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Poliovirus

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Microbial Pathogenesis
    5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
    6. Host Protective Immunity
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. VP4 (Protective antigen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. Adacel-Polio
    2. Boostrix-Polio
    3. DT Polio Adsorbed
    4. Imovax Polio
    5. Inactived Poliomyelitis Vaccine – IPV
    6. Infanrix -IPV/Hib
    7. Infanrix-hexa
    8. Infanrix-IPV
    9. IPOL
    10. KINRIX
    11. Pediacel
    12. Pediarix
    13. Pentacel
    14. Poliovax
    15. Quadracel
    16. Td Polio Adsorbed
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
138953
2. Disease:
Polio
3. Introduction
Poliovirus is the causative agent of poliomyelitis. It is a human enterovirus and member of the family of Picornaviridae. Poliovirus is composed of a RNA genome and a protein capsid. There are three serotypes of poliovirus, PV1, PV2 , and PV3; each with a slightly different capsid protein. Poliovirus was first isolated in 1909 by Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper.Poliomyelitis is a disease of the central nervous system (Wiki: Poliovirus).
4. Microbial Pathogenesis
Poliovirus is an enterovirus. Infection occurs via the fecal-oral route. Poliovirus infects human cells by binding to an immunoglobulin-like receptor, CD155 (or called poliovirus receptor (PVR)) on the cell surface. Poliomyelitis is a disease of the central nervous system. Paralytic disease occurs when the virus enters the central nervous system and replicates in motor neurons (Wiki: Poliovirus).
5. Host Ranges and Animal Models
The primary determinant of infection for any virus is its ability to enter a cell and produce additional infectious particles. CD155 is found only on the cells of humans, higher primates, and Old World monkeys. However, poliovirus is strictly a human pathogen, and does not naturally infect any other species. Chimpanzees and Old World monkeys can only be experimentally infected (Wiki: Poliovirus).
6. Host Protective Immunity
Antibodies to poliovirus are able to block replication and spread of poliovirus (Wiki: Poliovirus).
1. VP4
  • Gene Name : VP4
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Human poliovirus 1
  • VO ID : VO_0011244
  • NCBI Protein GI : 68532656
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:145404
  • Taxonomy ID : 12080
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : VP4
  • Protein Length : 69
  • Protein Note : Picornavirus coat protein (VP4); pfam02226
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|68532656|dbj|BAE06026.1| VP4 [Human poliovirus 1]
    MGAQVSSQKVGAHENSNRASGGSTINYTTINYYRDSASNAASKQDFSQDPSKFTEPIKDVLIKTAPMLN
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : To examine the mechanism of immunity in vivo, researchers used poliovirus receptor-transgenic mice on a BALB/c (H-2d) background. Mice immunized with the vaccine strain were protected against a subsequent challenge with wild-type virus. Protection was observed when mice received primed B cells in the presence of a VP4-specific Th1 clone. Findings demonstrate that CD4+ T cells, specific for the internal poliovirus capsid protein, VP4, can provide effective help for a protective antibody response directed against surface capsid proteins (Mahon et al., 1995).
III. Vaccine Information
1. Adacel-Polio
a. Product Name:
Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed Combined with Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine
b. Tradename:
Adacel-Polio
c. Manufacturer:
Sanofi Pasteur SA
d. Type:
Toxoid vaccine + Subunit vaccine + Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
e. Status:
Licensed
f. Location Licensed:
Canada
g. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
h. Preservative:
2-phenoxyethanol
i. Allergen:
Neomycin, Polymyxin B, Streptomycin
j. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
k. Storage
Store at 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F), do not freeze.
l . Approved Age for Licensed Use
4 years and older
m. Description
ADACEL®-POLIO is a sterile, uniform, cloudy, white suspension of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed separately on aluminum phosphate and combined with inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (vero cell origin) types 1, 2 and 3, and suspended in water for injection. Acellular pertussis vaccine is composed of five purified pertussis antigens (PT, FHA, PRN and FIM). (Product Monograph: Adacel-Polio)
2. Boostrix-Polio
a. Product Name:
Combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (adsorbed) and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine
b. Tradename:
Boostrix-Polio
c. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline
d. Type:
Toxoid vaccine + Subunit vaccine + Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
e. Status:
Licensed
f. Location Licensed:
Canada
g. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
h. Allergen:
Neomycin, Polymyxin B
i. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
j. Storage
Store at 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F), do not freeze.
k . Approved Age for Licensed Use
4 years and older
l. Description
BOOSTRIX®-POLIO (combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliomyetitis) vaccine contains diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, three purified pertussis antigens [pertussis toxoid (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (69 kDalton outer membrane protein)] adsorbed onto aluminum salts and inactivated polio virus types 1, 2 and 3. (GSK: Boostrix-Polio)
3. DT Polio Adsorbed
a. Tradename:
DT Polio Adsorbed
b. Manufacturer:
Sanofi Pasteur Ltd
c. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010709
d. Type:
Subunit vaccine + Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
e. Status:
Licensed
f. Location Licensed:
Canada
g. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
h. Adjuvant: aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvant
i. Preservative:
2 phenoxy ethanol
j. Allergen:
Polymyxin B Neomycin
k. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
l. Storage
Store at 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F).
m . Approved Age for Licensed Use
Ages 7 and older
n. Description
Td POLIO ADSORBED [Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxoids Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine] produced by Sanofi Pasteur Limited, is a sterile, cloudy, white, uniform suspension of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids adsorbed on aluminum phosphate and suspended in phosphate buffered saline solution and combined with Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine for intramuscular injection only. Therefore, this vaccine contains proteins and killed virus. The other component in the vaccine includes formaldehyde.
4. Imovax Polio
a. Product Name:
Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine (Vero Cell Origin)
b. Tradename:
Imovax Polio
c. Manufacturer:
Sanofi Pasteur Ltd
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010716
e. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
f. Status:
Licensed
g. Location Licensed:
Canada
h. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
i. Preservative:
2 phenoxy ethanol
j. Allergen:
Polymyxin B Neomycin Streptomycin
k. Immunization Route
Subcutaneous injection
l. Storage
Store at 2° to 8° C (35° to 46° F).
m . Approved Age for Licensed Use
12 weeks and older
n. Description
Products: Killed virus. Other components: Bovine serum, Formaldehyde Polysorbate 80.
5. Inactived Poliomyelitis Vaccine – IPV
a. Tradename:
Inactived Poliomyelitis Vaccine – IPV
b. Manufacturer:
Sanofi Pasteur Ltd
c. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010718
d. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
e. Status:
Licensed
f. Location Licensed:
Canada
g. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
h. Preservative:
2 phenoxy ethanol
i. Allergen:
Polymyxin B Neomycin
j. Immunization Route
Subcutaneous injection
k. Storage
Store at 2-8°C (36-46°F) (SP: IPV).
l . Approved Age for Licensed Use
All Ages (SP: IPV)
m. Description
Products: Killed virus. Other components: Bovine serum, Formaldehyde, Polysorbate 80.
6. Infanrix -IPV/Hib
a. Product Name:
Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular component), poliomyelitis (inactivated) and Haemophilus type b conjugate vaccine (adsorbed)
b. Tradename:
Infanrix -IPV/Hib
c. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010722
e. CDC CVX code:
120
f. Type:
Subunit vaccine + Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
Canada
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Adjuvant: aluminum hydroxide vaccine adjuvant
k. Preservative:
2 phenoxy ethanol
l. Allergen:
Polymyxin B Neomycin , Latex in plunger stopper of prefilled syringe
m. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
n. Storage
Store in a refrigerator (2°C – 8°C).
o . Approved Age for Licensed Use
2 months to 6 years of age.
p. Description
Products: Proteins + killed virus + conjugate. Other components: Formaldehyde Polysorbate 80, Lactose.
7. Infanrix-hexa
a. Product Name:
Combined diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B (recombinant), inactivated poliomyelitis and adsorbed conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine
b. Tradename:
Infanrix-hexa
c. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010719
e. Type:
Subunit vaccine + Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
f. Status:
Licensed
g. Location Licensed:
Canada
h. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
i. Adjuvant: aluminum hydroxide vaccine adjuvant
j. Adjuvant: aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvant
k. Preservative:
2 phenoxy ethanol
l. Allergen:
Polymyxin B Neomycin, Latex in plunger stopper of prefilled syringe
m. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
n. Storage
Should be stored at 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F).
o . Approved Age for Licensed Use
Under 7 years of age.
p. Description
Products: Proteins + killed viruses + conjugate. Other components: Yeast protein Formaldehyde, Lactose, Polysorbate 20 and 80.
8. Infanrix-IPV
a. Product Name:
Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular, component) and poliomyelitis (inactivated) vaccine (adsorbed)
b. Tradename:
Infanrix-IPV
c. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010721
e. Type:
Subunit vaccine + Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
f. Status:
Licensed
g. Location Licensed:
Canada
h. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
i. Adjuvant: aluminum hydroxide vaccine adjuvant
j. Preservative:
2 phenoxy ethanol
k. Allergen:
Polymyxin B Neomycin , Latex in plunger stopper of prefilled syringes
l. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
m. Storage
Store in a refrigerator (2°C - 8°C).
n . Approved Age for Licensed Use
2 months to 6 years of age.
o. Description
Products: Proteins + killed virus. Other components: Formaldehyde, Polysorbate 80.
9. IPOL
a. Product Name:
Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated (Monkey Kidney Cell)
b. Tradename:
IPOL
c. Manufacturer:
Sanofi Pasteur, SA
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000054
e. CDC CVX code:
10
f. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA (License #1724)
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Antigen
Three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1), and Type 3 (Saukett).
k. Preparation
IPOL is a sterile inactivated vaccine suspension of three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1), and Type 3 (Saukett). Each of the three strains of poliovirus is individually grown in vero cells, a continuous line of monkey kidney cells cultivated on microcarriers. After clarification and filtration, viral suspensions are concentrated by ultrafiltration, and purified by liquid chromatography. After re-equilibration of the purified viral suspension, the monovalent viral suspensions are inactivated at +37°C for at least 12 days with 1:4000 formalin. Each dose (0.5 mL) of trivalent vaccine is formulated to contain 40 D antigen units of Type 1, 8 D antigen units.
l. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
m. Storage
2°C to 8°C (35°F to 46°F). The vaccine must not be frozen (FDA: IPOL).
n. Contraindication
The vaccine should not be administered to persons with a history of hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine (FDA: IPOL).
o. Description
All children should receive four doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) at ages 2, 4, 6 to 18 months and 4 to 6 years (FDA: IPOL).
p. Human Response
  • Immune Response: In most clinical studies performed with this vaccine, the seroconversion rates have always been between 80% and 100% (FDA: IPOL).
  • Side Effects: The most common side effects reported include injection site reactions, fever, irritability and fatigue (FDA: IPOL).
10. KINRIX
a. Product Name:
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine
b. Tradename:
KINRIX
c. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000067
e. CDC CVX code:
130
f. Type:
Toxoid vaccine + Subunit vaccine + Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Antigen
Each 0.5-mL dose is formulated to contain 25 Lf of diphtheria toxoid, 10 Lf of tetanus toxoid, 25 mcg of inactivated pertussin toxin (PT), 25 mcg of filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), 8 mcg of pertactin (69 kiloDalton outer membrane protein), 40 D-antigen Units (DU) of Type 1 poliovirus (Mahoney), 8 DU of Type 2 poliovirus (MEF-1), and 32 DU of Type 3 poliovirus (Saukett).
k. Allergen:
Latex, Neomycin, Polymyxin B.
l. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
m. Storage
Store refrigerated between 2° and 8°C (36° and 46°F), do not freeze.
n . Approved Age for Licensed Use
4 to 6 years of age.
o. Description
KINRIX (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine) is a noninfectious, sterile vaccine for intramuscular administration. Each 0.5-mL dose is formulated to contain 25 Lf of diphtheria toxoid, 10 Lf of tetanus toxoid, 25 mcg of inactivated pertussis toxin (PT), 25 mcg of filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), 8 mcg of pertactin (69 kiloDalton outer membrane protein), 40 D-antigen Units (DU) of Type 1 poliovirus
183 (Mahoney), 8 DU of Type 2 poliovirus (MEF-1), and 32 DU of Type 3 poliovirus (Saukett). The diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis components of KINRIX are the same as those in INFANRIX and PEDIARIX and the poliovirus component is the same as that in PEDIARIX. (FDA: KINRIX)
11. Pediacel
a. Product Name:
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed Combined with Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine and Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Protein – Conjugate)
b. Tradename:
Pediacel
c. Manufacturer:
Sanofi Pasteur Ltd
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010730
e. Type:
Subunit vaccine + Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
f. Status:
Licensed
g. Location Licensed:
Canada
h. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
i. Adjuvant: aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvant
j. Preservative:
2 phenoxy ethanol
k. Allergen:
Neomycin Polymyxin B Streptomycin, Latex in stopper of vial
l. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
m. Storage
Store at 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F).
n . Approved Age for Licensed Use
2 months to 6 years of age.
o. Description
Products: Proteins, killed virus + conjugate. Other components: Bovine serum Formaldehyde, Polysorbate 80.
12. Pediarix
a. Product Name:
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Hepatitis B (Recombinant) and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Combined
b. Tradename:
Pediarix
c. Manufacturer:
GlaxoSmithKline
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000082
e. CDC CVX code:
110
f. Type:
Subunit vaccine + Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA (License #1617), Canada
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Adjuvant: aluminum hydroxide vaccine adjuvant
k. Preservative:
2 phenoxy ethanol
l. Allergen:
Polymyxin B Neomycin, Latex in plunger stopper of prefilled syringe
m. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
n. Storage
The vaccine should be refrigerated between 2º and 8ºC (36º and 46ºF). Do not freeze.
o . Approved Age for Licensed Use
PEDIARIX is indicated for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), all known subtypes of hepatitis B virus, and poliomyelitis caused by poliovirus Types 1, 2, and 3 as a three-dose primary series in infants born of HBsAg-negative mothers, beginning as early as 6 weeks of age. PEDIARIX should not be administered to any infant before the age of 6 weeks, or to individuals 7 years of age or older (FDA: Pediarix).
p. Description
Products: Proteins + killed virus. Other components: Yeast protein Formaldehyde, Polysorbate 80.
13. Pentacel
a. Product Name:
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Inactivated Poliovirus and Haemophilus b Conjugate (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) Vaccine
b. Tradename:
Pentacel
c. Manufacturer:
Sanofi Pasteur Ltd
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000084
e. CDC CVX code:
120
f. Type:
Subunit vaccine + Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
g. Status:
Licensed
h. Location Licensed:
USA (License #1726), Canada
i. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
j. Adjuvant: aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvant
k. Preservative:
2 phenoxy ethanol
l. Allergen:
Polymyxin B, Neomycin
m. Preparation
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is grown in modified Mueller’s growth medium. After purification by ammonium sulfate fractionation, the diphtheria toxin is detoxified with formaldehyde and diafiltered (FDA: Pentacel).
n. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
o. Storage
Store at 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F). Do not freeze.
p . Approved Age for Licensed Use
6 weeks to 4 years of age.
q. Contraindication
A severe allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) after a previous dose of Pentacel vaccine, any ingredient of this vaccine, or any other tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, pertussis-containing vaccine, inactivated poliovirus vaccine or H influenzae type b vaccine is a contraindication (FDA: Pentacel).
r. Description
It consists of a Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus (DTaP-IPV) component and an ActHIB® vaccine component. Pentacel vaccine is indicated for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (FDA: Pentacel).
14. Poliovax
a. Product Name:
Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated (Human Diploid Cell)
b. Tradename:
Poliovax
c. Manufacturer:
Sanofi Pasteur, Ltd
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000089
e. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
f. Status:
Licensed
g. Location Licensed:
USA
h. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
i. Storage
The vaccine should be refrigerated between 35 and 46 degrees F (2-8 degrees C). Do not freeze (Poliovax).
15. Quadracel
a. Product Name:
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed Combined with Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine
b. Tradename:
Quadracel
c. Manufacturer:
Sanofi Pasteur Ltd
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0010736
e. Type:
Subunit vaccine + Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
f. Status:
Licensed
g. Location Licensed:
Canada
h. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
i. Adjuvant: aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvant
  • VO ID: VO_0000128
  • Description: Products: Proteins + killed virus. Other components: Bovine albumin Formaldehyde, Glutaraldehyde, Polysorbate 80.
j. Preservative:
2 phenoxy ethanol
k. Allergen:
Polymyxin B, Neomycin
l. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
m. Storage
Store at 2 to 8C (35 to 46F). Do not freeze.
n . Approved Age for Licensed Use
2 months to six years of age.
o. Description
Products: Proteins + killed virus. Other components: Bovine albumin Formaldehyde, Glutaraldehyde, Polysorbate 80.
16. Td Polio Adsorbed
a. Product Name:
Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxoids Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine
b. Tradename:
Td Polio Adsorbed
c. Manufacturer:
Sanofi Pasteur Ltd
d. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011482
e. Type:
Subunit vaccine + Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
f. Status:
Licensed
g. Location Licensed:
Canada
h. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Human
i. Adjuvant: aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvant
j. Preservative:
2 phenoxy ethanol
k. Allergen:
Polymyxin B Neomycin
l. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
m. Storage
Store at 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F).
n . Approved Age for Licensed Use
7 years and older.
o. Description
Products: Proteins + killed virus. Other components: Bovine albumin Formaldehyde, Polysorbate 80.
IV. References
1. FDA: IPOL: FDA: IPOL vaccine information [http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm180053.htm]
2. FDA: KINRIX: FDA: KINRIX vaccine information [https://www.fda.gov/downloads/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/UCM241453.pdf]
3. FDA: licensed vaccines: FDA: licensed vaccines [http://www.fda.gov/Cber/vaccine/licvacc.htm]
4. FDA: Pediarix: FDA: Pediarix [http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm146759.htm]
5. FDA: Pentacel: FDA: Pentacel [http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm172502.htm]
6. FDA: Quadracel: FDA: Quadracel vaccine information [https://www.fda.gov/downloads/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/UCM439903.pdf]
7. GSK: Boostrix-Polio: GSK: Boostrix-Polio vaccine information [https://ca.gsk.com/media/589683/boostrix-polio.pdf]
8. GSK: Infanrix-hexa: GSK: Infanrix-hexa vaccine information [http://ca.gsk.com/media/537989/infanrix-hexa.pdf]
9. GSK: Infanrix-IPV: GSK: Infanrix-IPV vaccine information [http://ca.gsk.com/media/590851/infanrix-ipv.pdf]
10. GSK: Infanrix-IPV/Hib: GSK: Infanrix-IPV/Hib vaccine information [http://ca.gsk.com/media/590970/infanrix-ipv-hib.pdf]
11. Mahon et al., 1995: Mahon BP, Katrak K, Nomoto A, Macadam AJ, Minor PD, Mills KH. Poliovirus-specific CD4+ Th1 clones with both cytotoxic and helper activity mediate protective humoral immunity against a lethal poliovirus infection in transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor. The Journal of experimental medicine. 1995; 181(4); 1285-1292. [PubMed: 7699320].
12. Poliovax: Medicinenet.com: Poliovax [http://www.medicinenet.com/poliovirus_vaccine-injection/article.htm]
13. Product Monograph: Adacel-Polio: Product Monograph: Adacel-Polio vaccine information [https://www.vaccineshoppecanada.com/document.cfm?file=adacel-polio_e.pdf]
14. Product Monograph: Pediacel: Product Monograph: Pediacel vaccine information [https://www.vaccineshoppecanada.com/document.cfm?file=Pediacel_E.pdf]
15. SP: IPV: SP: Inactived Poliomyelitis Vaccine – IPV [https://www.vaccineshoppecanada.com/secure/pdfs/ca/ipv_E.pdf]
16. Wiki: Poliovirus: Wiki: Poliovirus [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poliovirus]