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Aeromonas salmonicida

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Host Ranges and Animal Models
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. AroA (Protective antigen)
    2. AsaP1 (Protective antigen)
    3. aroA (Virmugen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. A. salmonicida live-attenuated vaccine encoding AroA
    2. AquaVac Furuvac
    3. Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus Killed Virus Vaccine-Aeromonas Salmonicida-Vibrio Anguillarum-Ordalii-Salmonicida Bacterin (USDA: 4A45.20)
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
645
2. Disease:
Furunculosis, Bald sea urchin disease
3. Introduction
Aeromonas salmonicida is a species of Gram-negative bacteria, from the genus Aeromonas, which causes the disease furunculosis in marine and freshwater fish. The symptoms the fish show are external and internal hemorrhaging, swelling of the vents and kidneys, boils, ulcers, liquefaction, and gastroenteritis. Furunculosis is commonly known as tail rot in fish and is common in gold and koi fish. Infected fish with open sores are able to spread the disease to other fish. It is also responsible for bald sea urchin disease.

Most strands of the bacterium are non-motile. It is bacillus in shape. The short rods have rounded ends which allow it to be easily confused as a coccus. Aeromonas salmonicida is a facultative anaerobe which means that it is capable of making ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but is also capable of switching to fermentation when oxygen is not present. It does not ferment sucrose or lactose, using glucose in this pathway instead; glucose fermentation creates gas (Wiki: Aeromonas salmonicida).
4. Host Ranges and Animal Models
All species of salmon, trout, charr and grayling are susceptible to infection with Aeromonas salmonicida (USGS Fish Disease Leaflets).
1. aroA
  • Gene Name : aroA
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449
  • NCBI Gene ID : 4997369
  • NCBI Protein GI : 145298842
  • Locus Tag : ASA_1859
  • Genbank Accession : CP000644
  • Protein Accession : YP_001141683
  • Taxonomy ID : 382245
  • Gene Starting Position : 1959933
  • Gene Ending Position : 1961216
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : +
  • Protein Name : 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase
  • Protein pI : 6.3
  • Protein Weight : 43170.95
  • Protein Length : 427
  • Protein Note : catalyzes the formation of 5-O-(1-carboxyvinyl)-3-phosphoshikimate from phosphoenolpyruvate and 3-phosphoshikimate in tryptophan biosynthesis
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|145297124:1959933-1961216 Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449, complete genome
    TATGAATTCGTTGCGTTTGGAACCCATTTCTCGTGTGGCCGGTGAGGTCAATCTGCCCGGCTCCAAGAGC
    GTATCCAATCGGGCTTTGTTGCTGGCGGCCCTTGCCCGTGGCACCACCCGGCTGACCAATCTGCTCGACA
    GCGATGATATTCGTCATATGCTGGCGGCGCTGACCCAGCTCGGGGTCAAGTACAAGCTTTCCGCCGACAA
    GACAGAGTGCACAGTGCACGGTCTGGGTCGCAGCTTTGCGGTATCGGCACCGGTCAACCTGTTCCTCGGC
    AATGCCGGTACTGCCATGCGTCCCCTCTGTGCGGCCCTGTGTCTGGGATCCGGTGAATACATGCTGGGCG
    GTGAACCCAGGATGGAAGAGCGTCCCATCGGCCATCTGGTGGATGCCTTGCGTGAAGCGGGCGCCCATAT
    CCAGTACCTGAAAAAAGATGGCTACCCGCCGCTGGTGGTGGATGCCAAGGGTCTCTGGGGCGGTGACGTA
    CACGTCGATGGGTCCGTCTCCAGCCAGTTCCTGACGGCGTTTTTGATGGCGGCGCCCATGGCGGCCGGTG
    ATACCCGTATCCACATCAAGGGTGAGCTGGTCTCCAAGCCCTACATCGACATCACGTTGCACATCATGAA
    ACAGTTCGGGGTGGTCATCGAGCACGACAACTACAAGCTGTTCTACATCAAGGGCAACCAGAGCTATGTC
    AGCCCGGGTGACTTCCTGGTGGAAGGGGACGCCTCCAGCGCTTCTTACTTCCTCGCGGCAGGTGCCATCA
    AGGGCAAGGTGCGGGTGACCGGCATCGGCAAGCACAGTATTCAGGGCGATATCCACTTCGCCGACGTGCT
    GGAGAGGATGGGCGCCCGCATCACCTGGGGTGACGACTTCATCGAGGCAGAGCAAGGCCCGCTGCACGGC
    GTCGACATGGACATGAACCATATTCCGGATGCGGCCATGACCATAGCGGTCGCGGCACTGTTTGCCGAGG
    GGCCCACCTCCATTCGCAACATCTACAACTGGCGGGTGAAGGAGACGGATCGTCTGCACGCCATGGCCAC
    CGAGCTGCGCAAGCTGGGTGTGGAGGTGGAAGAGGGGCACGACTTCATTACCGTGACGCCGCCGACCCAG
    CTCAAGCACGCCGAGATCGACACCTACAACGATCACCGCATCGCCATGTGCTTCTCGCTGGTGGCGCTGT
    CCGATATCGCCGTCACCATCAATGATCCGGGTTGTACTTCCAAGACCTTCCCGGACTACTTCGATAAATT
    GGCCAGCGTCAGCCAGGCCGTTTG
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|145298842|ref|YP_001141683.1| 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449]
    MNSLRLEPISRVAGEVNLPGSKSVSNRALLLAALARGTTRLTNLLDSDDIRHMLAALTQLGVKYKLSADK
    TECTVHGLGRSFAVSAPVNLFLGNAGTAMRPLCAALCLGSGEYMLGGEPRMEERPIGHLVDALREAGAHI
    QYLKKDGYPPLVVDAKGLWGGDVHVDGSVSSQFLTAFLMAAPMAAGDTRIHIKGELVSKPYIDITLHIMK
    QFGVVIEHDNYKLFYIKGNQSYVSPGDFLVEGDASSASYFLAAGAIKGKVRVTGIGKHSIQGDIHFADVL
    ERMGARITWGDDFIEAEQGPLHGVDMDMNHIPDAAMTIAVAALFAEGPTSIRNIYNWRVKETDRLHAMAT
    ELRKLGVEVEEGHDFITVTPPTQLKHAEIDTYNDHRIAMCFSLVALSDIAVTINDPGCTSKTFPDYFDKL
    ASVSQAV
  • Molecule Role : Virmugen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : The aroA gene was inactivated by inserting a fragment expressing kanamycin resistance within the coding sequence and challenged in fish. The LD50 for unvaccinated
    fish was 7.1 x 101. In contrast, the LD50 was 1.8 x 104 in fish vaccinated once and 3 x 105 in fish vaccinated twice (Vaughan et al., 1993).
  • Related Vaccine(s): A. salmonicida live-attenuated vaccine encoding AroA
2. AroA
  • Gene Name : AroA
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Aeromonas salmonicida
  • VO ID : VO_0011024
  • NCBI Protein GI : 512545
  • Other Database IDs : GOA:Q03321
    UniProtKB/UniProt: Q03321
  • Taxonomy ID : 645
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Length : 427
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|512545|emb|CAA01426.1| aroA [Aeromonas salmonicida]
    MNSLRLEPISRVAGEVNLPGSKSVSNGALLLAALARGTTRLTNLLDSDDIRHMLAALTQLGVKYKLSADK
    TECTVHGLGRSFAVSAPVNLFLGNAGTAMRPLCAALCLGSGEYMLGGEPRMEERPIGHLVDCLALKGAHI
    QYLKKDGYPPLVVDAKGLWGGDVHVDGSVSSQFLTAFLMAAPAMAPVIPRIHIKGELVSKPYIDITLHIM
    NSSGVVIEHDNYKLFYIKGNQSIVSPGDFLVEGDASSASYFLAAGAIKGKVRVTGIGKHSIGDIHFADVL
    ERMGARITWGDDFIEAEQGPLHGVDMDMNHIPDVGHDHSGQSHCLPRVPPHSQHLQLAVRDDRCTPCTHG
    HRRAQAGVSEEGTTFITRDAADPAQARRDRHLQASRIAMCFSLVALSDIAVTINDPGCTSKTFPDYFDKL
    ASVSQAV
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : The aroA gene of A. salmonicida was cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. Vaccination of brown trout with 10(7) CFU of A. salmonicida 644Rb aroA by intraperitoneal injection resulted in a 253-fold increase in the 50% lethal dose (LD50) compared with unvaccinated controls challenged with a virulent clinical isolate 9 weeks later (Vaughan et al., 1993).
  • Related Vaccine(s): A. salmonicida live-attenuated vaccine encoding AroA
3. AsaP1
  • Gene Name : AsaP1
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449
  • VO ID : VO_0011025
  • NCBI Gene ID : 4998702
  • Locus Tag : ASA_1660
  • Taxonomy ID : 382245
  • Gene Starting Position : 1729392
  • Gene Ending Position : 1730433
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : +
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|145297124:1729392-1730433 Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449, complete genome
    CATGATGAAAGTGACTCCAATAGCCTTGCTGCTGGCCGGTGTGCTGGCTTCCCCGCTCTGCGCCGCAGGG
    CTCGATGCCCAACTCACCCTGGTGGATGGCAGCACAGACGACGTGCGCGTCAACCTGACATTGACCAACA
    CGGGTGACAAGCCTATCCGTCTGCTCAAGTGGCAACTGCCGGGCAGCGACGATGCCCCCCTGTTTTTGGT
    GGAGCGGGATGGTCAACCGGTCAGCTATGAGGGGGCGCTGATCAAGCGTGCGGCGCCAACCGACAAGGAT
    TTCCAGTTGATCAAGGCTGGCCAGAGTCTGACGGTGCAGGCGGAAGTGTCGGGTCTCTATGACATGAGTG
    CTCAGGGTCAGTACAGCATCCGCTATCAGCTGCCGGCTCTGCCGGGGACGACGAAAGCGGCCAAGGGCCA
    AACAGGCCCAGGCGAGCGAGTCCAACGCCATCACCCTGTGGGTGGAGGGGGTGAACGATGAGCGGGTTCA
    AGCCAAGGTGGCCGCCGCCGAGCCCCAGGCTGTTGCCGGTTCTGTCAGTTTCAGCGGACGCTGCACCAAC
    ACCCAGAAGAGCGATCTGTTGACGGCGCTGGATGCCGCCAGTGGCATCAGCAACAACGCCAGCAGCTATC
    TGGCGGTCGACAAGCCCGATGGCCAGCGCTATCGCAGCTGGTTCGGGGCCTATAGCAGTGCCCGTTGGGA
    TCAGGCCGAGACGAACTTCAGCAAGATCAAGGATGCCATCGACAACAAGCCGCTCACCTTTGACTGCAGC
    TGCAAGCAGAGCTACTTCGCCTACGTCTATCCGGATCAACCCTACAAGGTCTATCTGTGCAAGAGCTTCT
    GGACGGCGCCCGTCACCGGGAGCGATTCCCGTGCCGGCACCATAGTCCATGAGCTGAGTCACTTCAACGT
    GGTGGCAGGCACCGACGATCTGGGTTACGGTCAGGCCAATGCCCGCAATCTGGCGAAGACGGATCCGGTC
    AAGGCGCTCAACAACGCCGACAATCATGAATACTTCGCCGAGAATACCCCGAGCGAAAACTG
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : Passive immunisation of Atlantic salmon with rainbow trout or rabbit anti-AsaP1 antisera conferred significant protection against challenge with a virulent A. salmonicida (Gudmundsdottir et al., 1997)
III. Vaccine Information
1. A. salmonicida live-attenuated vaccine encoding AroA
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011386
b. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Antigen
A. salmonicida 644Rb aroA
e. Gene Engineering of AroA
  • Type: Gene mutation
  • Description: The aroA gene of A. salmonicida was cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The aroA gene was inactivated by inserting a fragment expressing kanamycin resistance within the coding sequence. The aroA::Kar mutation was introduced into the chromosome of virulent A. salmonicida 644Rb and 640V2 by allele replacement by using a suicide plasmid delivery system. The mutation resulted in attenuation when bacteria were injected intramuscularly into Atlantic salmon (Vaughan et al., 1993).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Gene Engineering of aroA
g. Immunization Route
Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)
h. Brown Trout Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Brown trout were vaccinated with 107 CFU of A. salmonicida 644Rb aroa by intraperitoneal injection (Vaughan et al., 1993).
  • Challenge Protocol: Groups of four or five fish were challenged by intramuscular injection of dilutions of cultures of a virulent strain of A. salmonicida (Vaughan et al., 1993).
  • Efficacy: Vaccination of brown trout with 107 CFU of A. salmonicida 644Rb aroA by intraperitoneal injection resulted in a 253-fold increase in the 50% lethal dose (LD50) compared with unvaccinated controls challenged with a virulent clinical isolate 9 weeks later. A second vaccination after 6 weeks increased the LD50 by a further 16-fold (Vaughan et al., 1993).
2. AquaVac Furuvac
a. Tradename:
AquaVac Furuvac
b. Manufacturer:
Schering-Plough Animal Health
c. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001026
d. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
e. Status:
Licensed
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Fish
g. Immunization Route
Oral
3. Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus Killed Virus Vaccine-Aeromonas Salmonicida-Vibrio Anguillarum-Ordalii-Salmonicida Bacterin (USDA: 4A45.20)
a. Manufacturer:
Novartis Animal Health US, Inc
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0002320
c. Type:
Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
d. Status:
Licensed
e. Location Licensed:
USA
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Fish
IV. References
1. Gudmundsdottir et al., 1997: BJARNHEIDUR K. GUDMUNDSDÓTTIR, BERGLJÓT MAGNADÓTTIR. Protection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) against an experimental infection ofAeromonas salmonicidassp.achromogenes. Fish & shellfish immunology. 1997; 7(1); 55-69.
2. Lund et al., 2003: Lund V, Espelid S, Mikkelsen H. Vaccine efficacy in spotted wolffish Anarhichas minor: relationship to molecular variation in A-layer protein of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida. Diseases of aquatic organisms. 2003; 56(1); 31-42. [PubMed: 14524499].
3. Sundvold et al., 2010: Sundvold H, Ruyter B, Ostbye TK, Moen T. Identification of a novel allele of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and its association with resistance to Aeromonas salmonicida in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish & shellfish immunology. 2010; 28(2); 394-400. [PubMed: 20004720].
4. USGS Fish Disease Leaflets: Furunculosis and Other Diseases Caused by Aeromonas Salmonicida [http://www.lsc.usgs.gov/fhb/leaflets/FHB66.pdf]
5. Vaughan et al., 1993: Vaughan LM, Smith PR, Foster TJ. An aromatic-dependent mutant of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida is attenuated in fish and is effective as a live vaccine against the salmonid disease furunculosis. Infection and immunity. 1993; 61(5); 2172-2181. [PubMed: 8478107].
6. Wiki: Aeromonas salmonicida: Aeromonas salmonicida [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeromonas_salmonicida]