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Babesia bovis

Table of Contents
  1. General Information
    1. NCBI Taxonomy ID
    2. Disease
    3. Introduction
  2. Vaccine Related Pathogen Genes
    1. 11C5 (Protective antigen)
    2. 12D3 (Protective antigen)
    3. 21B4 (Protective antigen)
    4. RAP-1 (Protective antigen)
  3. Vaccine Information
    1. B. bovis GST-12D3
    2. Babesia bovis vaccine by Local veterinary institutes
  4. References
I. General Information
1. NCBI Taxonomy ID:
5865
2. Disease:
Babesiosis, Texas Cattle Fever
3. Introduction
Babesia bovis is a single-celled protozoan parasite of cattle which occasionally infects humans. It is a member of the phylum Apicomplexa, which also includes the malaria parasite. The disease it and other members of the genus Babesia causes is a hemolytic anemia known as Babesiosis and colloquially called Texas Cattle Fever, Redwater or Piroplasmosis. It is transmitted by bites from infected larval ticks of the order Ixodida. It was eradicated from the United States by 1943, but is still present in Mexico and much of the world's tropics. The chief vector of Babesia species is the southern cattle fever tick Rhipicephalus microplus (formerly Boophilus microplus).

Babesia bovis are transmitted from mother ticks to their eggs, and can remain resident in tick populations for up to four years without infecting a vertebrate host. More commonly, a larval tick feeds upon a domestic cow, an African buffalo or a water buffalo, releasing the parasites into the animal's bloodstream. The involvement of the larval stage of the ticks in the cycle is specific to B. bovis; other Babesia species only involve adult ticks. The parasites then invade individual red blood cells, multiplying and destroying the host cells until the animal is stricken with hemolytic anemia. Adult ticks which feed upon infected cattle are infected themselves, completing the cycle. In humans, infection is rare and usually only affects splenectomized patients (Wiki: Babesia bovis).
1. 11C5
  • Gene Name : 11C5
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Babesia bovis T2Bo
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : Crude extracts of Babesia bovis parasites were systematically fractionated and tested in numerous sequential vaccination/challenge experiments in adult cattle. Two of these, GST-12D3 and GST-11C5, when used in combination were almost as protective as has been previously shown for the commercially available live attenuated vaccine (Wright et al., 1992).
2. 12D3
  • Gene Name : 12D3
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Babesia bovis T2Bo
  • VO ID : VO_0011027
  • NCBI Gene ID : 5478971
  • NCBI Protein GI : 156086656
  • Locus Tag : BBOV_IV008150
  • Genbank Accession : AAXT01000002
  • Protein Accession : XP_001610737
  • Taxonomy ID : 484906
  • Chromosome No : 4
  • Gene Starting Position : 946834
  • Gene Ending Position : 948172
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : +
  • Protein pI : 5.11
  • Protein Weight : 36321.83
  • Protein Length : 346
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >ref|NW_001820857.1|:946834-948172 Babesia bovis T2Bo chromosome 4 gcontig_1104837696308, whole genome shotgun sequence
    TGGCTGACGTCTACCGTCATTTTGACATGCACTGCGTTGCAGCTCGTGCATAGCTTTCGAGTGTTTCATC
    TGGGTAAGGGTACAACGTTTTGTCGCGTCAACGTTAAGGCGCATTTCTTCTGATTTTAGCAAGAACGTCG
    ACTATATTAAATTCACTTGGTCGGCTTCTTGTGACGCCTACTATTGCTGCGAGAGTGTGTAGGTTTTTCC
    TTCAGGCATTACTCTGGAAAATACTATTCGACATACAAGATGTTGGCTACACGTTTTATTTTTAGTCTTT
    GCCTATTTGTGGCTCATCAAGGCGTCAACGCCTTTTTCTATCGTGCAGTTCCTATGTACGATCAGAATGG
    TAAGCTGGTTCCGGATTCCTCTAATATAGGTCCTTCATCCTTACGAATCGAGGCTACTGGTGTTGGTAGG
    ATTTGTTCTACTATGCAATCAGGTATCTATCTCATCAATCCTTACGCTCAGCGCTGCCCAATTGGGAAGA
    GCAAATGTGGACCTGAGCATGATTCCACCCTAGGAAAGTGTGCCATGTACTCTGGTTGTTACACCATCAG
    TAACGACTTCCGTGCTTGCTCATGCTTGCCTGATTACTTCGGCAACCCTTACAAGCAATGCTTCAGACAC
    TGTGACACGGATTTGGACTGCCCTTCACCTTATGCTGAGTGCAGGATGGACGCAGGCGAGACGATCAAGC
    GCTGCAAGTGCAGAGCAGGTTGCCCAGGTGATGGTGTCATTTGCAAGCCCGATAAGATCTGTACTGACTT
    GGCTGAAGACTCTGAGGCTCACCGTAGGTGCCTTCAGACCGGTATCACCGACAAGACATACGTTTGTGAT
    GACGGTTATTACTTGGACACTGATAACAAGTGCCAGCCGATTGTTGAGCTTGAAGATGATAGGGTTGTGA
    GCGTAATTGCCAGTGGCTACGTAAACGGCAGCCGTATTGATATTGGTAACTGCTTTTCAATTGAAATTAA
    CAAAGACAACGGTATGTCTTACTTCTACCAACTTAACAGTGGTGACCCCGTTGTGATTGACCAAAAAATT
    AAGACCGACGACCAGTTGATGTTGTTGTTCGAGGTTAAGGCTAATGACATTATTGCCTTTACCACTACTG
    AGGCCAACCCTTCTGGTCTCACTAAAATCTTCACTATCTCAAATGGTCTTAAAGGCTGCAAAATCGACAG
    TGTTATGAAGTACTCCCCAACCGGAGCTAAGGAGCACCCCTCAGGTGTCAGGGTTGAGGTTAAAGAGCTT
    GAAACTTCGAGCGAAAGGCAGGAGCTTTAGTCAAAATGACGAACCGACTCAAATAGAGTTTAATTTTTTG
    TAGAAAATT
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|156086656|ref|XP_001610737.1| 12D3 antigen [Babesia bovis T2Bo]
    MLATRFIFSLCLFVAHQGVNAFFYRAVPMYDQNGKLVPDSSNIGPSSLRIEATGVGRICSTMQSGIYLIN
    PYAQRCPIGKSKCGPEHDSTLGKCAMYSGCYTISNDFRACSCLPDYFGNPYKQCFRHCDTDLDCPSPYAE
    CRMDAGETIKRCKCRAGCPGDGVICKPDKICTDLAEDSEAHRRCLQTGITDKTYVCDDGYYLDTDNKCQP
    IVELEDDRVVSVIASGYVNGSRIDIGNCFSIEINKDNGMSYFYQLNSGDPVVIDQKIKTDDQLMLLFEVK
    ANDIIAFTTTEANPSGLTKIFTISNGLKGCKIDSVMKYSPTGAKEHPSGVRVEVKELETSSERQEL
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : Crude extracts of Babesia bovis parasites were systematically fractionated and tested in numerous sequential vaccination/challenge experiments in adult cattle. Two of these, GST-12D3 and GST-11C5, when used in combination were almost as protective as has been previously shown for the commercially available live attenuated vaccine (Wright et al., 1992).
  • Related Vaccine(s): B. bovis GST-12D3
3. 21B4
  • Gene Name : 21B4
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Babesia bovis
  • VO ID : VO_0011028
  • NCBI Protein GI : 1246924
  • Taxonomy ID : 5865
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : ?
  • Protein Name : 21B4
  • Protein Length : 108
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|1246924|emb|CAA01877.1| 21B4 [Babesia bovis]
    EFLREVPHTTMKVLNENIAQPAKEIIHEFGSGAKNFIWAAHEGTKQFLNETVGQPTREFLNGALETTKDA
    LHHLGKSSEEANIYDATENTTEANDSTTSNGEDTAGYL
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : Crude extracts of Babesia bovis parasites were systematically fractionated and tested in numerous sequential vaccination/challenge experiments in adult cattle. A short fragment of the third antigen (21B4) has been shown to be protective (Wright et al., 1992).
4. RAP-1
  • Gene Name : RAP-1
  • Sequence Strain (Species/Organism) : Babesia bovis T2Bo
  • VO ID : VO_0011026
  • NCBI Gene ID : 5479143
  • NCBI Protein GI : 156087004
  • Locus Tag : BBOV_IV009870
  • Genbank Accession : AAXT01000002
  • Protein Accession : XP_001610909
  • Taxonomy ID : 484906
  • Chromosome No : 4
  • Gene Starting Position : 1308099
  • Gene Ending Position : 1310097
  • Gene Strand (Orientation) : +
  • Protein pI : 7.16
  • Protein Weight : 61365.28
  • Protein Length : 565
  • DNA Sequence : Show Sequence
    >ref|NW_001820857.1|:1308099-1310097 Babesia bovis T2Bo chromosome 4 gcontig_1104837696308, whole genome shotgun sequence
    ACTATTGTTTGTATCTTTCGACGGATAGTATTTTACATATACATTTGTCGGCTTTTATATATAGCAGTGC
    TATAGACAAACAATACACAGATTAATCTTTAGATACTAAGTTCAATAATATTACGGACATATTGTAGACA
    ATGAGAATCATTAGCGGCGTTGTCGGTTGCCTTTTCTTGGTGTTTTCACACCATGTGTCTGCTTTTCGCC
    ACAATCAGAGAGTAGGAAGTCTCGCTCCAGCTGAAGTGGTAGGTGATTTAACCTCCACATTGGAAACAGC
    TGATACTTTGATGACTCTCCGTGACCACATGCACAACATTACTAAGGATATGAAACATGTTTTGAGCAAT
    GGCCGTGAGCAGATTGTAAATGATGTTTGCTCTAATGCTCCTGAGGACTCCAACTGTCGTGAGGTAGTTA
    ACAATTATGCTGACCGTTGTGAAATGTACGGATGCTTTACGATTGACAATGTCAAATATCCGTTGTATCA
    AGAGTACCAACCTCTATCTCTTCCAAACCCTTACCAGTTGGATGCTGCGTTCAGATTGTTCAAAGAGAGT
    GCATCCAATCCTGCTAAGAACAGCGTAAAACGCGAATGGTTGCGTTTCAGAAATGGAGCGAACCATGGTG
    ATTACCACTACTTCGTCACTGGTCTGTTGAACAACAATGTTGTGCACGAGGAAGGAACTACCGATGTTGA
    ATATCTTGTCAACAAGGTACTCTATATGGCTACCATGAACTACAAGACTTATTTGACAGTAAACAGTATG
    AACGCCAAGTTTTTCAACAGATTCAGCTTCACTACAAAGATATTCAGCCGTCGTATTAGGCAAACATTGA
    GTGATATCATCAGGTGGAATGTTCCTGAAGATTTTGAAGAAAGGAGCATCGAACGTATCACTCAACTTAC
    TAGCAGCTACGAAGATTACATGTTGACCCAGATTCCAACTCTTTCCAAGTTTGCACGTCGTTATGCTGAC
    ATGGTGAAGAAGGTTCTGCTCGGTAGCTTGACCTCGTACGTTGAAGCTCCTTGGTACAAAAGATGGATAA
    AGAAATTCAGAGACTTTTTCTCTAAAAACGTTACCCAACCTACAAAGAAGTTCATCGAGGATACTAACGA
    AGTTACCAAAAACTATCTGAAAGCCAATGTTGCTGAGCCCACTAAAAAGTTTATGCAGGACACTCACGAA
    AAAACCAAAGGCTATCTGAAAGAGAATGTAGCCGAACCTACTAAGACTTTTTTCAAGGAGGCTCCTCAAG
    TCACCAAACACTTCTTCGATGAGAACATTGGCCAACCCACCAAGGAGTTTTTCAGGGAAGCTCCCCAAGC
    CACTAAACATTTCCTAGACGAAAACATCGGTCAACCAACCAAGGAGTTCTTCAGGGAGGCTCCCCAAGTC
    ACTAAGCACTTCTTAGACGAGAATATTGCTCAACCTACTAAAGAATTTTTCAGGGATGTCCCTCAAGTCA
    CCAAGAAGGTTATAACTGAGAACATTGCTCAACCAACTAAGGAATTCCTTAAGGAGGTTCCTCATACTAC
    CATGAAAGTCTTGAATGAAAACATTGCTCAACCTGCCAAGGAAATCATACATGAGTTTGGTACTGGCGCC
    AAGAATTTCATTTCCGCAGCCCATGAAGGTACTAAGCAGTTCTTAAACGAAACTGTTGGCCAACCTACAA
    AGGAATTCCTGAACGGAGCTCTAGAAACTACTAAAGACGCATTACACCATCTGGGTAAATCATCAGACGA
    AGCCAACATTTATGATGCCTCGGAAAATACCACTCAGTCTAACGACTCAACTACTTCCAACGGTGAAGAC
    ACCGCCGGATACCTCTGATGAGATGCGTTTATAATGGCACAAACTCAGCAAATGATGTATCGTCATCTGA
    TCCATCGGTTTTCAATATTGTATTGGATGCAATATCTGAATGCATACGATGCGACAGTTTCCATCATCGG
    GTGCCGAATCGTAACTCTCAAAACACCATTTTAAGTTAT
  • Protein Sequence : Show Sequence
    >gi|156087004|ref|XP_001610909.1| rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) [Babesia bovis T2Bo]
    MRIISGVVGCLFLVFSHHVSAFRHNQRVGSLAPAEVVGDLTSTLETADTLMTLRDHMHNITKDMKHVLSN
    GREQIVNDVCSNAPEDSNCREVVNNYADRCEMYGCFTIDNVKYPLYQEYQPLSLPNPYQLDAAFRLFKES
    ASNPAKNSVKREWLRFRNGANHGDYHYFVTGLLNNNVVHEEGTTDVEYLVNKVLYMATMNYKTYLTVNSM
    NAKFFNRFSFTTKIFSRRIRQTLSDIIRWNVPEDFEERSIERITQLTSSYEDYMLTQIPTLSKFARRYAD
    MVKKVLLGSLTSYVEAPWYKRWIKKFRDFFSKNVTQPTKKFIEDTNEVTKNYLKANVAEPTKKFMQDTHE
    KTKGYLKENVAEPTKTFFKEAPQVTKHFFDENIGQPTKEFFREAPQATKHFLDENIGQPTKEFFREAPQV
    TKHFLDENIAQPTKEFFRDVPQVTKKVITENIAQPTKEFLKEVPHTTMKVLNENIAQPAKEIIHEFGTGA
    KNFISAAHEGTKQFLNETVGQPTKEFLNGALETTKDALHHLGKSSDEANIYDASENTTQSNDSTTSNGED
    TAGYL
  • Molecule Role : Protective antigen
  • Molecule Role Annotation : RAP-1 (21B4) is a candidate for inclusion in a B. bovis vaccine based on its ability to induce partial protection in vaccinates, defined as a significant reduction in parasitemia upon challenge (Wright et al., 1992).
III. Vaccine Information
1. B. bovis GST-12D3
a. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0011375
b. Type:
Subunit vaccine
c. Status:
Research
d. Antigen
B. bovis T2Bo 12D3
e. Gene Engineering of 12D3
  • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
  • Description: The 12D3 protective antigen was cloned and expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein (Wright et al., 1992).
  • Detailed Gene Information: Click here.
f. Adjuvant: complete Freunds adjuvant
g. Vector:
pGEX
h. Immunization Route
Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
i. Cattle Response
  • Vaccination Protocol: 50 micrograms of the GST-12D3 fusion protein was mixed with FCA and used to vaccinate cattle (Wright et al., 1992).
  • Challenge Protocol: Challenged with virulent B.bovis (Wright et al., 1992).
  • Efficacy: Immunised animals had parasitaemias one order of magnitude lower than controls when challenged with a heterologous strain of B. bovis. In a series of experiments, 100% of controls were treated, whereas only 16% of the GST-12D3 vaccinated animals required treatment (Wright et al., 1992).
2. Babesia bovis vaccine by Local veterinary institutes
a. Manufacturer:
Local veterinary institutes
b. Vaccine Ontology ID:
VO_0001033
c. Type:
Live, attenuated vaccine
d. Status:
Research
e. Host Species for Licensed Use:
Cattle
f. Immunization Route
NA
g. Description
Infected blood from splenectomized calves(de and Combrink, 2006). Host species also include Babesia bigemina.
IV. References
1. Brown et al., 1993: Brown WC, Palmer GH, McElwain TF, Hines SA, Dobbelaere DA. Babesia bovis: characterization of the T helper cell response against the 42-kDa merozoite surface antigen (MSA-1) in cattle. Experimental parasitology. 1993; 77(1); 97-9110. [PubMed: 8344411].
2. Brown et al., 1996: Brown WC, McElwain TF, Ruef BJ, Suarez CE, Shkap V, Chitko-McKown CG, Tuo W, Rice-Ficht AC, Palmer GH. Babesia bovis rhoptry-associated protein 1 is immunodominant for T helper cells of immune cattle and contains T-cell epitopes conserved among geographically distant B. bovis strains. Infection and immunity. 1996; 64(8); 3341-3350. [PubMed: 8757873].
3. de and Combrink, 2006: de Waal DT, Combrink MP. Live vaccines against bovine babesiosis. Veterinary parasitology. 2006; 138(1-2); 88-96. [PubMed: 16504404].
4. Norimine et al., 2004: Norimine J, Mosqueda J, Palmer GH, Lewin HA, Brown WC. Conservation of Babesia bovis small heat shock protein (Hsp20) among strains and definition of T helper cell epitopes recognized by cattle with diverse major histocompatibility complex class II haplotypes. Infection and immunity. 2004; 72(2); 1096-1106. [PubMed: 14742557].
5. Wiki: Babesia bovis: Babesia bovis [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babesia_bovis]
6. Wright et al., 1992: Wright IG, Casu R, Commins MA, Dalrymple BP, Gale KR, Goodger BV, Riddles PW, Waltisbuhl DJ, Abetz I, Berrie DA. The development of a recombinant Babesia vaccine. Veterinary parasitology. 1992; 44(1-2); 3-13. [PubMed: 1441189].