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Porcine circovirus 2

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Microbial Pathogenesis
    5. Host Protective Immunity
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. ORF2 (Protective antigen)
  3. Vaccine Related Host Genes
    1. Ighg1
    2. Ighv1-9
  4. Vaccine Information
    1. BV-GD-ORF2
    2. PCV2 DNA Vaccine encoding ORF2 Protein
    3. Porcilis-PCV2
    4. Porcine Circovirus Type 1 - Type 2 Chimera, Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 19K5.R1)
    5. Porcine Circovirus Type 2, Killed Baculovirus Vector Vaccine (USDA: 19K5.R0)
    6. Porcine Circovirus Type 2, Killed Baculovirus Vector Vaccine- Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 49K5.R1)
    7. Porcine Circovirus Type 2, Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 19K5.20)
    8. Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome-Circovirus Reproductive & Respiratory Form, Type 2, Modifed Live Virus,Killed Baculovirus Vector Vaccine-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 49K9.R0)
    9. PrV-PCV2-ORF2
    10. rSPV-PCV2-cap
    11. Suvaxyn PCV2
  5. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
85708
2. Disease:
Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome
3. Introduction
Porcine Circovirus (PCV) is a single stranded DNA virus (class II), that is non-enveloped with an un-segmented circular genome. The viral capsid is icosahedral and approximately 17 nm in diameter. PCV is a member of the virus family Circoviridae. PCV are the smallest viruses replicating autonomously in eukaryotic cells. They replicate in the nucleus of infected cells, utilising the host polymerase for genome amplification. There are 2 strains: Type 1 PCV and Type 2 PCV. It is still unclear whether type 2 PCV (first isolated in 1997) actually causes PMWS, as infection with the virus alone causes no clinical signs, it appears to work synergistically with parvovirus, perhaps with parvovirus activating a latent form of circovirus or weakening the immune system enough for PCV to take hold. PCV1 and PCV2 show a high degree of sequence identity and a similar genomic organisation; nevertheless, the basis of the distinct pathogenicity has not yet been unravelled (Wiki: Porcine circovirus).
4. Microbial Pathogenesis
PCV2 binds to heparin sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), as a 1st step of attachment. However, as PCV2 is found in cells that lack GAGs, it is thought that another coreceptor is also used for viral entry. The hallmark lesion of PCV2 infection is lymphoid depletion with histiocytic replacement. In affected lymph organs, dendritic cells, and macrophages that replace the lymphocytes contain large amounts of PCV2 virus. There is no viral degradation in these cells, and because dendritic cells are highly mobile, it is thought that dendritic mobility may be a method of viral dissemination in tissues. It is still unknown how PCV2 causes a reduction in lymphocytes. Hypotheses include induced apoptosis, decreased lymphocyte production in the bone marrow, or reduced lymphocyte proliferation in secondary lymphoid tissue (Gillespie et al., 2009).
5. Host Protective Immunity
Because most breeding age sows are seropositive for PCV2, most piglets are born with maternal antibodies against PCV2. In weaned piglets, the mean half life of antibodies is 19 days. Antibody levels will wane at 4–6 weeks in pigs with initially low levels of antibody, at 6–10 weeks with moderate antibody levels, and by 8.5–13.5 weeks in pigs with high antibody levels. Piglets do not typically demonstrate clinical signs of disease before 4 weeks of age, suggesting that maternally derived antibodies are protective. Experimental studies found that maternal antibody protection is dependent on the level of maternal antibodies present. High levels of maternal antibodies are more protective than low levels, but do not completely prevent infection, whereas low levels of antibodies did not provide any protection against infection (Gillespie et al., 2009).
1. ORF2
  • Gene Name : ORF2
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Porcine circovirus type 2
  • VO ID : VO_0011243
  • NCBI Protein GI : 78217439
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:145535
  • Taxonomy ID : 85708
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : ORF2
  • Protein Length : 233
  • Protein Note : Circovirus capsid protein; pfam02443
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|78217439|gb|ABB36795.1| ORF2 [Porcine circovirus 2]
    MAYPRRRYRRRRHRPRSHLGQILRRRLWLLHPRHRYRWRRKNGIFNTRLSRTFGYTIKRTTVKTPSWAVD
    MMRFNINDFLPPGGGSNPRSVPFEYYRIRKVKVEFWPCSPITQGDRGVGSSAVILDDNFVTKATALTYDP
    YVNYSSRHTITQPFSYHSRYFTPKPVLDSTIDYFQPNNKRNQLWLRLQTAGNVDHVGLGTAFENSIYDQE
    YNIRVTMYVQFREFNLKDPPLKP
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : An open reading frame 2 plasmid (pORF2) and the capsid protein (Cap) of PCV2 were used as DNA and subunit vaccines, respectively. In FCM analysis, although pORF2 and Cap alone showed comparable efficacy in eliciting lymphoproliferative responses and Cap-specific CD4(+) T cells, pORF2 was superior to the Cap protein in triggering CD8(+) T cells. Following virus challenge, real-time PCR and histopathological analysis confirmed that only low viral DNA loads and mild microscopic lesions appeared in pORF2-immunized mice (Shen et al., 2008).
  • Related Vaccine(s): PCV2 DNA Vaccine encoding ORF2 Protein , PrV-PCV2-ORF2
1. Ighg1
2. Ighv1-9
  • Gene Name : Ighv1-9
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Mus musculus
  • NCBI Gene ID : 668478
  • Genbank Accession : AC073561
  • Taxonomy ID : 10090
  • Chromosome No : 12
  • Gene Starting Position : 114583568
  • Gene Ending Position : 114583861
  • Protein Name : immunoglobulin heavy variable V1-9
  • Protein Note : Also known as Igg2a; Gm16697
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|372099098:114583568-114583861 Mus musculus strain C57BL/6J chromosome 12, GRCm38 C57BL/6J
    GTCTTGCACAGTAATAGATGGCAGAGTCCTCAGTTGTCAGGCTGCTGAGTTGCATGTAGGCTGTGTTGGA
    GGATGTATCTGCAGTGAATGTGGCCTTGCCCTTGAACTTCTCATTGTAGTTAGTACTACCACTTCCAGGT
    AAAATCTCTCCAATCCACTCAAGGCCATGTCCAGGCCTCTGCTTTACCCACTCTATCCAGTAGCCAGTGA
    ATGTGTAGCCAGTAGCCTTGCAGGAAAGCTTCACTGAGGCCCCAGGCTTCATCAGCTCAGCTCCAGACTG
    CTGCAGCTGAACCT
  • Molecule Role : Vaximmutor
  • Related Vaccine(s): PCV2 DNA Vaccine encoding ORF2 Protein
IV. Vaccine Information
1. BV-GD-ORF2
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004754
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Preparation
B aculovirus was used to develop a novel candidate vaccine for a preventive or therapeutic strategy to control PCV2 infections (Ye et al., 2013).
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Mouse Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with this baculovirus (Ye et al., 2013).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Efficacy: The vaccination of mice with recombinant baculovirus BV-GD-ORF2 successfully induced robust Cap-protein-specific humoral and cellular immune responses (Ye et al., 2013).
2. PCV2 DNA Vaccine encoding ORF2 Protein
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011481
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Gene Engineering of ORF2
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description:
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
e. Vector:
pCI-neo (Shen et al., 2008)
f. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
g. Mouse Response
  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: The mice in the vaccine groups were injected intramuscularly in the quadriceps with 100 µg pORF2 plasmid prepared in 100 µl PBS as follows. The mice in the pORF2 group received vaccination with pORF2 plasmid, three times every 2 weeks, whilst those in the pORF2/Cap or Cap/pORF2 group were primed with pORF2 plasmid (or Cap protein) and boosted with doses of Cap protein (or pORF2 plasmid) twice every 2 weeks (Shen et al., 2008).
  • Challenge Protocol: At 16 weeks p.i., the mice were challenged intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml PCV2 inoculum (105.75 TCID50 1/ml) (Shen et al., 2008).
  • Efficacy: Following virus challenge, real-time PCR and histopathological analysis confirmed that only low viral DNA loads and mild microscopic lesions appeared in pORF2-immunized mice (Shen et al., 2008).
  • Host Gene Response of Ighg1
    • Gene Response: Serum IgG1 was significantly higher in mice immunized with PCV2 DNA vaccine encoding ORF2 protein than control mice, vaccinated with the pCI-neo vector and crude lysate of E. coli strain BL21 transformed with pGEX-4T-1 were used as substitutes for pORF2 plasmid and Cap protein, respectively. The up regulation began 4 weeks after immunization (Shen et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
  • Host Gene Response of Ighv1-9
    • Gene Response: Serum IgG2a was significantly higher in mice immunized with PCV2 DNA vaccine encoding ORF2 protein than control mice, vaccinated with the pCI-neo vector and crude lysate of E. coli strain BL21 transformed with pGEX-4T-1 were used as substitutes for pORF2 plasmid and Cap protein, respectively. The up regulation began 4 weeks after immunization (Shen et al., 2008).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
3. Porcilis-PCV2
a. Tradename:
Porcilis-PCV2
b. Manufacturer:
Intervet
c. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000201
d. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
e. Status:
Licensed
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
g. Adjuvant: incomplete Freunds adjuvant
h. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
i. Description
Inactivated baculovirus expressed PCV2 ORF2 protein; adjuvanted (Wang et al., 2007).
4. Porcine Circovirus Type 1 - Type 2 Chimera, Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 19K5.R1)
a. Manufacturer:
Wyeth
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002195
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
5. Porcine Circovirus Type 2, Killed Baculovirus Vector Vaccine (USDA: 19K5.R0)
a. Manufacturer:
Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc., Intervet Inc.
b. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
c. Status:
Licensed
d. Location Licensed:
USA
e. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
6. Porcine Circovirus Type 2, Killed Baculovirus Vector Vaccine- Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 49K5.R1)
a. Manufacturer:
Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002316
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
7. Porcine Circovirus Type 2, Killed Virus Vaccine (USDA: 19K5.20)
a. Manufacturer:
Merial, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001798
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
8. Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome-Circovirus Reproductive & Respiratory Form, Type 2, Modifed Live Virus,Killed Baculovirus Vector Vaccine-Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Bacterin (USDA: 49K9.R0)
a. Manufacturer:
Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc.
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002317
c. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine; Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
9. PrV-PCV2-ORF2
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004699
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
e. Gene Engineering of ORF2
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description: PCV2 ORF2 gene was inserted into vector pG to produce the recombinant PRV vector pGO; the genome of PRV attenuated vaccine and the transfer plasmid pGO were transfected by using Lipofectamine 2000 Reagent into swine testis cells for homologous recombination to obtain the recombinant PRV (Chao et al., 2014).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Preparation
PCV2 ORF2 gene was inserted into vector pG to produce the recombinant PRV vector pGO (Chao et al., 2014).
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Mouse Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Six week odl mice were immunized two intramuscular immunizations 4 weeks apart (Chao et al., 2014).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: Mice were then challenged with the virulent PCV2 NY strain at 8 weeks after the first immunization (Chao et al., 2014).
  • Efficacy: Challenge experiments show that the recombinant virus and PCV2 inactivated vaccine could both protect the mice against PCV2 challenge, suggesting that the recombinant virus can be an excellent potential vaccine (Chao et al., 2014).
10. rSPV-PCV2-cap
a. Product Name:
recombinant swinepox virus expressing PCV2 capsid protein
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0004619
c. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
d. Status:
Research
e. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Baboon
f. Antigen
PCV2 capsid
g. Vector:
(Lin et al., 2012)
h. Preparation
Recombinant swinepox virus expressing capsid protein (rSPV-cap) (Lin et al., 2012).
i. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
j. Pig Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Pigs were immunized with rSPV-cap, wild type SPV (wtSPV; negative control), or PBS (challenge control) (Lin et al., 2012).
  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Challenge Protocol: Vaccinated pigs were challenged with PCV2 (Lin et al., 2012).
  • Efficacy: After inoculation with PCV2, pigs in the rSPV-cap immunized group showed significantly higher average daily weight gain (ADG) and shorter fever duration compared with the wtSPV treated group. The results suggested that the recombinant rSPV-cap provided pigs with significant protection from PCV2-associated disease (Lin et al., 2012).
11. Suvaxyn PCV2
a. Tradename:
Suvaxyn PCV2
b. Manufacturer:
Fort Dodge
c. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0000203
d. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
e. Status:
Licensed
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Description
Inactivated PCV1-2 chimera; adjuvanted (Ferrari et al., 2000)
V. References
1. Chao et al., 2014: Chao A, Fu P, Guo X, Gao X, Cui B, Chen H. [Immune efficacy in mice by recombinant pseudorabies virus PGO expressing ORF2 gene of porcine circovirus type 2]. Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica. 2014; 54(2); 211-217. [PubMed: 24818470].
2. Ferrari et al., 2000: Ferrari M, Brack A, Romanelli MG, Mettenleiter TC, Corradi A, Dal Mas N, Losio MN, Silini R, Pinoni C, Pratelli A. A study of the ability of a TK-negative and gI/gE-negative pseudorabies virus (PRV) mutant inoculated by different routes to protect pigs against PRV infection. Journal of veterinary medicine. B, Infectious diseases and veterinary public health. 2000; 47(10); 753-762. [PubMed: 11204130].
3. Gillespie et al., 2009: Gillespie J, Opriessnig T, Meng XJ, Pelzer K, Buechner-Maxwell V. Porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine circovirus-associated disease. Journal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2009; 23(6); 1151-1163. [PubMed: 19780932].
4. Lin et al., 2012: Lin HX, Ma Z, Fan HJ, Lu CP. Construction and immunogenicity of recombinant swinepox virus expressing capsid protein of PCV2. Vaccine. 2012; 30(44); 6307-6313. [PubMed: 22884664].
5. Shen et al., 2008: Shen HG, Zhou JY, Huang ZY, Guo JQ, Xing G, He JL, Yan Y, Gong LY. Protective immunity against porcine circovirus 2 by vaccination with ORF2-based DNA and subunit vaccines in mice. The Journal of general virology. 2008; 89(Pt 8); 1857-1865. [PubMed: 18632956].
6. Wang et al., 2007: Wang X, Jiang P, Li Y, Jiang W, Dong X. Protection of pigs against post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by a recombinant adenovirus expressing the capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2. Veterinary microbiology. 2007; 121(3-4); 215-224. [PubMed: 17215092].
7. Wiki: Porcine circovirus: Porcine circovirus [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porcine_circovirus]
8. Xu et al., 2013: Xu J, Yang D, Huang D, Xu J, Liu S, Lin H, Zhu H, Liu B, Lu C. Protection of guinea pigs by vaccination with a recombinant swinepox virus co-expressing HA1 genes of swine H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses. Archives of virology. 2013; 158(3); 629-637. [PubMed: 23135159].
9. Ye et al., 2013: Ye Y, Cheng X, Zhang J, Tong T, Lin W, Liao M, Fan H. Induction of robust immunity response in mice by dual-expression-system-based recombinant baculovirus expressing the capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2. Virology journal. 2013; 10; 316. [PubMed: 24161107].