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Eimeria tenella

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
    4. Host Ranges and Animal Models
    5. Host Protective Immunity
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. 3-1E (Protective antigen, Protective antigen)
    2. Chain A, Eimeria Tenella Microneme Protein 3 Mar_b Domain (Protective antigen)
    3. GX3262 (Protective antigen, Protective antigen)
    4. MIC2 (Protective antigen, Protective antigen)
    5. Rho (Protective antigen, Protective antigen)
    6. TA4 (Protective antigen, Protective antigen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. E. tenella DNA vaccine EtMIC2
    2. E. tenella DNA vaccine pcDNA-TA4-IL-2
    3. E. tenella DNA vaccine proIE
    4. E. tenella GX3262 protein vaccine
    5. E. tenella vaccine rBCG pMV261-Rho
    6. E. tenella vaccine rBCG pMV361-Rho
    7. Livacox
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
5802
2. Disease:
Hemorrhagic cecal coccidiosis
3. Introduction
Eimeria tenella is a species of Eimeria that causes hemorrhagic cecal coccidiosis in young poultry. Monoxeous life cycle with definitive (only) host as chickens. Extremely host-specific. Acquired via fecal contamination of food and water (oral fecal route). Goes thru endogenous merogony in crypts of lieberkuhr (intestinal ceca of chicken) and gametogony in epithelial cells of small intestines. Fusion of microgamete and macrogamete forms unsporulated zygote which is released with feces of chicken. Zygote sporulates after 1-5 days and becomes infective. Diagnosis is based on finding oocysts in feces. No effective treatment but can reduce rate of infection via prophylates, anti-coccidial drugs and vaccination of baby chicks (Wiki: Eimeria tenella).
4. Host Ranges and Animal Models
Chickens the only host of Eimeria tenella (Wiki: Eimeria tenella).
5. Host Protective Immunity
Protective immunity against Eimeria infections strongly depends on the cellular immune responses involving T cells, natural killer cells (NK) and macrophages (Wang et al., 2009).
1. 3-1E
  • Gene Name : 3-1E
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Eimeria tenella
  • VO ID : VO_0011066
  • NCBI Protein GI : 126362934
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:320770
    CDD:238085
  • Taxonomy ID : 5802
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : sporozoite antigen 3-1E
  • Protein pI : 3.96
  • Protein Weight : 17761.05
  • Protein Length : 237
  • Protein Note : Profilin binds actin monomers, membrane polyphosphoinositides such as PI(4,5)P2, and poly-L-proline. Profilin can inhibit actin polymerization into F-actin by binding to monomeric actin (G-actin) and terminal F-actin subunits, but - as a regulator of the...; cl00123
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >ABO10495.1 sporozoite antigen 3-1E, partial [Eimeria tenella]
    MGEEADTQAWDTSVKEWLVDTGKVYAGGIASIADGCRLFGAAIDNGEDAWSQLVKTGYQIEVLQEDGSST
    QEDCDEAETLRQAIVDGRAPNGVYIGGIKYKLAEVKRDFTYNDQNYDVAILGKNKGGGFLIKTPNDNVVI
    ALYDEEKEQNKADALTTALAFAEYLYQGGF
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : The Eimeria tenella antigen gene (3-1E) and chicken interferon gamma gene (ChIFN-gamma) were subcloned into the mammalian expression vector proVAX forming the plasmids proE and prol. After challenge the proIE-vaccinated chickens showed protective immunity as demonstrated by significantly reduced oocyst shedding (Xu et al., 2006).
  • Additional Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Related Vaccine(s): E. tenella DNA vaccine proIE
2. Chain A, Eimeria Tenella Microneme Protein 3 Mar_b Domain
  • Gene Name : Chain A, Eimeria Tenella Microneme Protein 3 Mar_b Domain
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Eimeria tenella
  • NCBI Protein GI : 2LBO_A
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:287526
  • Taxonomy ID : 5802
  • Protein Name : Chain A, Eimeria Tenella Microneme Protein 3 Mar_b Domain
  • Protein pI : 4.68
  • Protein Weight : 13475.68
  • Protein Length : 167
  • Protein Note : helix 1
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >pdb|2LBO|A Chain A, Microneme protein 3
    APTLQEALDRKCAQFGKESCNSGLASYCGAAIYARYDKGNSSQQTKEWRCYIEKELDFSKSGDGCVDDCG
    SMTSCRGSVSGPSTSHLTRPSELQAVIDSDKSNYCTDKSEQQPSQATPPPEIP
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : (Lai et al., 2011)
3. GX3262
  • Gene Name : GX3262
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Eimeria tenella
  • VO ID : VO_0011067
  • NCBI Protein GI : 102304
  • Taxonomy ID : 5802
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : sporozoite antigen
  • Protein pI : 9.06
  • Protein Weight : 11721.58
  • Protein Length : 176
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >pir||A60111 sporozoite antigen - Eimeria tenella (fragment)
    LLLLLLLLLQGAECLLRSSKLALEALLEGARVAATRGLLLVESSKDTVLRSIPHTQEKLAQAYSSFLRGY
    QGAAAGRSLGYGAPAAAYGQQQQPSSYGAPPASSQQPSGFFW
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : A cDNA clone derived from sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella and encoding the expression product GX3262 was identified using a monoclonal antibody raised against Eimeria acervulina sporozoites. After challenge with an experimental E. tenella infection, the greatest degree of protection in immunized broiler chickens was seen after only a single immunization of 2-day-old birds with a live recombinant E. coli preparation (Miller et al., 1989).
  • Additional Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Related Vaccine(s): E. tenella GX3262 protein vaccine
4. MIC2
  • Gene Name : MIC2
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Eimeria tenella
  • VO ID : VO_0011063
  • NCBI Protein GI : 225579627
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:115333
  • Taxonomy ID : 5802
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : microneme 2
  • Protein pI : 4.13
  • Protein Weight : 32481.77
  • Protein Length : 390
  • Protein Note : Microneme protein Etmic-2; pfam06670
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >ACN93990.1 microneme 2 [Eimeria tenella]
    MARALSLVALGLLFSLPPSSAVRTRVPGEDSFSPESGVLSGTDAPERRPIVPGLVEGNCGRLTVRNGPSV
    DETIKVTSAGWTKSERDFIVSLVADETRKVVQLRESEGASGASGPGPAPAEKPPSGQGSAEEAPKGEGGQ
    EKPSVPLIAVRIHGSGGDKGESAPQSAVLLYGNDESEPTEVPLETAAGPTTPLMVLITQQNPKEVEVRVL
    AWISTDATTGKGSWKENSVVVGSSLSGRDLTVNLGDCGPSSLRVYGSASADLVTVKEGMCEADDPELIAL
    TRPHTSAASPLPAEEGDVAQDAQQSAGAQQEAEAQEVGEPQQEAAAAEQGSSAAESDTQQSS
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : Birds vaccinated with Eimeria tenella microneme recombinant gene (EtMIC2) and encoded protein developed protective immunity against infection by E. tenella as assessed by significantly increased body weight gain and decreased fecal oocyst shedding compared with non-vaccinated controls. Vaccination with the EtMIC2 gene also led to protective immunity against infection by E. acervulina, but not E. maxima (Ding et al., 2005).
  • Additional Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Related Vaccine(s): E. tenella DNA vaccine EtMIC2
5. Rho
  • Gene Name : Rho
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Eimeria tenella
  • VO ID : VO_0011064
  • NCBI Protein GI : 84043169
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:304416
  • Taxonomy ID : 5802
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : rhomboid-like protein
  • Protein pI : 8.07
  • Protein Weight : 26568.3
  • Protein Length : 314
  • Protein Note : Rhomboid family; cl21536
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >ABC50099.1 rhomboid-like protein [Eimeria tenella]
    MSDIESQRVLGAGIPRTGRLIDVAFPNISLDKSIVVITLAQIAVYIMSCAMSSAFEPTERVLYQLGATYG
    PGIRHLQAWRLIMPVFLHVGIVHLLFNVLFILHMGLDKEIKYGRTNFLILYFSSALIGNMFTVLMRPCSL
    AVGASTAGFGLVGSILAEILIVWHKLDERTRNMYTLDMTVFGALMILLSYGQTVDIWGHLGGFVCGFAVT
    CEFNKNIRDLPHWFDLAKNGTRTICFGVVALTLARVFLGLPLPMGCA
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : Two recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG (rBCG) strains carrying the Eimeria tenella rhomboid gene (Rho) delivered by extrachromosomal vector pMV261 and integrative vector pMV361 were evaluated for their ability to protect chickens against E. tenella challenge. Chickens were immunized intranasal with BCG, rBCG pMV261-Rho, or rBCG pMV361-Rho twice at a 2-week interval. All the recombinant BCG immunized chickens developed specific immune responses, and there was a significant increases of the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells compared to the control (P<0.05). Challenge experiments demonstrated that the two rBCG strains could provide significant protection against E. tenella challenge (Wang et al., 2009).
  • Additional Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Related Vaccine(s): E. tenella vaccine rBCG pMV261-Rho , E. tenella vaccine rBCG pMV361-Rho
6. TA4
  • Gene Name : TA4
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Eimeria tenella
  • VO ID : VO_0011065
  • NCBI Protein GI : 84783094
  • Other Database IDs : CDD:287966
  • Taxonomy ID : 5802
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : TA4 antigen protein
  • Protein pI : 4.47
  • Protein Weight : 22659.37
  • Protein Length : 293
  • Protein Note : Sporozoite TA4 surface antigen; pfam11054
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >ABC61818.1 TA4 antigen protein, partial [Eimeria tenella]
    DYPTAVTLDCKEAMNKMRKAAGLPAFEDAVGDTFVLPAYSHEESRAAPVAETLWKTEICPKVLGGGRSRN
    VTEAVRLTGNFAYYPVTDGKKECSDAVEYWKGGLSQFNDTIPPTFQALNDPVVYNDRAVSFVALYNPKTS
    PVVSCVLLQCPNAGVGGRRLAAGTTDAVICLTNPAPLEARSQPFDDEQWKKIVDSLSLSEEEEEKGGVSP
    VVPSVALISAAVISAFALF
    
    
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : The immunization procedure of DNA vaccine pcDNA-TA4-IL-2 of Eimeria tenella, including route, dose, time of immunization and age of primary immunization of chicken, was optimized. results illustrated that 25 microg was the optimal dose and intramuscular injection was the most effective route to induce protective immunity in Chinese Yellow chickens (Song et al., 2009).
  • Additional Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Related Vaccine(s): E. tenella DNA vaccine pcDNA-TA4-IL-2
III. Vaccine Information
1. E. tenella DNA vaccine EtMIC2
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011471
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Antigen
E. tenella microneme 2 (MIC2)
e. Gene Engineering of MIC2
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: The EtMIC2 coding sequence was subcloned from EtMIC2-pGEX into the BamHI/HindIII sites of the pMal4c vector with a NH2-terminal maltose-binding protein tag, expressed in E. coli in TY broth (20 g/l tryptone, 10 g/l yeast extract, 10 g/l NaCl) containing 100 μg/ml ampicillin, the bacteria grown to OD600 = 0.5, induced with 1.0 mM isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside for 3 h at 37 °C, collected by centrifugation, and disrupted by sonication on ice (Misonix, Farmingdale, NY). The EtMIC2 protein was isolated on an amylose affinity column (New England Biolabs, Beverly, MA) according to the manufacturer's instructions, digested with Factor Xa to release EtMIC2, and re-passed through the amylose column to remove maltose-binding protein (Ding et al., 2005).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
pcDNA vector
g. Immunization Route
in ovo
h. Chicken Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: To assess anti-EtMIC2 antibody titers and protective immunity to coccidiosis following in ovo vaccination with the EtMIC2 gene, 75 fertile eggs were distributed into five groups (15/group) and non-injected or injected with 100 μl of sterile PBS, 50 μg/egg of the pcDNA empty vector, or 25 or 50 μg/egg of EtMIC2-pcDNA. To determine the effects of post-vaccination boosting with the EtMIC2 gene, 150 fertile eggs were distributed into 10 groups (15/group) and non-injected or injected with 100 μl of sterile PBS, 50 μg/egg of the pcDNA empty vector, or 25 or 50 μg/egg of EtMIC2-pcDNA (Ding et al., 2005).
  • Challenge Protocol: At day 11 post-hatching, chickens were infected with 10,000 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. Serum samples were collected at days 1, 10, and 17 post-infection (days 10, 21, and 28 post-hatching) and anti-EtMIC2 antibody titers determined by ELISA (Ding et al., 2005).
  • Efficacy: Birds vaccinated with Eimeria tenella microneme recombinant gene (EtMIC2) and encoded protein developed protective immunity against infection by E. tenella as assessed by significantly increased body weight gain and decreased fecal oocyst shedding compared with non-vaccinated controls. Vaccination with the EtMIC2 gene also led to protective immunity against infection by E. acervulina, but not E. maxima (Ding et al., 2005).
2. E. tenella DNA vaccine pcDNA-TA4-IL-2
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011449
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Antigen
E. tenella sporozoite TA4 surface antigen
e. Gene Engineering of TA4
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: PCR amplification of TA4 (without stop codon) was performed using the gene-specific primers with pET28a-TA4 as template. After purification, the amplified TA4 (without stop codon) was digested with BamHI and EcoRI and cloned into the BamHI/EcoRI sites of pcDNA3.1b. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1b-TA4 (without stop codon) was confirmed by PCR amplification and endonuclease cleavage. Using the same method above, amplified chIL-2 product was ligated into pcDNA3.1b-TA4 (without stop codon) and pcDNA4.0c (Invitrogen) to construct pcDNA3.1b-TA4-IL2 and pcDNA4.0c-IL-2 (Song et al., 2009).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
pcDNA3.1 (Song et al., 2009)
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Chicken Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: At 14 days of age, chickens were randomly distributed into seven groups (30/group), group 1 negative control, group 2 positive control, groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 immunized with 25 μg, 50 μg, 100 μg and 200 μg of DNA vaccine, respectively and group 7 vector control. Experimental groups were immunized with corresponding doses of DNA vaccine pcDNA3.1b–TA4–IL-2 by leg intramuscular injection. Control group chickens were injected with sterile TE or 100 μg pcDNA3.1b at the same injection site to the experimental groups. A booster immunization was given by the same method as the first immunization 7 days later (Song et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: At 28 days of age, the chickens were weighed one-by-one and challenged with 5 × 104 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella JS except the negative control group. The chickens were weighed one-by-one and slaughtered 7 days post challenge (Song et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: The immunization procedure of DNA vaccine pcDNA-TA4-IL-2 of Eimeria tenella, including route, dose, time of immunization and age of primary immunization of chicken, was optimized. results illustrated that 25 microg was the optimal dose and intramuscular injection was the most effective route to induce protective immunity in Chinese Yellow chickens (Song et al., 2009).
3. E. tenella DNA vaccine proIE
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011469
b. Type:
DNA vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Antigen
Eimeria tenella antigen gene (3-1E) and chicken interferon gamma gene (ChIFN-gamma)
e. Gene Engineering of 3-1E
  • Type: DNA vaccine construction
  • Description: The Eimeria tenella antigen gene (3-1E) and chicken interferon gamma gene (ChIFN-gamma) were subcloned into the mammalian expression vector proVAX forming the plasmids proE and prol, and then linked by splicing overlap extension by polymerase chain reaction to construct the chimeric plasmid prolE; the chimeric protein (rlE) was expressed in Escherichia coli harboring the constructed plasmid pGEX/IE (Xu et al., 2006).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
proVAX
g. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
h. Chicken Response
  • Host Strain: Broiler
  • Vaccination Protocol: Broilers were administered two intramuscular injections with the constructed DNA vaccines (50 microg); in the protein booster groups 100 microg of the rlE were given following the proIE prime (Xu et al., 2006).
  • Challenge Protocol: One week following the booster immunization, all chickens except for the unchallenged control group were orally challenged with 5 x 104 sporulated E. tenella GS oocysts (Xu et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: The Eimeria tenella antigen gene (3-1E) and chicken interferon gamma gene (ChIFN-gamma) were subcloned into the mammalian expression vector proVAX forming the plasmids proE and prol. After challenge the proIE-vaccinated chickens showed protective immunity as demonstrated by significantly reduced oocyst shedding (Xu et al., 2006).
4. E. tenella GX3262 protein vaccine
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011470
b. Type:
Subunit vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Antigen
E. tenella sporozoite antigen GX3262
e. Gene Engineering of GX3262
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description: To produce the 3-galactosidase-GX3262 fusion protein (Pgal-GX3262), recombinant E. coli cells. grown overnight in Luria-Bertani broth with ampicillin and induced with IPTG, were lysed by sonication and centrifuged, and the insoluble cell pellet was washed extensively with PBS (Miller et al., 1989).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Adjuvant: complete Freunds adjuvant
g. Immunization Route
Subcutaneous injection
h. Chicken Response
  • Host Strain: Hubbard broiler
  • Vaccination Protocol: The basic experimental design involved immunizing birds subcutaneously or orally with partially purified recombinant antigen preparations, heatkilled bacterins. live E. coli cells, or control materials (Miller et al., 1989).
  • Challenge Protocol: Broilers were challenged with E. tendell/i oocysts; and then evaluated for cecal lesions (Miller et al., 1989).
  • Efficacy: A cDNA clone derived from sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella and encoding the expression product GX3262 was identified using a monoclonal antibody raised against Eimeria acervulina sporozoites. After challenge with an experimental E. tenella infection, the greatest degree of protection in immunized broiler chickens was seen after only a single immunization of 2-day-old birds with a live recombinant E. coli preparation (Miller et al., 1989).
5. E. tenella vaccine rBCG pMV261-Rho
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011472
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Antigen
Eimeria tenella rhomboid gene (Rho)
e. Gene Engineering of Rho
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description: The rhomboid gene segment (GenBank accession no. DQ323509) was generated from the cDNA of E. tenella strains by PCR with primers QF (5’-CTGACTGCAGATGTCGGACATCGAATCCCAGAG-3′) containing PstI restriction site (underlined) and QR (5’-GACTATCGATTTATGCGCATCCCATGGGCAAAGG-3’) containing ClaI restriction site (underlined), and cloned into the pMD18-T vector. The 774-bp rhomboid gene fragment was subcloned into the PstI/ClaI sites of pMV261. The plasmid pMV261-Rho was electrotransfected into BCG and selected by kanamycin (Sigma) (Wang et al., 2009).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
BCG
g. Immunization Route
Intravenous injection (i.v.)
h. Chicken Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Chickens were randomly assigned to 4 groups (40 birds in each group) and immunized intranasal (i.n.) with 106 CFU/200 μl of BCG or rBCG strains expressing rhomboid protein, respectivelly. Negative control was immunized i.n. with 200 μl PBS only. 2 weeks after the first vaccination, a second immunization was carried out with the same amounts of each sample (Wang et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: All groups were challenged with 3 × 104 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella per bird 2 weeks after the final immunization (Wang et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: All the recombinant BCG immunized chickens developed specific immune responses, and there was a significant increases of the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells compared to the control (P<0.05). Challenge experiments demonstrated that the two rBCG strains could provide significant protection against E. tenella challenge (Wang et al., 2009).
6. E. tenella vaccine rBCG pMV361-Rho
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011448
b. Type:
Recombinant vector vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Antigen
E. tenella rhomboid gene (Rho)
e. Gene Engineering of Rho
  • Type: Recombinant vector construction
  • Description: The rhomboid gene segment (GenBank accession no. DQ323509) was generated from the cDNA of E. tenella strains by PCR with primers QF (5’-CTGACTGCAGATGTCGGACATCGAATCCCAGAG-3′) containing PstI restriction site (underlined) and QR (5’-GACTATCGATTTATGCGCATCCCATGGGCAAAGG-3’) containing ClaI restriction site (underlined), and cloned into the pMD18-T vector. The 774-bp rhomboid gene fragment was subcloned into the PvuII/ClaI site of pMV361. The plasmid pMV361-Rho was electrotransfected into BCG and selected by kanamycin (Sigma) (Wang et al., 2009).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Vector:
BCG
g. Immunization Route
Intranasal
h. Chicken Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: Chickens were randomly assigned to 4 groups (40 birds in each group) and immunized intranasal (i.n.) with 106 CFU/200 μl of BCG or rBCG strains expressing rhomboid protein, respectivelly. Negative control was immunized i.n. with 200 μl PBS only. 2 weeks after the first vaccination, a second immunization was carried out with the same amounts of each sample (Wang et al., 2009).
  • Challenge Protocol: All groups were challenged with 3 × 104 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella per bird 2 weeks after the final immunization (Wang et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: All the recombinant BCG immunized chickens developed specific immune responses, and there was a significant increases of the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells compared to the control (P<0.05). Challenge experiments demonstrated that the two rBCG strains could provide significant protection against E. tenella challenge (Wang et al., 2009).
7. Livacox
a. Tradename:
Livacox
b. Manufacturer:
BIOPHARM
c. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001177
d. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
e. Status:
Clinical trial
f. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Pig
g. Immunization Route
NA
h. Description
Precocious and egg-passaged lines(Williams, 2002)
IV. References
1. Ding et al., 2005: Ding X, Lillehoj HS, Dalloul RA, Min W, Sato T, Yasuda A, Lillehoj EP. In ovo vaccination with the Eimeria tenella EtMIC2 gene induces protective immunity against coccidiosis. Vaccine. 2005; 23(28); 3733-3740. [PubMed: 15882535].
2. Lai et al., 2011: Lai L, Bumstead J, Liu Y, Garnett J, Campanero-Rhodes MA, Blake DP, Palma AS, Chai W, Ferguson DJ, Simpson P, Feizi T, Tomley FM, Matthews S. The role of sialyl glycan recognition in host tissue tropism of the avian parasite Eimeria tenella. PLoS pathogens. 2011; 7(10); e1002296. [PubMed: 22022267].
3. Miller et al., 1989: Miller GA, Bhogal BS, McCandliss R, Strausberg RL, Jessee EJ, Anderson AC, Fuchs CK, Nagle J, Likel MH, Strasser JM. Characterization and vaccine potential of a novel recombinant coccidial antigen. Infection and immunity. 1989; 57(7); 2014-2020. [PubMed: 2659532].
4. Song et al., 2009: Song X, Xu L, Yan R, Huang X, Shah MA, Li X. The optimal immunization procedure of DNA vaccine pcDNA-TA4-IL-2 of Eimeria tenella and its cross-immunity to Eimeria necatrix and Eimeria acervulina. Veterinary parasitology. 2009; 159(1); 30-36. [PubMed: 19019543].
5. Wang et al., 2009: Wang Q, Li J, Zhang X, Liu Q, Liu C, Ma G, Cao L, Gong P, Cai Y, Zhang G. Protective immunity of recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing rhomboid gene against Eimeria tenella challenge. Veterinary parasitology. 2009; 160(3-4); 198-203. [PubMed: 19117681].
6. Wiki: Eimeria tenella: Eimeria tenella [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eimeria_tenella]
7. Williams, 2002: Williams RB. Fifty years of anticoccidial vaccines for poultry (1952-2002). Avian diseases. 2002; 46(4); 775-802. [PubMed: 12495038].
8. Xu et al., 2006: Xu SZ, Chen T, Wang M. Protective immunity enhanced by chimeric DNA prime-protein booster strategy against Eimeria tenella challenge. Avian diseases. 2006; 50(4); 579-585. [PubMed: 17274297].