGTTCAGGCAACTGCAGTG
    GTGAAAATGTGTGCCCAACTGCTTGTGTGTCAGGGGTTTATCTTGATCCCTGGCCATTAACTCCATATAG
    CCACCAATCAGGCATTAACAGAAATTTCTATTTCACAGGTGCACTATTAAATTCAAGCACAACTAGAGTA
    AATCCTACCCTTTATGTCTCTGCCCTTAATAATCTTAAAGTACTAGCCCCATATGGTAATCAGGGACTGT
    TTGCCTCGTACACTACAACCACCTGCTTTCAAGATACCGGTGATGCTAGTGTGTATTGTGTTTATATTAT
    GGAACTAGCATCGAATATCGTTGGAGAATTCCAAATTCTACCTGTGCTAACCAGATTGACCATCACTTG
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|9695422|ref|NP_054713.1| hemagglutinin-neuraminidase [Mumps virus]
    MEPSKLFTMSDNATFAPGPVINAADKKTFRTCFRILVLSVQAVTLILVIVTLGELVRMINDQGLSNQLSS
    IADKIRESATMIASAVGVMNQVIHGVTVSLPLQIEGNQNQLLSTLATICTGKKQVSNCSTNIPLVNDLRF
    INGINKFIIEDYATHDFSIGHPLNMPSFIPTATSPNGCTRIPSFSLGKTHWCYTHNVINANCKDHTSSNQ
    YISMGILVQTASGYPMFKTLKIQYLSDGLNRKSCSIATVPDGCAMYCYVSTQLETDDYAGSSPPTQKLTL
    LFYNDTVTERTISPTGLEGNWATLVPGVGSGIYFENKLIFPAYGGVLPNSSLGVKSAREFFRPVNPYNPC
    SGPQQDLDQRALRSYFPSYFSNRRVQSAFLVCAWNQILVTNCELVVPSNNQTLMGAEGRVLLINNRLLYY
    QRSTSWWPYELLYEISFTFTNSGQSSVNMSWIPIYSFTRPGSGNCSGENVCPTACVSGVYLDPWPLTPYS
    HQSGINRNFYFTGALLNSSTTRVNPTLYVSALNNLKVLAPYGNQGLFASYTTTTCFQDTGDASVYCVYIM
    ELASNIVGEFQILPVLTRLTIT
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : A novel mumps vaccine with good immunity and safety was developed by selecting an antigen (HN) component of the mumps virus. The clinical and pathological observations after challenge of vaccinated rhesus monkeys indicated further that the immune response induced by this vaccine provided complete protection from wild-type virus infection (Liang et al., 2008).
  • Related Vaccine(s): Mumps HN Protein Subunit Vaccine , rvOka-HN (mumps virus)
III. Vaccine Information
1. M-M-R II
a. Product Name:
Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus Vaccine, Live
b. Tradename:
M-M-R II
c. Manufacturer:
Merck & Co., Inc.
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000069
e. CDC CVX code:
03
f. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA (License #0002)
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Preparation
The growth medium for measles and mumps in this vaccine is Medium 199 (a buffered salt solution containing vitamins and amino acids and supplemented with fetal bovine serum) containing SPGA (sucrose, phosphate, glutamate, and recombinant human albumin) as stabilizer and neomycin (FDA: MMR-II).
k. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
l. Storage
2 to 8°C (36 to 46°F) or colder. Do not freeze.
m . Approved Age for Licensed Use
12 months or older
n. Contraindication
Hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine, a history of anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions to neomycin.
o. Description
M-M-R II is a sterile lyophilized preparation of (1) ATTENUVAX* (Measles Virus Vaccine Live), a more attenuated line of measles virus, derived from Enders' attenuated Edmonston strain and propagated in chick embryo cell culture; (2) MUMPSVAX* (Mumps Virus Vaccine Live), the Jeryl Lynn** (B level) strain of mumps virus propagated in chick embryo cell culture; and (3) MERUVAX* II (Rubella Virus Vaccine Live), the Wistar RA 27/3 strain of live attenuated rubella virus propagated in WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts (FDA: MMR-II).
p. Human Response
  • Immune Response: Neutralizing and ELISA antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella viruses are still detectable in most individuals 11 to 13 years after primary vaccination (FDA: MMR-II).
  • Side Effects: Side effects of vaccination are: fever, headache, dizziness, and irritability
  • Efficacy: Many clinical studies have shown the vaccine have a high rate of efficacy protection after vaccination with MMR-II (FDA: MMR-II).
2. Mumps HN Protein Subunit Vaccine
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011419
b. Type:
Subunit vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Gene Engineering of HN
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
e. Adjuvant: aluminum hydroxide vaccine adjuvant
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Monkey Response
  • Host Strain: Rhesus macaques
  • Vaccination Protocol: Six monkeys in Group 1 were immunized with 10 μg purified vaccine and adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide, aluminum content: 1.0 mg/ml). Six monkeys in Group 2 were immunized with 20 μg purified vaccine and adjuvant. Two monkeys in Group 3 were immunized with attenuated vaccine (4.1 log CCID50). Two monkeys in Group 4 were mock immunized with 0.9% saline. All experimental groups were immunized by deltoid muscle injection and boosted once per 4-week interval (Liang et al., 2008).
  • Challenge Protocol: Four weeks after the second immunization, all four monkeys in groups of experimental vaccine and all two monkeys in group of attenuated vaccine were challenged with virus, while the others remained uninfected to test their antibody titers at 2, 3, 4 and 6 months after the second dose (Liang et al., 2008).
  • Efficacy: At 1 week after the challenge injection, neutralization antibody was induced in the immunized monkeys to a higher level than in the control monkeys. The clinical and pathological observations after challenge of vaccinated rhesus monkeys indicated further that the immune response induced by this vaccine provided complete protection from wild-type virus infection (Liang et al., 2008).
3. Mumpsvax
a. Product Name:
Mumps Virus Vaccine Live
b. Tradename:
Mumpsvax
c. Manufacturer:
Merck & Co, Inc.
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000074
e. CDC CVX code:
07
f. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Antigen
Live Jeryl Lynn (B level) strain of Mumps virus.
k. Preparation
This vaccine is a sterile lyophilized preparation of the Jeryl Lynn** (B level) strain of mumps virus. The virus was adapted to and propagated in chick embryo cell culture. The growth medium for mumps is Medium 199 (a buffered salt solution containing vitamins and amino acids and supplemented with fetal bovine serum) containing SPGA (sucrose, phosphate, glutamate, and human albumin) as stabilizer and neomycin (Merck: Mumpsvax).
l. Immunization Route
Intradermal injection (i.d.)
m. Storage
The vaccine must be maintained at a temperature of 10°C (50°F) or colder.
n . Approved Age for Licensed Use
12 months or older
o. Contraindication
Hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine, including gelatin, and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions to neomycin (Merck: Mumpsvax).
p. Description
MUMPSVAX is indicated for vaccination against mumps in persons 12 months of age or older. MUMPSVax is now a component of the vaccine M-M-R II (FDA: MMR-II).
q. Human Response
  • Side Effects: Side effects of vaccination include: fever, irratibility, and diarrhea (Merck: Mumpsvax).
  • Efficacy: Clinical studies also established that seroconversion in response to mumps vaccination paralleled protection from these diseases (Merck: Mumpsvax).
4. Priorix
a. Tradename:
Priorix
b. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline
c. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010734
d. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
e. Status:
Licensed
f. Location Licensed:
Canada
g. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
h. Allergen:
Neomycin
i. Immunization Route
Subcutaneous injection
j. Storage
Store at at 2 to 8°C.
k . Approved Age for Licensed Use
1 year and older
l. Description
Products: Live virus. Other components: Lactose.
5. Priorix-Tetra
a. Tradename:
Priorix-Tetra
b. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline
c. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010735
d. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
e. Status:
Licensed
f. Location Licensed:
Canada
g. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
h. Allergen:
Neomycin
i. Immunization Route
Subcutaneous injection
j. Storage
Store at at 2 to 8°C. Do not freeze
k . Approved Age for Licensed Use
9 months to 6 years
l. Description
Products: Live virus. Other components: Lactose.
6. ProQuad
a. Product Name:
Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Virus Vaccine Live
b. Tradename:
ProQuad
c. Manufacturer:
Merck & Co, Inc.
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000091
e. CDC CVX code:
94
f. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA (License #0002)
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Preparation
propagated in chick embryo cell culture (FDA: ProQuad).
k. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
l. Storage
maintained at a temperature of 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F) or colder.
m . Approved Age for Licensed Use
12 months to 12 years old
n. Contraindication
Vaccine should not be administered to anyone with a known history of anaphylactic reactions to neomycin, or to anyone with a history of hypersensitivity to gelatin or any other component of the vaccine (FDA: ProQuad).
o. Description
ProQuad is a sterile lyophilized preparation of (1) the components of M-M-R*II (Measles, Mumps and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live): Measles Virus Vaccine Live, a more attenuated line of measles virus, derived from Enders' attenuated Edmonston strain and propagated in chick embryo cell culture; Mumps Virus Vaccine Live, the Jeryl Lynn™ (B level) strain of mumps virus propagated in chick embryo cell culture; Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, the Wistar RA 27/3 strain of live attenuated rubella virus propagated in WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts; and (2) Varicella Virus Vaccine Live (Oka/Merck) refrigerator-stable formulation, the Oka/Merck strain of varicella-zoster virus propagated in MRC-5 cells (FDA: ProQuad).
p. Human Response
  • Immune Response: According to clinical trials, there were high levels of antibodies in 96.7% of those vaccinated after a single dose of Proquad (FDA: ProQuad).
  • Side Effects: Side effects of vaccination include: injection site reactions, fever, irritability and diarrhea.
7. rvOka-HN (mumps virus)
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004709
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Gene Engineering of HN
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description: A recombinant varicella-zoster virus (VZV) Oka vaccine strain (vOka) that contained the mumps virus (MuV) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene, inserted into the site of the ORF 13 gene (Somboonthum et al., 2007).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Preparation
Recombinant varicella-zoster virus (VZV) Oka vaccine strain (vOka) that contained the mumps virus (MuV) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene, inserted into the site of the ORF 13 gene by using the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system in Escherichia coli (Somboonthum et al., 2007).
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Guinea pig Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Immunization of guinea pigs with rvOka-HN-induced VZV- and HN-specific antibodies (Somboonthum et al., 2007)
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Efficacy: Interestingly, the induced antibodies had a strong neutralizing activity against virus-cell infections of both MuV and VZV. Therefore, the novel varicella vaccine expressing MuV HN protein is suitable as a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine against VZV and MuV infections (Somboonthum et al., 2007).
IV. References
1. FDA: MMR-II: FDA: MMR-II [http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm094050.htm]
2. FDA: ProQuad: FDA: ProQuad Vaccine [http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm094051.htm]
3. Hviid et al., 2008: Hviid A, Rubin S, Mühlemann K. Mumps. Lancet. 2008; 371(9616); 932-944. [PubMed: 18342688].
4. Liang et al., 2008: Liang Y, Ma S, Yang Z, Liu L, Wang L, Wang J, Jiang L, Shi C, Dong C, Li Q. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel formalin-inactivated and alum-adjuvanted candidate subunit vaccine for mumps. Vaccine. 2008; 26(33); 4276-4283. [PubMed: 18597904].
5. Merck: Mumpsvax: Merck: Mumpsvax information [http://www.merck.com/product/usa/pi_circulars/m/mumpsvax/mumpsvax_pi.pdf]