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Virmugens

"Virmugen" is coined here to represent a gene that encodes for a virulent factor of a pathogen and has been proven feasible to make a live attenuated vaccine by knocking out this gene. Not all virulence factors can be used for vaccine development. Currently, VIOLIN includes 227 Virmugens that have been verified to be valuable for vaccine development against 59 pathogens. See detailed curated data:

Index Pathogen Name Disease No. of Virmugens No. of associated vaccines
G+ Bacteria
1 Bacillus anthracis Anthrax 1 1
2 Listeria monocytogenes Listeriosis 2 2
3 Mycobacterium avium 1 1
4 Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis 15 14
5 Staphylococcus aureus Staph infections 1 1
6 Streptococcus equi Strangles (also equine distemper) 1 1
7 Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumonia 1 0
G- Bacteria
8 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae porcine pleuropneumonia 8 7
9 Aeromonas hydrophila 1 1
10 Aeromonas salmonicida Furunculosis, Bald sea urchin disease 1 1
11 Bordetella bronchiseptica Infectious bronchitis, kennel cough 5 4
12 Bordetella pertussis Whooping Cough 2 2
13 Borrelia burgdorferi Lyme Disease 1 1
14 Brucella spp. Brucellosis 16 14
15 Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis 4 4
16 Campylobacter jejuni Campylobacterosis 1 0
17 Edwardsiella ictaluri Enteric septicemia of channel catfish (ESC) 1 1
18 Edwardsiella tarda 4 4
19 Escherichia coli Hemorrhagic colitis 4 3
20 Francisella tularensis Tularemia 16 15
21 Mannheimia haemolytica Bovine Respiratory Disease 1 1
22 Mycoplasma gallisepticum Chronic respiratory disease 1 1
23 Neisseria meningitidis Meningitis 3 2
24 Pasteurella multocida Pasteurellosis, fowl cholera 1 1
25 Salmonella spp. Salmonellosis 46 34
26 Shigella Shigellosis 8 11
27 Vibrio cholerae Cholera 1 1
28 Yersinia enterocolitica Yersiniosis 4 4
29 Yersinia pestis Plague 8 6
30 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Yersiniosis 1 1
31 Yersinia ruckeri Enteric redmouth disease 1 1
Viruses
32 African Swine Fever Virus African Swine Fever 1 1
33 Bovine herpesvirus 1 Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis 2 2
34 Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Respiratory Disease 1 2
35 Classical swine fever virus Classical swine fever, hog cholera 3 7
36 Equid herpesvirus Equine Rhinopneumonitis 3 3
37 Feline herpesvirus 1 Feline viral rhinotracheitis 1 1
38 Feline immunodeficiency virus Feline AIDS 2 2
39 Feline infectious peritonitis virus Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) 5 2
40 Gallid herpesvirus 1 Avian infectious laryngotracheitis, Fowl Laryngotracheitis 3 3
41 Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis B 1 1
42 Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 Herpes 6 9
43 Human metapneumovirus Respiratory tract infection 2 2
44 Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Respiratory tract disease 1 1
45 Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis 1 1
46 Influenza virus Influenza (flu) 2 6
47 Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), Blue-Ear Pig Disease 1 2
48 Pseudorabies virus Aujeszky's disease 8 6
49 Rabies virus Rabies 2 5
50 SARS-CoV Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 1 1
51 Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Simian AIDS 1 1
52 Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus (TBEV) Tick-borne Encephalitis 1 1
53 VEE Virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis 2 2
54 West Nile virus West Nile fever 1 1
55 Western equine encephalomyelitis virus Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) 3 4
Parasites
56 Leishmania donovani Visceral leishmaniasis 1 1
57 Leishmania infantum Infantile visceral leishmaniasis 1 1
58 Plasmodium spp. Malaria 7 4
59 Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasmosis 3 3
Total 59 227 215